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Archive for March, 2014

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Frederick John Robinson 1st Viscount Goderich
01 November 1782 – 28 January 1859

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Frederick John Robinson

Frederick John Robinson first was raised to the peerage as Viscount Goderich in 1827 and then raised as 1st Earl of Ripon in 1833. He was born the second son of Baron Grantham (DWW-very Downton Abbey)

Robinson was styled The Honourable F. J. Robinson until 1827 and known as The Viscount Goderich between 1827 and 1833, the name by which he is best known to history. Robinson was a British statesman. He was briefly Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. It looks to be the second briefest, following Canning, who was the shortest serving PM.

Early Years
Robinson was born at Newby Hall, Yorkshire, the second son of Thomas Robinson, 2nd Baron Grantham, and his wife, Lady Mary, née Yorke, daughter of the second Earl of Hardwicke. He was educated at a preparatory school at Sunbury-on-Thames, and, from 1796 to 1799, at Harrow followed by St John’s College, Cambridge from 1799 to 1802. William Pitt the Younger was Member of Parliament for Cambridge University, to which, as The Times said, “accordingly most of the budding Tory statesmen of the day resorted”. Robinson was an accomplished classicist, winning Sir William Browne’s Medal for the best Latin ode in 1801. After graduating in 1802 he was admitted to Lincoln’s Inn. He remained a member there until 1809, but did not pursue a legal career and was not called to the bar.

First Political Appointments
Robinson entered politics through a family connection. His mother’s cousin, the third Earl of Hardwicke, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, appointed him as his private secretary in 1804. Two years later Hardwicke secured for him the parliamentary seat of Carlow, a pocket borough near Dublin. In 1807 Robinson gave up the seat and was elected as MP for Ripon, close to his family home in Yorkshire.

In his first years in Parliament Robinson declined offers of junior ministerial posts, out of deference to his patron Hardwicke, who was an opponent of the Prime Minister, the Duke of Portland. However, the Foreign Secretary, George Canning, chose him as the secretary of Lord Pembroke’s mission to Vienna, aimed at securing a new treaty of alliance between Britain and Austria. The mission was unsuccessful, but Robinson’s reputation was not damaged, and, as his biographer E Royston Pike puts it, “as a good Tory [he was] given several small appointments in successive ministries.” His political thinking was greatly influenced by Canning, but he became the protégé of Canning’s rival Lord Castlereagh, who appointed him his under-secretary at the War Office in May 1809. When Castlereagh resigned from the government in October, unwilling to serve under the new Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, Robinson resigned with him. In June 1810 he accepted office as a member of the Admiralty board. and was made a Privy Counsellor in 1812.

In 1814 Robinson married Lady Sarah Albinia Louisa Hobart (1793–1867), daughter of the Earl of Buckinghamshire, and a relation of Castlereagh. There were three children of the marriage, only one of whom survived to adulthood.

Robinson served under Lord Liverpool as Vice-President of the Board of Trade between 1812 and 1818, and as joint-Paymaster of the Forces between 1813 and 1817, from which position he sponsored the Corn Laws of 1815. Robinson’s Corn Importation Bill, successfully presented to Parliament in February 1815, was a protectionist measure, imposing minimum prices for imported wheat and other grains. The historian Gregor Dallas writes:

    Robinson’s Bill began a debate on free trade and protection that would last for thirty years and would change the political landscape of Britain. Battle lines were drawn up in February and March, 1815, and the first shots fired in what would become one of the most furious political struggles of the century.

The Corn Laws made the price of wheat artificially high, to the benefit of the landed classes and the detriment of the working classes. While the Bill was going through Parliament Robinson’s London house was frequently attacked by angry citizens; in one such attack the railings outside the house were ripped out, the front door smashed open, paintings ripped, and furniture thrown out of the window. In another attack two people were shot, one of them fatally. Describing the incident to the House of Commons Robinson was moved to tears, showing, as the biographer P J Jupp put it, “a propensity under stress which was to earn him the first of several nicknames, in this case the Blubberer”.

Cabinet Minister
In 1818 Robinson entered the cabinet as President of the Board of Trade and Treasurer of the Navy, under the premiership of Lord Liverpool.  In 1823 he succeeded Nicholas Vansittart as Chancellor of the Exchequer. The historian Richard Helmstadter writes:

“Robinson was a first-rate administrator, a superb head of a department. He had a good mind, a great capacity for work, and an appetite for precision. He was a great fusser, but he fussed in a gentle way, and no one disliked him for it. His very lack of strong partisan convictions enabled him to serve, almost as a neutral civil servant, a long succession of political leaders.”

Robinson served as Chancellor for four years, and was regarded as a success in the post. The public finances were in good order, with a revenue surplus for the first three years of his chancellorship.  He cut taxes and made grants to house the Royal Library in the British Museum and to buy the Angerstein collection for the National Gallery. Jupp writes, “These achievements, together with his support for Catholic relief and the abolition of slavery, led to his being regarded as one of the most liberal members of the government and to two more nicknames – ‘Prosperity Robinson’ and ‘Goody’.”  Robinson’s last year at the Treasury was overshadowed by a run on the banks, caused by the collapse of the City of London bankers Pole Thornton and Co. Robinson was not blamed for the collapse, but his measures to mitigate the crisis were widely seen as half-hearted.

Under strain from the financial crisis, Robinson asked Liverpool for a change of post. In January 1827 he was given a peerage as Viscount Goderich,  but Liverpool had no time to reshuffle his cabinet, being taken ill in February 1827 and resigning the premiership.  He was succeeded by Canning, whose appointment caused a major realignment in the political factions of the day. The Tories split into four groups, distinguished by their view of Catholic Emancipation. Canning and his followers were liberal on the matter; Robinson belonged to a moderate group that was willing to support Canning; the faction led by the Duke of Wellington and Robert Peel opposed emancipation; and an ultra-Tory group resisted any kind of liberalising measure.  To the anger of the King, George IV, who regarded it as a betrayal, Wellington and Peel refused to serve under Canning. With half the Tories ranged against him, Canning was obliged to seek support from the Whigs. Goderich, appointed by Canning as Leader of the House of Lords as well as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, found the upper house no less stressful than the Commons. He was the target for the anger of the anti-Canning Tories in the Lords, suffering many personal verbal assaults; when he attempted to get a new Corn Law enacted it was defeated by an alliance of peers led by Wellington.

Prime Minister
Canning’s health had been declining since the beginning of 1827, and on 8 August he died. A prominent Whig commented, “God has declared against us. He is manifestly for the tories, and I fear the king also, which is much worse.” The King, however, though he had long inclined to favour Tories over Whigs, was still angry at the refusal of Wellington and Peel to serve in Canning’s cabinet. A widespread expectation (possibly shared by Wellington himself) that the King would send for Wellington was confounded. On the day of Canning’s death Goderich and the Home Secretary, William Sturges Bourne, were summoned to Windsor Castle, where the King announced his intention of appointing Goderich to the premiership.

Goderich immediately encountered difficulty in balancing the conflicting demands of the King and the Whigs about the composition of his cabinet. George considered that the three ministerial posts held by Whigs were quite enough; the Whigs pressed hard for the inclusion of a fourth, Lord Holland, as Foreign Secretary.Goderich satisfied nobody with his inability to resolve matters. A leading Whig, George Tierney, spoke of his party’s dissatisfaction with Goderich: “[T]hey think Goderich has behaved so ill in this affair that they can have no confidence in him. They believe so much in the integrity of his character that they do not suspect him of any duplicity in what has passed, but his conduct has been marked by such deplorable weakness as shows how unfit he is for the situation he occupies.” There was further discontent in the coalition cabinet at Goderich’s vacillation over the appointment of a Chancellor of the Exchequer, once again caught between the demands of the King and those of his Whig allies. Within a month, William Huskisson, a Tory colleague, was writing of Goderich: “The king has taken the exact measure of him, and openly says he must do all the duties of a premier himself, because Goderich has no nerves! I am using nearly his own words; and he has been acting, and still talks of acting up to this declaration.” George’s contempt for his Prime Minister was confirmed in his description of Goderich as “a damned, snivelling, blubbering blockhead.”

In addition to the conflicting pressures from the King and the Whigs, Goderich had to cope with the mental problems from which his wife was suffering. In December Huskisson wrote:

“Poor Goderich is quite unnerved, and in a most pitiful state. Much of this misfortune is perhaps the natural effect of his character, but it is, in the present instance, greatly aggravated by the constant worry in which he has been kept by his all but crazy wife, and by the entire ascendancy which his good nature (not to say his weakness) has allowed her to assume.”

Wellington was by now distancing himself from the ultra-Tory wing of his party, and by January 1828 the King had concluded that the coalition could not continue and that a Tory ministry under Wellington would be preferable. Goderich had already written a letter of resignation to the King, but had not yet sent it, when he was summoned to Windsor. He described the disintegrating state of his administration; the King asked him to send for the Lord Chancellor, who was in turn bidden to summon Wellington to receive the King’s commission to form a government. According to one account, Goderich was in tears during his interview with the King, who passed him a handkerchief, but within days Goderich was rejoicing in his release from office: “quite another man [who] sleeps at nights now, and laughs and talks as usual.” His premiership had lasted 144 days, which was then, and at 2012 remains, the second shortest in British history, three days longer than that of his immediate predecessor, Canning.

Later Cabinet Posts
In 1830 Goderich moved over to the Whigs and joined Lord Grey’s cabinet, as Colonial Secretary. Both on moral and on economic grounds he was strongly opposed to slavery throughout his career, and he worked hard in the 1830s for the emancipation of slaves throughout the British Empire. His work was continued by his successor as Colonial Secretary, Lord Stanley, whose abolitionist legislation Goderich piloted through the House of Lords.

In 1833 Goderich was created Earl of Ripon. He had not sought the advancement in the peerage, but wished to accept the King’s offer of the Garter, for which, at that time, a viscountcy was considered an insufficient rank. He left the Colonial Office in the same year, and did not wish to hold any further office, but Grey insisted on his taking the senior non-departmental post of Lord Privy Seal. However, the next year Goderich and Stanley broke with the Whigs over what they saw as a threat to the established status of the Church of Ireland.

From 1841 to 1843 Ripon served in Peel’s second administration as President of the Board of Trade, with the young W. E. Gladstone as his deputy. His final ministerial post was President of the Board of Control from 1843 to 1846. During his career, as Helmstadter observes, he had been, in succession, “a Pittite, a Tory, a Canningite, a Whig, a Stanleyite, a Conservative, and a Peelite. Between 1818 and 1846 he was a member of every government except Wellington’s and Melbourne’s.”

Apart from his political career Goderich served as president of the Royal Geographical Society from 1830 to 1833, and of the Royal Society of Literature from 1834 to 1845.

Ripon died at Putney Heath, London, in January 1859, aged 76. He was succeeded by his only son, George who became a noted Liberal statesman and cabinet minister and was created Marquess of Ripon. The son was unique in being conceived at No 11 Downing Street, while Robinson was Chancellor of the Exchequer, and being born at No 10, when his father, now Viscount Goderich, was then Prime Minister.

Ministry

08/31/1827 01/21/1828

    Lord Goderich – First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Lords
    Lord Lyndhurst – Lord Chancellor
    The Duke of Portland – Lord President of the Council
    The Earl of Carlisle – Lord Privy Seal
    The Marquess of Lansdowne – Secretary of State for the Home Department
    The Earl of Dudley – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    William Huskisson – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies and Leader of the House of Commons
    J. C. Herries – Chancellor of the Exchequer
    The Marquess of Anglesey – Master-General of the Ordnance
    Charles Grant – President of the Board of Trade and Treasurer of the Navy
    Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn – President of the Board of Control
    William Sturges Bourne – First Commissioner of Woods and Forests
    Lord Bexley – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    Viscount Palmerston – Secretary at War

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A Trolling We Will Go Omnibus:The Latter Years

Not only do I write Regency and Romance, but I also have delved into Fantasy.

The Trolling series, is the story of a man, Humphrey. We meet him as he has left youth and become a man with a man’s responsibilities. He is a woodcutter for a small village. It is a living, but it is not necessarily a great living. It does give him strength, muscles.

We follow him in a series of stories that encompass the stages of life. We see him when he starts his family, when he has older sons and the father son dynamic is tested.

We see him when his children begin to marry and have children, and at the end of his life when those he has loved, and those who were his friends proceed him over the threshold into death.

All this while he serves a kingdom troubled by monsters. Troubles that he and his friends will learn to deal with and rectify.

Here are the last two books together as one longer novel.

Trolling, Trolling, Trolling Fly Hides! and We’ll All Go a Trolling.

Available in a variety of formats.

For $5.99 you can get this fantasy adventure.

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Barnes and Noble for your Nook

Smashwords

Amazon for your Kindle

Trade Paperback

The stories of Humphrey and Gwendolyn. Published separately in: Trolling, Trolling, Trolling Fly Hides! and We’ll All Go a Trolling. These are the tales of how a simple Woodcutter who became a king and an overly educated girl who became his queen helped save the kingdom of Torahn from an ancient evil. Now with the aid of their children and their grandchildren.

Long forgotten is the way to fight the Trolls. Beasts that breed faster than rabbits it seems, and when they decide to migrate to the lands of humans, their seeming invulnerability spell doom for all in the kingdom of Torahn. Not only Torahn but all the human kingdoms that border the great mountains that divide the continent.

The Kingdom of Torahn has settled down to peace, but the many years of war to acheive that peace has seen to changes in the nearby Teantellen Mountains. Always when you think the Trolls have also sought peace, you are fooled for now, forced by Dragons at the highest peaks, the Trolls are marching again.

Now Humphrey is old, too old to lead and must pass these cares to his sons. Will they be as able as he always has been. He can advise, but he does not have the strength he used to have. Nor does Gwendolyn back in the Capital. Here are tales of how leaders we know and are familiar with must learn to trust the next generation to come.

Feedback

If you have any commentary, thoughts, ideas about the book (especially if you buy it, read it and like it 😉 then we would love to hear from you.

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There has been some commentary elsewhere about this series.

For those who are interested, much of what is written here in the series is taken from Wikipedia, and with other sources added in. The information is edited and presented so that this is a repository of those people in the list, updated on Saturdays.

For my research, doing the exercise allows me to learn about people specific to the era. It fleshes out the era by doing so, and also brings together all these characters in one place, instead of throughout all the internet. With the aid of a database program, the Series will one day have the ability to even provide better linkages for research purposes.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

George Canning
11 April 1771 – 8 August 1827

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George Canning

A British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and briefly Prime Minister. He is remembered for the shortest service as Prime Minister, dying of pneumonia in office just a little after serving for four months. He is also known for the duel that he engaged in and lost to Lord Castlereagh in 1809.

Early life: 1770–1793
Canning was born into an Anglo-Irish family at his parents’ home in Queen Anne Street, Marylebone, London. Canning described himself as “an Irishman born in London”. His father, George Canning, Sr., of Garvagh, County Londonderry, Ireland, was a gentleman of limited means, a failed wine merchant and lawyer, who renounced his right to inherit the family estate in exchange for payment of his substantial debts. George Sr. eventually abandoned the family and died in poverty on 11 April 1771, his son’s first birthday, in London. Canning’s mother, Mary Anne Costello, took work as a stage actress, a profession not considered respectable at the time.Indeed when in 1827 it looked as if Canning would become Prime Minister, Lord Grey remarked that “the son of an actress is, ipso facto, disqualified from becoming Prime Minister”.

Because Canning showed unusual intelligence and promise at an early age, family friends persuaded his uncle, London merchant Stratford Canning (father to the diplomat Stratford Canning), to become his nephew’s guardian. George Canning grew up with his cousins at the home of his uncle, who provided him with an income and an education. Stratford Canning’s financial support allowed the young Canning to study at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford. Canning came out top of the school at Eton and left at the age of seventeen. His time at Eton has been described as “a triumph almost without parallel. He proved a brilliant classic, came top of the school, and excelled at public orations”.

Canning struck up friendships with the then-future Lord Liverpool as well as with Granville Leveson-Gower and John Hookham Frere. In 1789 he won a prize for his Latin poem The Pilgrimage to Mecca which he recited in Oxford Theatre. Canning began practising law after receiving his BA from Oxford in the summer of 1791, but he wished to enter politics.

Entry into politics: 1793–1795
Stratford Canning was a Whig and would introduce his nephew in the 1780s to prominent Whigs such as Charles James Fox, Edmund Burke, and Richard Brinsley Sheridan. George Canning’s friendship with Sheridan would last for the remainder of Sheridan’s life.

George Canning’s impoverished background and limited financial resources, however, made unlikely a bright political future in a Whig party whose political ranks were led mostly by members of the wealthy landed aristocracy in league with the newly rich industrialist classes. Regardless, along with Whigs such as Burke, Canning himself would become considerably more conservative in the early 1790s after witnessing the excessive radicalism of the French Revolution. “The political reaction which then followed swept the young man to the opposite extreme; and his vehemence for monarchy and the Tories gave point to a Whig sarcasm,—that men had often turned their coats, but this was the first time a boy had turned his jacket.”

So when Canning decided to enter politics he sought and received the patronage of the leader of the “Tory” group, William Pitt the Younger. In 1793, thanks to the help of Pitt, Canning became a Member of Parliament for Newtown on the Isle of Wight, a rotten borough. In 1796, he changed seats to a different rotten borough, Wendover in Buckinghamshire. He was elected to represent several constituencies during his parliamentary career.

Canning rose quickly in British politics as an effective orator and writer. His speeches in Parliament as well as his essays gave the followers of Pitt a rhetorical power they had previously lacked. Canning’s skills saw him gain leverage within the Pittite faction that allowed him influence over its policies along with repeated promotions in the Cabinet. Over time, Canning became a prominent public speaker as well, and was one of the first politicians to campaign heavily in the country.

As a result of his charisma and promise, Canning early on drew to himself a circle of supporters who would become known as the Canningites. Conversely though, Canning had a reputation as a divisive man who alienated many.

He was a dominant personality and often risked losing political allies for personal reasons. He once reduced Lord Liverpool to tears with a long satirical poem mocking Liverpool’s attachment to his time as a colonel in the militia. He then forced Liverpool to apologise for being upset.

Foreign Office: 1796–1799
On 2 November 1795, Canning received his first ministerial post: Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In this post he proved a strong supporter of Pitt, often taking his side in disputes with the Foreign Secretary, Lord Grenville. At the end of 1798 Canning responded to a resolution by George Tierney MP for peace negotiations with France:

   “I for my part still conceive it to be the paramount duty of a British member of parliament to consider what is good for Great Britain…I do not envy that man’s feelings, who can behold the sufferings of Switzerland, and who derives from that sight no idea of what is meant by the deliverance of Europe. I do not envy the feelings of that man, who can look without emotion at Italy – plundered, insulted, trampled upon, exhausted, covered with ridicule, and horror, and devastation – who can look at all this, and be at a loss to guess what is meant by the deliverance of Europe? As little do I envy the feelings of that man, who can view the peoples of the Netherlands driven into insurrection, and struggling for their freedom against the heavy hand of a merciless tyranny, without entertaining any suspicion of what may be the sense of the word deliverance. Does such a man contemplate Holland groaning under arbitrary oppressions and exactions? Does he turn his eyes to Spain trembling at the nod of a foreign master? And does the word deliverance still sound unintelligibly in his ear? Has he heard of the rescue and salvation of Naples, by the appearance and the triumphs of the British fleet? Does he know that the monarchy of Naples maintains its existence at the sword’s point? And is his understanding, and his heart, still impenetrable to the sense and meaning of the deliverance of Europe?”

Pitt called this speech “one of the best ever heard on any occasion”.

During his early period in the Foreign Office (1807–9) Canning became deeply involved in the affairs of Spain, Portugal and Latin America. He was responsible for a number of decisions that greatly affected the future course of Latin American history.

Great Britain had a strong interest in ensuring the demise of Spanish colonialism, and to open the newly-independent Latin American colonies to British trade. The Latin Americans received a certain amount of unofficial aid – arms and volunteers – from outside, but no outside official help at any stage from Britain or any other power. Britain also refused to aid Spain and opposed any outside intervention on behalf of Spain by other powers. Britain, and especially British sea power, was a decisive factor in the struggle for independence of certain Latin American countries.

In 1825 Mexico, Argentina and Colombia were recognised by means of the ratification of commercial treaties with Britain. In November 1825 the first minister from a Latin American state, Colombia, was officially received in London. “Spanish America is free,” Canning declared, “and if we do not mismanage our affairs she is English … the New World established and if we do not throw it away, ours.” Also in 1825, Portugal recognised Brazil (thanks to Canning’s efforts, and in return for a preferential commercial treaty), less than three years after Brazil’s declaration of independence.

On 12 December 1826, in the House of Commons, Canning was given an opportunity to defend the policies he had adopted towards France, Spain and Spanish America, and declared: “I resolved that if France had Spain it should not be Spain with the Indies. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old.”

Canning pushed through, against great opposition, British recognition of Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Brazil. In a sense, therefore, he brought part of the New World into political existence. The United States had recognised these states earlier, but recognition by the leading world power was to be decisive. Recognition by Britain was greeted with enthusiasm throughout Latin America.

Canning, who was naturally and rightly more concerned with Britain’s political and economic interests in Latin America than with Latin American independence, did a great deal to enhance Britain’s prestige throughout Latin America. He was esteemed as a great liberal statesman who understood and sympathised with the cause of Latin American independence and who did more than any other foreign statesman to make it a reality. George Canning deserves credit as the first British Foreign Secretary to devote a large proportion of his time and energies to the affairs of Latin America (as well as to those of Spain and Portugal) and to foresee the important political and economic role the Latin American states would one day play in the world. It is appropriate that the home of the Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Council in London should be called Canning House.

He resigned as Foreign Minister on 1 April 1799.

The Anti-Jacobin
Canning was involved in the founding of the Anti-Jacobin, a newspaper which was published on every Monday from 20 November 1797 to 9 July 1798. Its purpose was to support the government and condemn revolutionary doctrines through news and poetry, much of it written by Canning. Canning’s poetry satired and ridiculed Jacobin poetry. Before the appearance of the Anti-Jacobin all the eloquence (except for Burke’s) and all the wit and ridicule had been on the side of Fox and Sheridan. Canning and his friends changed this. A young Whig, William Lamb (the future Lord Melbourne, Prime Minister) wrote an ‘Epistle to the Editors of the Anti-Jacobin’, which attacked Canning:

    Who e’er ye are, all hail! – whether the skill
    Of youthful CANNING guides the ranc’rous quill;
    With powers mechanic far above his age,
    Adapts the paragraph and fills the page;
    Measures the column, mends what e’er’s amiss,
    Rejects THAT letter, and accepts of THIS;

Office: 1799–1800
In 1799 Canning became a Commissioner of the Board of Control for India. Canning wrote on 16 April: “Here I am immersed in papers, of which I do not yet comprehend three words in succession; but I shall get at their meaning by degrees and at my leisure. No such hard work here as at my former office. No attendance but when I like it, when there are interesting letters received from India (as is now the case) or to be sent out there”.

Paymaster of the Forces: 1800–1801
Canning was appointed Paymaster of the Forces (and therefore to the Privy Council as well) in 1800. In February 1801 Pitt resigned as Prime Minister due to the King’s opposition to Catholic Emancipation. Canning, despite Pitt’s advice to stay in office, loyally followed him into opposition. The day after Canning wrote Lady Malmesbury: “I resign because Pitt resigns. And that is all”.

Backbenches: 1801–1804
Canning disliked being out of office, and wrote on to John Hookham Frere in summer 1801: “But the thought will obtrude itself now and then that I am not where I should be – non hoc pollicitus.” He also claimed that Pitt had done “scrupulously and magnanimously right by everyone but me”. At the end of September 1801 Canning wrote to Frere, saying of Pitt: “I do love him, and reverence him as I should a Father – but a Father should not sacrifice me, with my good will. Most heartily I forgive him, But he has to answer to himself, and to the country for much mischief that he has done and much that is still to do.” Pitt wished for Canning to enter Addington’s government, a move which Canning looked on as a horrible dilemma but in the end he turned the offer down.

Canning opposed the preliminaries of the Peace of Amiens signed on 1 October. He did not vote against it due to his personal devotion to Pitt. He wrote on 22 November: “I would risk my life to be assured of being able to act always with P in a manner satisfactory to my own feelings and sense of what is right, rather than have to seek that object in separation from him.” On 27 May 1802 in the Commons Canning requested that all grants of land in Trinidad (captured by Britain from Spain) should be rejected until Parliament had decided what to do with the island. The threat that it could be populated by slaves like other West Indian islands was real. Canning instead wanted it to have a military post and that it should be settled with ex-soldiers, free blacks and creoles, with the native American population protected and helped. He also asserted that the island should be used to test the theory that better methods of cultivation in land would lessen the need for slaves. Addington conceded to Canning’s demands and the Reverend William Leigh believed Canning had saved 750,000 lives.

At a dinner to celebrate Pitt’s birthday in 1802, Canning wrote the song ‘The Pilot that Weathered the Storm’, performed by a tenor from Drury Lane, Charles Dignum:
    And oh! if again the rude whirlwind should rise,
    The dawnings of peace should fresh darkness deform,
    The regrets of the good and the fears of the wise
    Shall turn to the Pilot that weathered the Storm.

In November Canning spoke out openly in support of Pitt in the Commons. One observer thought that Canning made incomparably the best speech and that his defence of Pitt’s administration “one of the best things, either argumentatively as to matter, or critically and to manner and style” that he could ever remember. On 8 December Sheridan spoke out in defence of Addington and denied that Pitt was the only man who could save the country. Canning replied by criticising the Addington government’s foreign policy and claimed that the House should recognise the greatness of the country and Pitt, who ought to be its leader. He argued against those, such as Wilberforce, who held that Britain could safely maintain a policy of isolation: “Let us consider the state of the world as it is, not as we fancy it ought to be. Let us not seek to hide from our own eyes…the real, imminent and awful danger which threatens us.” Also, he objected to the notion that Britain could choose between greatness and happiness: “The choice is not in our power. We have…no refuge in littleness. We must maintain ourselves what we are, or cease to have a political existence worth preserving.” Furthermore, he openly declared for Pitt and said: “Away with the cant of “measures, not men”, the idle supposition that it is the harness and not the horses that draw the chariot along.” Kingdoms rise and fall due to what degree they are upheld “not by well-meaning endeavours…but by commanding, over-awing talents…retreat and withdraw as much as he will, he must not hope to efface the memory of his past services from the gratitude of his country; he cannot withdraw himself from the following of a nation; he must endure the attachment of a people whom he has saved.” In private Canning was fearful that if Pitt did not return to power, Fox would: “Sooner or later he must act or the country is gone.”

Canning approved of the declaration of war against France on 18 May 1803. Canning was angered by Pitt’s desire not to proactively work to turn out the ministry but support the ministry when it adopted sound policies. However in 1804, to Canning’s delight, Pitt began to work against the Addington government. After Pitt delivered a stinging attack on the government’s defence measures on 25 April, Canning launched his own attack on Addington, which made Addington furious. On 30 April Lord Eldon, the Lord Chancellor, asked Pitt to submit a new administration to the King.

Treasurer of the Navy: 1804–1806
Canning returned to office in 1804 with Pitt, becoming Treasurer of the Navy. In 1805 he offered Pitt his resignation after Addington was given a seat in the Cabinet. He wrote to Lady Hester to say he felt humiliated that Addington was a minister “and I am – nothing. I cannot help it, I cannot face the House of Commons or walk the streets in this state of things, as I am”. After reading this letter Pitt summoned Canning to London for a meeting, where he told him that if he resigned it would open a permanent beach between the two of them as it would cast a slur on his conduct. He offered Canning the office of Secretary of State for Ireland but he refused on the grounds that this would look like he was being got out of the way. Canning eventually decided not to resign and wrote that “I am resolved to “sink or swim” with Pitt, though he has tied himself to such sinking company. God forgive him” Canning left office with the death of Pitt; he was not offered a place in Lord Grenville’s administration.

Foreign Secretary: 1807–1809
Canning was appointed Foreign Secretary in the new government of the Duke of Portland in 1807. Given key responsibilities for the country’s diplomacy in the Napoleonic Wars, he was responsible for planning the attack on Copenhagen in September 1807, much of which he undertook at his country estate, South Hill Park at Easthampstead in Berkshire.

After the defeat of Prussia by the French, the neutrality of Denmark looked increasingly fragile. Canning was worried that Denmark might, under French pressure, become hostile to Britain. On the night of 21/22 July 1807 Canning received intelligence directly from Tilsit (where Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I of Russia were negotiating a treaty) which appeared “to rest on good authority” that Napoleon had proposed to the Tsar a great naval combination against Britain, of which Denmark and Portugal would be members.

On 30 July a military force 25,000 strong set sail for Denmark, with Francis Jackson travelling the day after. Canning instructed Jackson that his overriding aim was to secure the possession of the Danish navy by offering the Danes a treaty of alliance and mutual defence and whereby they would be given back their fleet at the end of the war. On 31 July Canning wrote to his wife: “The anxious interval between this day and the hearing the result of his [Jackson’s] expedition will be long and painful indeed. Long, I mean, in feeling. In fact it will be about a fortnight or three weeks…I think we have made success almost certain. But the measure is a bold one and if it fails – why we must be impeached I suppose – and dearest dear will have a box at the trial”. The day after he wrote that he had received a letter the previous night which provided an “account of the French being actually about to do that act of hostility, the possibility of which formed the groundwork of my Baltic plan. My fear was that the French might not be the aggressors – and then ours would have appeared a strong measure, fully justifiable I think and absolutely necessary, but without apparent necessity or justification. Now the aggression will justify us fully…I am therefore quite easy as to the morality and political wisdom of our plan”. Napoleon had on 31 July instructed his Foreign Minister, Talleyrand, to inform the Danes that if they did not wish for Holstein to be invaded and occupied by Jean Bernadotte they must prepare for war against Britain. Canning wrote to his wife on 1 August: “Now for the execution and I confess to my own love, I wake an hour or two earlier than I ought to, thinking of this execution. I could not sleep after asses’ milk today, thought I was not in bed till 1/2 p.2”. On 25 August he wrote to Granville Leveson-Gower: “The suspense is, as you may well imagine, agitating and painfil in the extreme; but I have an undiminished confidence as to the result, either by force or by treaty. The latter however is so infinitely preferable to the former that the doubt whether it has been successful is of itself almost as anxious as if the whole depended on it alone”.

On 2 September, after Jackson’s negotiations proved unsuccessful, the British fleet began bombarding Copenhagen until when on 7pm 5 September the Danes requested a truce. On 7 September the Danes agreed to hand over their navy (18 ships of the line, 15 frigates and 31 smaller ships) and naval stores and the British agreed to evacuate Zealand within six weeks. On 16 September Canning received the news with relief and excitement: “Did I not tell you we would save Plumstead from bombardment?” he wrote to Revered William Leigh. On 24 September he wrote to George Rose: “Nothing was ever more brilliant, more salutary or more effectual than the success [at Copenhagen]”. On 30 September he wrote Lord Boringdon that he hoped Copenhagen would “stun Russia into her sense again”. Canning wrote to Gower on 2 October 1807: “We are hated throughout Europe and that hate must be cured by fear”. After the news of Russia’s declaration of war against Britain reached London on 2 December, Canning wrote to Lord Boringdon two days later: “The Peace of Tilsit you see is come out. We did not want any more case for Copenhagen; but if we had, this gives it us”.

On 3 February 1808 the opposition leader George Ponsonby requested the publication of all information on the strength and battle-worthiness of the Danish fleet sent by the British envoy at Copenhagen. Canning replied with a speech nearly three hours long, described by Lord Palmerston as “so powerful that it gave a decisive turn to the debate”. Lord Grey said his speech was “eloquent and powerful” but that he had never heard such “audacious misrepresentation” and “positive falsehood”. On 2 March the opposition moved a vote of censure over Copenhagen, defeated by 224 votes to 64 after Canning gave a speech, in the words of Lord Glenbervie, so “very witty, very eloquent and very able”. In November 1807, Canning oversaw the Portuguese royal family’s flight from Portugal to Brazil.

Duel with Castlereagh
In 1809 Canning entered into a series of disputes within the government that were to become famous. He argued with the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Lord Castlereagh, over the deployment of troops that Canning had promised would be sent to Portugal but which Castlereagh sent to the Netherlands. The government became increasingly paralysed in disputes between the two men. Portland was in deteriorating health and gave no lead, until Canning threatened resignation unless Castlereagh were removed and replaced by Lord Wellesley. Portland secretly agreed to make this change when it would be possible.

Castlereagh discovered the deal in September 1809 and challenged Canning to a duel. Canning accepted the challenge and it was fought on 21 September 1809 on Putney Heath. Canning, who had never before fired a pistol, widely missed his mark. Castlereagh, who was regarded as one of the best shots of his day, wounded his opponent in the thigh. There was much outrage that two cabinet ministers had resorted to such a method. Shortly afterwards the ailing Portland resigned as Prime Minister, and Canning offered himself to George III as a potential successor. However, the King appointed Spencer Perceval instead, and Canning left office once more. He did take consolation, though, in the fact that Castlereagh also stood down. Upon Perceval’s assassination in 1812, the new Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, offered Canning the position of Foreign Secretary once more. Canning refused, as he also wished to be Leader of the House of Commons and was reluctant to serve in any government with Castlereagh.

Ambassador to Lisbon: 1814–1816
In 1814 he became the British Ambassador to Portugal, returning the following year. He received several further offers of office from Liverpool.

President of the Board of Control: 1816–1820
In 1816 he became President of the Board of Control.
Canning resigned from office once more in 1820, in opposition to the treatment of Queen Caroline, estranged wife of the new King George IV. Canning and Caroline were close friends and may have had a brief sexual affair. This would have been regarded as unacceptable.

Backbenches: 1821–1822
On 16 March 1821 Canning spoke in favour of William Plunket’s Catholic Emancipation Bill. Liverpool wished to have Canning back in the Cabinet but the King was strongly hostile to him due to his actions over the Caroline affair. The King would only allow Canning back into the Cabinet if he did not have to deal personally with him. This required the office of Governor-General of India. After deliberating on whether to accept, Canning initially declined the offer but then accepted it. On 25 April he spoke in the Commons against Lord John Russell’s motion for parliamentary reform and a few days later Canning moved for leave to introduce a measure of Catholic Emancipation (for lifting the exclusion of Catholics from the House of Lords). This passed the Commons but was rejected by the Lords.

Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House: 1822–1827
In August 1822, Castlereagh, now Marquess of Londonderry, committed suicide. Instead of going to India, Canning succeeded him as both Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons.In his second term of office he sought to prevent South America from coming into the French sphere of influence, and in this he was successful.He also gave support to the growing campaign for the abolition of slavery. Despite personal issues with Castlereagh, he continued many of his foreign policies, such as the view that the powers of Europe (Russia, France, etc.) should not be allowed to meddle in the affairs of other states. This policy enhanced public opinion of Canning as a liberal. He also prevented the United States from opening trade with the West Indies.

Prime Minister: 1827
In 1827, Liverpool suffered a severe stroke and was to die the following year. Canning, as Liverpool’s right-hand man, was then chosen by George IV to succeed him, in preference to both the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel.Neither man agreed to serve under Canning, and they were followed by five other members of Liverpool’s Cabinet as well as 40 junior members of the government. The Tory party was now heavily split between the “High Tories” (or “Ultras”, nicknamed after the contemporary party in France) and the moderates supporting Canning, often called “Canningites”. As a result Canning found it difficult to form a government and chose to invite a number of Whigs to join his Cabinet, including Lord Lansdowne. The government agreed not to discuss the difficult question of parliamentary reform, which Canning opposed but the Whigs supported.

However, Canning’s health by this time was in steep decline. He died on 8 August 1827, in the very same room where Charles James Fox met his own end, 21 years earlier. To this day Canning’s total period in office remains the shortest of any Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, a mere 119 days. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Legacy
Canning has come to be regarded as a “lost leader”, with much speculation about what his legacy could have been had he lived. His government of Tories and Whigs continued for a few months under Lord Goderich but fell apart in early 1828. It was succeeded by a government under the Duke of Wellington, which initially included some Canningites but soon became mostly “High Tory” when many of the Canningites drifted over to the Whigs. Wellington’s administration would soon go down in defeat as well. Some historians have seen the revival of the Tories from the 1830s onwards, in the form of the Conservative Party, as the overcoming of the divisions of 1827. What would have been the course of events had Canning lived is highly speculative.

Rory Muir has described Canning as “the most brilliant and colourful minister, and certainly the greatest orator in the government at a time when oratory was still politically important. He was a man of biting wit and invective, with immense confidence in his own ability, who often inspired either great friendship or deep dislike and distrust…he was a passionate, active, committed man who poured his energy into whatever he undertook. This was his strength and also his weakness…the government’s ablest minister”.

Family
Canning was married to Joan, daughter of Major General John Scott on July 8th, 1800. Joan was created Viscountess Canning, on January 28, 1828, six months after the death of George.

They had 4 children:

    George Charles Canning (1801–1820), died from consumption
    William Pitt Canning (1802–1828), died from drowning in Madeira, Portugal
    Harriet Canning (1804–1876), married the 1st Marquess of Clanricarde
    Charles Canning (later 2nd Viscount Canning and 1st Earl Canning) (1812–1862)

Ministry

04/10/1827 08/08/1827

    George Canning – First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons
    Lord Lyndhurst – Lord Chancellor
    Lord Harrowby – Lord President of the Council
    The Duke of Portland – Lord Privy Seal
    William Sturges Bourne – Secretary of State for the Home Department
    Lord Dudley – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    Lord Goderich – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies and Leader of the House of Lords
    William Huskisson – President of the Board of Trade and Treasurer of the Navy
    Charles Williams-Wynn – President of the Board of Control
    Lord Bexley – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    Lord Palmerston – Secretary at War
    Lord Lansdowne – Minister without Portfolio

Changes

  • May, 1827 – Lord Carlisle, the First Commissioner of Woods and Forests, enters the Cabinet
  • July, 1827 – The Duke of Portland becomes a minister without portfolio.
  • Lord Carlisle succeeds him as Lord Privy Seal.
  • W. S. Bourne succeeds Carlisle as First Commissioner of Woods and Forests.
  • Lord Lansdowne succeeds Bourne as Home Secretary.
  • George Tierney, the Master of the Mint, enters the cabinet

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828

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Robert Banks Jenkinson

Robert Banks Jenkinson was a british politician and the longest-serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since the Union with Ireland in 1801. He was 42 years old when he became premier in 1812 which made him younger than all of his successors to date. During his time as Prime Minister from 1812 to 1827, Liverpool became known for repressive measures introduced to maintain order, but also for steering the country through the period of radicalism and unrest that followed the Napoleonic Wars.

Important events during his tenure as Prime Minister included the War of 1812, the Sixth and Seventh Coalitions against the French Empire, the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars at the Congress of Vienna, the Corn Laws, the Peterloo Massacre, the Trinitarian Act 1812 and the emerging issue of Catholic Emancipation.

Early Life

Jenkinson was the son of George III’s close adviser Charles Jenkinson, later the first Earl of Liverpool, and his first wife, Amelia Watts. Jenkinson was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford and in May 1790 was created master of arts.

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He won election to the House of Commons in 1790 for Rye, a seat he would hold until 1803; at the time, however, he was under the age of assent to Parliament, so he refrained from taking his seat and spent the following winter and early spring in an extended tour of the continent.

With the help of his father’s influence and his political talent, he rose relatively fast in the Tory government. In February 1792, he gave the reply to Samuel Whitbread’s critical motion on the government’s Russian policy. Other speeches included one against the abolition of the slave trade, which reflected his father’s strong opposition to William Wilberforce’s campaign. Jenkinson served as a member of the Board of Control for India from 1793 to 1796.

Jenkinson, was one of the first of the ministers of the government to enlist in the militia when war came with Frnce. In 1794 he became a Colonel in the Cinque Ports fencibles. In 1796 his regiment was sent to Scotland. His father angrily opposed his projected marriage with Lady Louisa Hervey, daughter of the Earl of Bristol. After Pitt and the King had intervened on his behalf, the wedding finally took place March 1795. In May 1796, when his father was created Earl of Liverpool, he took the courtesy title of Lord Hawkesbury and remained in the Commons. He became Baron Hawkesbury in his own right and was elevated to the House of Lords in November 1803, as recognition of his work as Foreign Secretary. He also served as Master of the Mint (1799–1801).

Cabinet

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Home Secretary

In Addington’s government, he was Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in which capacity he negotiated the Treaty of Amiens. His time as Foreign secretary was spent dealing with the nations of France and the United States. He served as Home Secretary in Pitt the Younger’s second government. While Pitt was seriously ill, Liverpool was in charge of the cabinet and drew up the King’s Speech for the official opening of Parliament. When Pitt died in 1806, the King asked Liverpool to accept the post of Prime Minister, but he refused, as he believed he lacked a governing majority. He was leader of the Opposition during Lord Grenville’s ministry (the only time that Liverpool did not hold government office between 1793 and after his retirement). In 1807, he resumed office as Home Secretary in the Duke of Portland’s ministry.

Secretary of State for War and the Colonies

Lord Liverpool accepted the position of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in Perceval’s government in 1809. Liverpool’s first step was to elicit from the Duke of Wellington a strong enough statement of his ability to resist a French attack to persuade the cabinet to commit themselves to the maintenance of his small force in Portugal.

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Prime Minister

When Perceval was assassinated in May 1812, Lord Liverpool succeeded him as Prime Minister. The cabinet proposed Liverpool as his successor with Lord Castlereagh as leader in the Commons. But after an adverse vote in the Lower House, they subsequently gave both their resignations. The Prince Regent, however, found it impossible to form a different coalition and confirmed Liverpool as prime minister on 8 June. Liverpool is considered a skilled politician, and held together the liberal and reactionary wings of the Tory party.

Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna

Liverpool’s ministry was a long and eventful one. The War of 1812 with the United States and the final campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars were fought during Liverpool’s premiership. Britain defeated France in the Napoleonic Wars, and Liverpool was awarded the Order of the Garter. At the peace negotiations that followed, Liverpool’s main concern was to obtain a European settlement that would ensure the independence of the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal, and confine France inside her pre-war frontiers without damaging her national integrity. He gave Castlereagh a discretion at the Congress of Vienna, the next most important event of his ministry. At the congress, he gave prompt approval for Castlereagh’s bold initiative in making the defensive alliance with Austria and France in January 1815. In the aftermath, many years of peace followed.

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The Corn Laws and trouble at home

Agriculture remained a problem because good harvests between 1819 and 1822 had brought down prices and evoked a cry for greater protection. When the powerful agricultural lobby in Parliament demanded protection in the aftermath, Liverpool gave in to political necessity. Under governmental supervision the notorious Corn Laws of 1815 were passed prohibiting the import of foreign wheat until the domestic price reached a minimum accepted level. Liverpool had to accept the bill as a temporary measure to ease the transition to peacetime conditions.

His chief economic problem during his time as Prime Minister was that of the nation’s finances. The interest on the national debt, massively swollen by the final war years, together with the war pensions, absorbed the greater part of normal government revenue. The refusal of the House of Commons in 1816 to continue the wartime income tax left ministers with no alternative but to go on with the system of borrowing to meet necessary annual expenditure. Liverpool eventually facilitated a return to the gold standard in 1819.

Inevitably taxes rose to compensate for borrowing and to pay off the debt, which led to widespread disturbance between 1812 and 1822. Around this time, the group known as Luddites began industrial action, by smashing industrial machines developed for use in the textile industries. Throughout the period 1811-16, there were a series of incidents of machine-breaking and many of those convicted faced execution.

The reports of the secret committees he obtained in 1817 pointed to the existence of an organised network of disaffected political societies, especially in the manufacturing areas.  Because of a largely perceived threat to the government, temporary legislation was introduced. He suspended Habeas Corpus in both Great Britain (1817) and Ireland (1822). Following the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, his government imposed the repressive Six Acts legislation which limited, among other things, free speech and the right to gather for peaceful demonstration. In 1820, as a result of these measures, Liverpool and other cabinet ministers were almost assassinated in the Cato Street Conspiracy.

Although Lord Liverpool argued for the abolition of the slave trade at the Congress of Vienna, he was generally opposed to reform at home, often embracing repressive measures to ensure the status quo. He did however support the repeal of the Combination Laws banning workers from combining into trade unions in 1824, although the powers of these unions were restricted in 1825 following strikes.

Catholic emancipation

During the 19th century, and, in particular, during Liverpool’s time in office, Catholic emancipation was a source of great conflict. In 1805, Liverpool had argued that the special relationship of the monarch with the Church of England, and the refusal of Roman Catholics to take the oath of supremacy, justified their exclusion from political power. Throughout his career, he remained opposed to the idea of Catholic emancipation.

The decision of 1812 to remove the issue from collective cabinet policy, followed in 1813 by the defeat of Grattan’s Roman Catholic Relief Bill, brought a period of calm. Liverpool supported marginal concessions such as the admittance of English Roman Catholics to the higher ranks of the armed forces, the magistracy, and the parliamentary franchise; but he remained opposed to their participation in parliament itself. In the 1820s, pressure from the liberal wing of the Commons and the rise of the Catholic Association in Ireland revived the controversy.

By the date of Sir Francis Burdett’s Catholic Relief Bill in 1825, emancipation looked a likely success. Indeed, the success of the bill in the Commons in April, followed by Robert Peel’s tender of resignation, finally persuaded Liverpool that he should retire. When Canning made a formal proposal that the cabinet should back the bill, Liverpool was convinced that his administration had come to its end. George Canning then succeeded him as Prime Minister. Catholic emancipation however was not fully implemented until the major changes of the Catholic Relief Act of 1829 under the leadership of the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel, and with the work of the Catholic Association established in 1823.

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Final Years

Liverpool’s first wife, Louisa, died at 54. He married again to Lady Mary Chester, a long-time friend of Louisa.  Liverpool retired on 9 April 1827, when, at Fife House (his riverside residence in Whitehall since 1810), he suffered a severe cerebral hemorrhage, and asked the King to seek a successor. There was another minor stroke in July, after which he lingered on at Coombe until a third and fatal attack on 4 December 1828 when he died.

Ministry

06/08/1812 04/09/1827

    Lord Liverpool – First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Lords
    Lord Eldon – Lord Chancellor
    Lord Harrowby – Lord President of the Council
    Lord Westmorland – Lord Privy Seal
    Lord Sidmouth – Secretary of State for the Home Department
    Lord Castlereagh (Lord Londonderry after 1821) – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Leader of the House of Commons
    Lord Bathurst – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
    Lord Melville – First Lord of the Admiralty
    Nicholas Vansittart – Chancellor of the Exchequer
    Lord Mulgrave – Master-General of the Ordnance
    Lord Buckinghamshire – President of the Board of Control
    Charles Bathurst – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    Lord Camden – minister without portfolio

Changes

  • Late 1812 – Lord Camden leaves the Cabinet
  • September 1814 – William Wellesley-Pole (Lord Maryborough from 1821), the Master of the Mint, enters the Cabinet
  • February 1816 – George Canning succeeds Lord Buckinghamshire at the Board of Control
  • January 1818 – Frederick John Robinson, the President of the Board of Trade, enters the Cabinet
  • January 1819 – The Duke of Wellington succeeds Lord Mulgrave as Master-General of the Ordnance. Lord Mulgrave becomes minister without portfolio
  • 1820 – Lord Mulgrave leaves the cabinet
  • January 1821 – Charles Bathurst succeeds Canning as President of the Board of Control, remaining also at the Duchy of Lancaster
  • January 1822 – Robert Peel succeeds Lord Sidmouth as Home Secretary
  • February 1822 – Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn succeeds Charles Bathurst at the Board of Control. Bathurst remains at the Duchy of Lancaster and in the Cabinet
  • September 1822 – Following the suicide of Lord Londonderry, George Canning becomes Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons
  • January 1823 – Vansittart, elevated to the peerage as Lord Bexley, succeeds Charles Bathurst as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. F.J. Robinson succeeds Vansittart as Chancellor of the Exchequer. He is succeeded at the Board of Trade by William Huskisson
  • 1823 – Lord Maryborough, the Master of the Mint, leaves the Cabinet. His successor in the office is not a Cabinet member

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables. The list of Previous Notables and Upcoming Entries has grown so long that I will post this once a week on Saturdays now.

Previous Notables (Click to see the Blog):

George III George IV Georgiana Cavendish
William IV Lady Hester Stanhope Lady Caroline Lamb
Princess Charlotte Queen Charlotte Charles James Fox
Queen Adelaide Dorothea Jordan Jane Austen
Maria Fitzherbert Lord Byron John Keats
Princess Caroline Percy Bysshe Shelley Cassandra Austen
Edmund Kean Thomas Clarkson Sir John Moore
John Burgoyne William Wilberforce Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Sarah Siddons Josiah Wedgwood Emma Hamilton
Hannah More John Phillip Kemble John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent
Ann Hatton Stephen Kemble Mary Robinson
Harriet Mellon Zachary Macaulay George Elphinstone
Thomas Babington George Romney Mary Moser
Ozias Humphry William Hayley Daniel Mendoza
Edward Pellew Angelica Kauffman Sir William Hamilton
David Garrick Pownoll Bastard Pellew Charles Arbuthnot
William Upcott William Huskisson Dominic Serres
Sir George Barlow Scrope Davies Charles Francis Greville
George Stubbs Fanny Kemble Thomas Warton
William Mason Thomas Troubridge Charles Stanhope
Robert Fulke Greville Gentleman John Jackson Ann Radcliffe
Edward ‘Golden Ball’ Hughes John Opie Adam Walker
John Ireland Henry Pierrepoint Robert Stephenson
Mary Shelley Sir Joshua Reynolds Francis Place
Richard Harding Evans Lord Thomas Foley Francis Burdett
John Gale Jones George Parker Bidder Sir George Warren
Edward Eliot William Beechey Eva Marie Veigel
Hugh Percy-Northumberland Charles Philip Yorke Lord Palmerston
Samuel Romilly John Petty 2nd Marquess Lansdowne Henry Herbert Southey
Stapleton Cotton Colin Macaulay Amelia Opie
Sir James Hall Henry Thomas Colebrooke Maria Foote
Sir David Baird Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville Dr. Robert Gooch
William Baillie James Northcote Horatio Nelson
Henry Fuseli Home Riggs Popham John Playfair
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice 3rd Marquess Lansdowne Thomas Douglas 5th Earl of Selkirk Frederick Gerald “Poodle” Byng
Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort John Wolcot (Peter Pindar) Joseph John Gurney
Edward John Eliot Henry Perronet Briggs George Lionel Dawson-Damer
Thomas Foley Mark Robinson Charles Culling Smith
Francis Charles Seymour-Ingram, 3rd Marquess of Hertford Thomas Fowell Buxton Tyrone Power
Richard Cumberland William Philip Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough
Jeffry Wyattville Henry Mildmay Nicholas Wood
Hester Thrale Catherine Hughes, Baroness de Calabrella Admiral Israel Pellew
William Wellesley Pole, 3rd Earl of Mornington Henry Moyes Charles Fitzroy
Lord Granville Somerset Lumley St. George Skeffington William Playfair
John Lade Astley Cooper Matthew Gregory Lewis
Edward Pease Thomas Coutts John Urpeth Rastrick
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond Captain William Baillie John Pitt Kennedy
Henry Cline Sarah Clementina Drummond-Burrell Samuel Wyatt
Lord George Lennox George Bussy Villiers Henry FitzRoy 5th Duke of Grafton
John Bell (Surgeon) Robert Smirke (Painter) John Kennedy (Manufacturer)
John Gell Dugald Stewart Louisa Gurney Hoare
William Nicol (Surgeon) William Nicol (Geologist) Edward Hall Alderson
Thomas Hope Richard Cosway Jonathan Backhouse
Lady Sarah Lennox John Byng, 5th Viscount Torrington Harriette Wilson
Andrew Plimer George Henry Borrow Charles Lamb
Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst Skeffington Lutwidge
George Colman the Elder William Hotham Jacob Bell
Charles Heathcote Tatham William Allen (Quaker) John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
John Henry Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland William Gell Richard Barry, 7th Earl Barrymore
Samuel Bagster the Younger Lady Anne (Wesley) Fitzroy Samuel Gurney
John Liston Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond Luke Howard
Alexander MacKenzie (Explorer) John Pasco Joseph Black
Sir Robert Calder Benjamin Travers John Walker (Cricketer)
John (Johnnie) Walker Joseph Fox the Younger Bishop Beilby Porteus
Sir William Knighton George Rose Edward St. Maur 11th Duke of Somerset
Samuel Bagster the Elder Richard Keppel Craven Edwin Henry Landseer
James Paull (Duelist) Henry Thornton Peter Pond
George Rose (Barrister) William Vincent Humphry Repton
Eliab Harvey Sir George Henry Rose James Kenney
James Kennedy Nevil Maskelyne James Playfair
John Auldjo Thomas Morton (Shipbuilder) Charles Kemble
Sir John Vaughan (Judge) Henry Paget Henry Holland (Cricketer)
Sir Henry Holland (Baronet) Mary Alcock Tom Walker (Cricketer)
Thomas Bradley (Physician) Henry Dundas Trotter Thomas Picton
Sir Charles Middleton William Henry Playfair John Palmer (The 2 Architects)
William Ludlam Thomas Ludlam John Pinch the Elder
George Harris, 1st Baron Edward Waring William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 9th Duke of St Albans
Isaac Milner Sir Henry Blackwood William Lovett
General Sir Edward Paget Colonel John Vaughan William Locker
William George Keith Elphinstone Sir William Parker Baronet of Harburn Charles Hutton
John Thomas ‘Antiquity’ Smith Thomas Grey Egerton

1st Earl of Wilton

William Allen (Royal Navy Officer)
Thomas Baldwin Nathaniel Plimer Sir Edward Berry
Charles Gordon Lennox 5th Duke of Richmond George Combe Henry Siddons
Angela Burdett-Coutts William Ellis (Painter) William Drummond of Logiealmond
William George Harris Gerrard Andrewes Berkeley Paget
John Palmer (postal Innovator) Thomas Ludlam Henry Hetherington
Sir Charles Bagot Edward Ellice Francis Douce
Sir Hector Munro Richard Harris Barham Andrew Meikle
William Anderson (Artist) William Hunter Cavendish 5th Duke of Devonshire William Stewart Rose
Harriet Murray John Hunter (Politician) John Thomas Serres
Joseph Antonio Emidy Joseph Hume Thomas Holcroft
Archibald Alison Abraham Rees Thomas Helmore
Colonel William Berkeley Thomas Hearne Richard Carlile
Julius Caesar Ibbetson George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle John Rennie
William Oxberry William Hornby William Holme Twentyman
Charles Howard 11th Duke of Norfolk Gerard Lake Sir Archibald Alison, 1st Baronet
Isaac Taylor Edward Howard-Gibbon Marquis of Stafford Granville Leveson-Gower
Robert Aspland George Harris 3rd Baron Harris Thomas Telford
George Phillip Manners Arthur Hill, 3rd Marquess of Downshire Daniel Gurney
Sir Peter Parker John Horsley Palmer Richard Watson (politician)
Joseph Farington Charles Fitzroy, Baron Southampton William Henry West Betty
Charles Stuart (British Army Officer) Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy
William Danby George Macartney Richard Payne Knight
Admiral Adam Duncan James George Smith Neill Sir Anthony Carlisle
John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour Richard Robert Madden
Joseph Milner Sidney Smith (wit) George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer
Henry Duncan John Nichols Thom Charles Gardiner, 1st Earl of Blessington
Uvedale Price James Foster Richard Colt Hoare
Richard Watson (Bishop) Francis Ingram-Seymour-Conway 2nd Marquess of Hertford Charles FitzRoy 3rd Baron Southampton
Duke of York Frederick Augustus Hanover Price Blackwood Benjamin Outram
Major General John Dalling John Thelwall Robert “Bobus” Percy Smith
John Carr (architect) James Archibald Stuart Roger Curtis
Sir Erasmus Gower Charles Pepys Earl of Cottenham Joseph Chitty
Henry Thoby Prinsep James Coutts Crawford Sir Charles Edward Grey
John Palmer (Commissary) Samuel Barrington William Gifford
John Richardson Henry Holland Thomas Harley
Emily Lennox Alexander Hood Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey
John Wilson Croker Beaumont Hotham John Fane 11th Earl of Westmorland
George Johnston Henry Temple 2nd Viscount Palmerston Simon McGillivray
Colonel George Hanger Sir John McMahon William Babington
John Hoppner Sir Richard Onslow John Byng 1st Earl of Strafford
William Wilkins Daines Barrington John Bell (publisher)
Alexander Ball Lord Robert Seymour Jacob Philipp Hackert
John Cleave Hussey Vivian 1st Baron Vivian George Cowper 6th Earl Cowper
Edward Bouverie Pusey Dr William Pulteney Alison William Railton
James Mill Lucuis Curtis Henry Pigot
Hugh James Rose Sir John Easthope Thomas Starkie
John Prinsep Harriet Martineau Edward Gibbon
Richard Watson 4th Duke of Queensberry William Douglas Edward Jenner
James Gillray Molyneux Shuldham 1st Baron Shuldham Charles Catton the Younger
Henry Proctor (British Army Officer) James Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie 1st Baron Wharncliffe Sir Thomas Brisbane
William Adam of Blair Adam Sir Edward Michael Pakenham Charles Bury 1st Earl of Charleville
John Pinch the Younger John Stuart Count of Maida Robert Hall
Hurrell Froude Olivia Serres Anne Horton Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn
Sir Marc Brunel George Pryme General Sir John Bell
William Whewell Adam Ferguson of Raith William Beatty
Robert Linzee Richard Porson Edward O’Bryen
William Baillie (artist) John Romilly Edwin Chadwick
William Hay 17th Earl of Erroll Elizabeth Inchbald Maria Walpole
Edward Maltby Folliott Cornewall Edward James Eliot
James Perry (journalist) John Oxley General Sir Robert Arbuthnot
Sir Ralph Abercromby Hannah Cowley Thomas Kidd (classical scholar)
Admiral Sir Graham Moore Duke of Norfolk Henry Charles Howard Henry Dundas 1st Viscount Melville
Francis Leggatt Chantrey Sir Josias Rowley 1st Baronet Richard Grosvenor 1st Earl Grosvenor
Richard Colley Wellesley Edward Adolphus Seymour 12th Duke of Somerset James Henry Monk
Sir John Abercromby Sir George Colebrooke Francis Russell 5th Duke of Bedford
James Burton Thomas Morton (Playwright) John MacBride
George Mudie Sir William Hotham Charles Augustus Murray
Priscilla Fane Countess of Westmorland William Van Mildert Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Sir Gerard Noel 2nd Baronet Sir George Baker Henry Wellesley
William Gregory Albemarle Bertie John Rylands
Sir Arthur Paget George Murray 5th Earl of Dunmore Sir Thomas Munro 1st Baronet
Maurice Margarot Sir Charles Grey Robert James Carr
George Stephenson Bernard Edward Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk Allan Cunningham
Henry Thynne 3rd Marquess of Bath William Hasledine Pepys George Percy 5th Duke of Northumberland
John Charles Ramsden Thomas Mounsey Cunningham John Nash
Thomas Charles Hope Joseph Gerrald Richard Howe 1st Earl Howe
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck 3rd Duke of Portland William Pitt the Younger Henry Addington 1st Viscount Sidmouth
William Wyndham Grenville 1st Baron Grenville Spencer Perceval

There will be many other notables coming, a full and changing list can be found here on the blog as I keep adding to it. The list so far is:

  • Victoria
  • Granville Sharp
  • Elizabeth (Gurney) Fry
  • William Paley
  • James Hutton
  • John Boydell
  • Viscount Robert Castlereagh
  • George Canning
  • James Stirling
  • John MacBride (professor)
  • William Waldegrave
  • John Thomas Duckworth
  • David Dundas
  • Sir Hyde Parker
  • Sir Thomas Hardy
  • Thomas Hardy (Reformer)
  • Robert McQueen
  • Sir William Parker
  • William Cornwallis
  • Charles Cornwallis
  • George Colman the Younger
  • Robert Emmet
  • Thomas Fortescue Kennedy
  • William Taylor of Norwich
  • Sir John Herschel
  • John Horne Tooke
  • Robert Owen
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Thomas Cochrane
  • Claire Clairmont
  • Fanny Imlay
  • Gilbert Imlay
  • William Godwin
  • William Hazlitt
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • James Edward Smith
  • Harriet Fane Arbuthnot
  • John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland
  • James Edwards (Bookseller)
  • Sir Joseph Banks
  • James Smithson
  • William Cowper
  • Wellington (the Military man)
  • Cuthbert Collingwood
  • Sydney Smith
  • Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
  • Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke
  • William Howe
  • Viscount Sir Samuel Hood
  • Sir Samuel Hood
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • General Banastre Tarleton
  • John Constable
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • Sir William Lawrence, 1st Baronet
  • George Cruikshank
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • Joseph Priestley
  • Horace Walpole
  • Thomas Rowlandson
  • William Blake
  • Henry Maudslay
  • Joseph Bramah
  • Marquis of Stafford George Leveson-Gower
  • Joseph Locke
  • Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
  • John Soane
  • Robert Smirke (architect)
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Robert Southey
  • Sir Walter Scott
  • John Scott, Earl of Eldon
  • Lord Elgin
  • William Windham
  • William Cobbett
  • Madame de Stael
  • John Walker (inventor)(Natural Historian)(Lexicographer)
  • James Boswell
  • William Harrison Ainsworth
  • Sir Harry Smith
  • Thomas Cochrane
  • Warren Hastings
  • Edmund Burke
  • William Petty
  • Juana Maria de Los Dolores de Leon (Lady Smith)
  • Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1785 as Duc d’ Orleans (1747-1793)
  • Louis Philippe, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1793 as Duc d’ Orleans (1773-1850)
  • Captain John (Jack) Willett Payne (1752-1803)
  • John Bell
  • James Wyatt
  • John Blaquiere, 1st Baron de Blaquiere
  • William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley
  • Lord FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan
  • Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington
  • James Watt
  • John Hunter (Royal Navy)
  • Joseph Pease
  • Richard Trevithick
  • Louisa Lennox
  • Thomas Baillie (Royal Navy officer)
  • Charles James Napier
  • Matthew Boulton
  • Sir Charles Bell
  • James Gregory
  • Donald Gregory
  • Richard Barnewell
  • Charles James Blomfield
  • William Carr Beresford 1st Viscount Beresford
  • Maria Hadfield
  • George Byng 6th Viscount Torrington
  • John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
  • John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford
  • George Brydges Rodney
  • Samuel Pepys Cockerell
  • John Linnell
  • Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle
  • Benjamin Robert Haydon
  • John Dalton
  • Sir Philip Durham
  • Joseph Lancaster
  • Samuel Whitbread
  • Francis Augustus Collier
  • Humphry Davy
  • George Shillibeer
  • Samuel Hoare Jr.
  • Thomas Moore
  • Edward Dodwell
  • Archibald Norman McLeod
  • George Vancouver
  • Sir George Simpson
  • William Morgan (actuary)
  • Harry Walker
  • Alexander Walker
  • George Templer
  • Thomas Landseer
  • Sir Robert Inglis
  • Frederick Richard Lee
  • William McGillivray
  • Lucia Elizabeth Vestris
  • John Vaughan 3rd Earl of Lisburne
  • Samuel Rogers
  • Edward Bulwer-Lytton
  • Edward Troughton
  • Edward Ellice
  • John MacDonald of Garth
  • Sir Archibald Campbell
  • Maria Theresa Kemble
  • Thomas Muir of Huntershill
  • Thomas Fyshe Palmer
  • William Skirving
  • Captain William Paget
  • Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Paget
  • E.A. Burney
  • Charles Burney
  • Lord Frederick Beauclerk
  • William Fullarton
  • Francis Jeffrey
  • Charles Simeon
  • Sir John Simeon
  • Thomas de Quincey
  • James Watson
  • Daniel O’Connell
  • Feargus O’Connor
  • Joseph Nollekens
  • Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster
  • Andrew Geddes
  • Andrew Combe
  • Abram Combe
  • Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet
  • William Ellis
  • William A. F. Browne
  • Robert William Elliston
  • William Henry Murray
  • Daniel Terry
  • Joanna Baillie
  • Theodore Hook
  • Robert Scott Lauder
  • Chauncey Hare Townshend
  • Paul Sandby
  • William Heberden the Younger
  • Henry Paget 1st Earl of Uxbridge
  • Richard Hurd
  • Abel Heywood
  • George Holyoake
  • Charles Poulett Thomson
  • William Charles Keppel, 4th Earl of Albemarle
  • Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester
  • George Rennie
  • Elizabeth Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire
  • Frederick Hervey
  • Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville
  • Sir Augustus William James Clifford
  • George Lamb (politician and Writer)
  • Francis Baring
  • Thomas Rees
  • John Jones
  • Sir James Edward Smith
  • John Evans
  • Thomas Jervis
  • Derwent Coleridge
  • Maurice Berkeley, 1st Baron FitzHardinge
  • Henry FitzHardinge Berkeley
  • Grantley Berkeley
  • Craven Berkeley
  • George Cranfield-Berkeley
  • Sir George Beaumont, 7th Baronet
  • Ralph Payne, 1st Baron Lavington
  • Joseph Mallord William Turner
  • Thomas Girtin
  • Thomas Monro
  • George Dance the Younger
  • William Daniell
  • Henry Monro
  • Henry Hunt
  • William Hone
  • James Wilson
  • Robert Taylor (Radical)
  • Benjamin West
  • William Roscoe
  • Thomas Harrison (architect)
  • John Rennie the Younger
  • Sir Samuel Bentham
  • Thomas John Dibdin
  • George Soane
  • John Emery (English Actor)
  • Elizabeth Rebecca Edwin
  • Lawrence Holme Twentyman
  • Mary Ann Gibbon
  • Matthew Howard-Gibbon
  • Sir William Woods
  • Patrick Tytler
  • Robert Scott Lauder
  • Isaac Taylor of Ongar
  • Josiah Conder
  • Jacob Rey
  • John Foster
  • Olinthus Gilbert Gregory
  • Jane Taylor
  • John Wilson (Scottish writer)
  • Sir James Stephens
  • Ann Taylor (poet)
  • John Eyre
  • Thomas Noon Talfourd
  • Thomas Southwood Smith
  • Neil Arnott
  • James Kay-Shuttleworth
  • William Johnson Fox
  • Nassau William Senior
  • Elizabeth Fox, Baroness Holland
  • Walter Wilson
  • William James Erasmus Wilson
  • Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet
  • Laura Pulteney 1st Countess of Bath
  • William Jessop
  • Thomas Campbell
  • Phillip Hardwick
  • Charles Harcourt Masters
  • Sir Peter Parker, 2nd Baronet
  • Thomas Taylour, 1st Marquess of Headfort
  • George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer
  • John Home
  • Frederick Edward Jones
  • John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute
  • William Stuart
  • Lady Louisa Stuart
  • James Lowther
  • Charles Stuart, 1st Baron Stuart de Rothesay
  • Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto
  • Andrew Blayney, 11th Baron Blayney
  • Walter Savage Landor
  • Sir George Staunton
  • William Gilpin
  • Henry Trollope
  • Henry Havelock
  • Nicholas Carlisle
  • William Nicholson
  • Sir George Seymour
  • Miles Atkinson
  • William Dealtry
  • Samuel Marsden
  • Thomas Perronet Thompson
  • Alexander Horn
  • John Ryland
  • James Mackintosh
  • Sir Richard Bickerton
  • Robert Corbet
  • Richard Cope (minister)
  • William Wordsworth
  • Elizabeth Barrett Browning
  • William Lyttelton
  • William Cunnington
  • Francis Nicholson
  • Geroge Hay, 8th Marquess of Tweeddale
  • James Anderson of Hermiston
  • John Hookham Frere
  • Henry Vassall-Fox
  • George Richardson (Architect)
  • William Chambers (Architect)
  • James Stuart-Mackenzie
  • William Legge
  • George Cartwright
  • Anthony James Pye Molloy
  • James Gambier
  • William Wingfield
  • James Prinsep
  • Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings
  • Sir Charles Knowles
  • William Bligh
  • Sophia Campbell (Palmer)
  • Robert Campbell
  • Francis Grose
  • John Macarthur
  • George Ellis
  • John Gibson Lockhart
  • William Stevens
  • William Adam
  • John Thomas Troy
  • Sir Robert Dallas
  • Thomas Hardwick
  • Major-General Robert Craufurd
  • Arthur Phillip
  • Esther Abrahams
  • William Paterson (explorer)
  • Joseph Foveaux
  • Henry Fulton
  • Simon McTavish
  • Colin Robertson
  • William McMahon
  • William Behnes
  • Rowland Hill 1st Viscount Hill
  • John Peter Gandy
  • William Crotch
  • Samuel Wesley
  • Henry Vincent
  • William Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart
  • Thomas de Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey
  • John Henry Newman
  • John Keble
  • Sir William Molesworth 8th Baronet
  • Samuel Pym
  • Henry Lambert
  • Nesbit Willoughby
  • William Palmer
  • William Innell Clement
  • Henry John Rose
  • John Austin (legal philosopher)
  • Thomas Dunham Whitaker
  • Adam Clarke
  • Marchioness of Hertford, Maria Emilia Fagnani
  • Charles Douglas, 6th Marquess of Queensberry
  • Francis Douglas, 8th Earl of Wemyss
  • Edward Thurlow
  • Sir George Prevost
  • Sir Isaac Brock
  • John Thomas Bigge
  • John Creighton 1st Earl Erne
  • Dr. Robert Wardell
  • James Dunlop
  • Admiral Sir Charles Adam
  • Catherine Wellesley Duchess of Wellington
  • Robert Ross
  • Henry Prittie 1st Baron Dunalley
  • Henry Prittie 2nd Baron Dunalley
  • Robert Cuninghame 1st Baron Rossmore
  • Sir Sames Craig
  • Henry Edward Fox
  • Hudson Lowe
  • John Clayton
  • Samuel Horsley
  • James Wilmot
  • Henry Luttrell 2nd Earl of Carhampton
  • Samuel Hood Linzee
  • John Gore
  • George Atwood
  • Thomas Postlethwaite
  • Stephen Weston (antiquary)
  • Walter Whiter
  • Joseph Robertson
  • William Beloe
  • Samuel Parr
  • Joseph Goodall
  • Gilbert Wakefield
  • Robert Mann (Royal Navy Officer)
  • William Otter
  • Joseph Warton
  • George Pretyman Tomline
  • William Enfield
  • Henry Bathurst (bishop)
  • William Turner (Unitarian minister)
  • Edward Craggs-Eliot 1st Baron Eliot
  • John Eliot Earl of St. Germans
  • Alexander Abercromby
  • Geroge Abercromby, 2nd Baron Abercromby
  • James Abercromby, 1st Baron Dunfermline
  • Alexander Abercromby (British Army Officer)
  • Robert Merry
  • John Moore (physician)
  • Sir Richard Hughes
  • William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland
  • John Raphael Smith
  • Daniel Asher Alexander
  • Henry Weekes
  • Thomas Stothard
  • Charles Manners-Sutton
  • Sir Richard Westmacott
  • Decimus Burton
  • James Pennethorne
  • James Haliburton
  • Joseph George Holman
  • Hugh Palliser
  • Thomas Louis
  • Willoughby Thomas Lake
  • Henry Hotham
  • John Holloway
  • Sir Richard Strachan
  • Sir Isaac Coffin
  • Edward Thornbrough
  • William Salter (artist)
  • Benjamin Hawes
  • Charles Wetherell
  • John Scott Russell
  • William Horsley
  • Henry Noel, 6th Earl of Gainsborough
  • Charles Noel Noel 1st Earl of Gainsborough
  • James Harris 1st Earl of Malmesbury
  • James Cecil 1st Marquess of Salisbury
  • Henry Richard Charles Wellesley 1st Earl of Cowley
  • Edward Turner (chemist)
  • William O’Bryen Drury
  • Sir John Borlase Warren
  • John Parker 1st Earl of Morley
  • John Murray 4th Earl of Dunmore
  • Alexander Murray 6th Earl of Dunmore
  • John Munro 9th of Teaninich
  • John Wilkes
  • Charles Grey 2nd Earl Grey (PM)
  • Henry George Grey 3rd Earl Grey
  • John Lambton 1st Earl of Durham
  • Matthew Murray
  • William Losh
  • John Vaughan
  • John Metcalf
  • Henry Both
  • James Hogg
  • Allan Cunningham (botanist)
  • Peter Miller Cunningham
  • Robert Hartley Cromek
  • Sir David Wilkie
  • Thomas Thynne, 2nd Marquess of Bath
  • William Feilding, 7th Earl of Denbigh
  • Algernon Percy, 1st Earl Beverly
  • Josceline Percy (Royal Navy Officer)
  • William Henry Percy
  • Thomas Dundas 1st Baron Dundas
  • William Fitzwilliam 4th Earl Fitzwilliam
  • Augustus Charles Pugin
  • John Adey Repton
  • John Edwards-Vaughan
  • Frederick Crace
  • James Morgan
  • Edward Blore
  • Daniel Rutherford
  • Alexander Monro
  • Joseph Galloway
  • Richard Curzon-Howe
  • James Lackington
  • George Lackington

The Dukes

  • Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell (1766-1839)
  • Duke of Argull, John Campbell 7th Duke
  • Duke of Grafton, Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke 1735-1811
  • Duke of Grafton, George FitzRoy, 4th Duke 1760-1844
  • Duke of Gordon, Alexander 4th Duke 1743-1827
  • Duke of Northumberland, Hugh Percy 1742-1817
  • Duke of Northumberland, Algernon Percy 1792-1865
  • Duke of Hamilton, Archibald Hamilton
  • Duke of Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton
  • Duke of Norfolk, Henry Howard 13th Duke

The Royals

  • Ernest Augustus 1 of Hanover

The Dandy Club

  •         Beau Brummell
  •         William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley

Patronesses of Almacks

  •         Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper
  •         Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
  •         Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
  •         Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton
  •         Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian Ambassador
  •         Countess Esterhazy, wife of the Austrian Ambassador

If there are any requests for personalities to be added to the list, just let us know in the comments section

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Spencer Perceval
1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812

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Spencer Perceval

Percecal was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 October 1809 until his death on 11 May 1812. He is the only British Prime Minister to have ever been assassinated. He is also the only Solicitor General or Attorney General to have been Prime Minister.

The younger son of an Irish earl, Perceval was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. He studied law at Lincoln’s Inn, practised as a barrister on the Midland Circuit and in 1796 became a King’s Counsel before entering politics at the age of 33 as a Member of Parliament for Northampton.

A follower of William Pitt, Perceval always described himself as a “friend of Mr Pitt” rather than a Tory. Perceval was opposed to Catholic emancipation and reform of Parliament; he supported the war against Napoleon and the abolition of the slave trade. He was opposed to hunting, gambling and adultery, did not drink as much as most Members of Parliament, gave generously to charity, and enjoyed spending time with his twelve children.

After a late entry into politics his rise to power was rapid; he was Solicitor and then Attorney General in the Addington Ministry, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons in the Portland Ministry, and became Prime Minister in October 1809. At the head of a weak ministry, Perceval faced a number of crises during his term in office including an inquiry into the disastrous Walcheren expedition, the madness of King George III, economic depression and Luddite riots. He survived these crises, successfully pursued the Peninsular War in the face of opposition defeatism, and won the support of the Prince Regent. His position was looking stronger by the spring of 1812, when John Bellingham, a merchant with a grievance against the Government, shot him dead in the lobby of the House of Commons.

Although Perceval was a seventh son and had four older brothers who survived to adulthood, the Earldom of Egmont reverted to one of his great-grandsons in the early 20th century and remained in the hands of his descendants until its extinction in 2011.

Percecal was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 October 1809 until his death on 11 May 1812. He is the only British Prime Minister to have ever been assassinated. He is also the only Solicitor General or Attorney General to have been Prime Minister.

The younger son of an Irish earl, Perceval was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. He studied law at Lincoln’s Inn, practised as a barrister on the Midland Circuit and in 1796 became a King’s Counsel before entering politics at the age of 33 as a Member of Parliament for Northampton.

Childhood and Education
Perceval was the 7th son of John Perceval Earl of Egmont, his mother was Catherine Compton, Baroness Arden and a grand-daughter of the Earl of Northampton. Her great-uncle was the Earl of Wilmington, a previous Prime Minister. His father the Earl was an advisor to Frederick the Prince of Wales (the son of George II, and father of George III), advisor to George III and First Lord of the Admiralty. His father though died when Perceval was eight.

Perceval went to Harrow, as did all of his sons but one. Perceval formed a friendship with Dudley Ryder the Earl of Harrowby and also became interested in evangelical Anglicanism. After Harrow he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, winning the declamation prize and graduating in 1782.

Legal Career and Marriage
He had an allowance of £200 a year, and in order to do better, chose the law as his profession. Along with his brother, Lord Arden and then the brothers fell in love with two sisters who had moved into the old Perceval house. The sisters father was Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson, and he approved of the match of the elder Lord Arden. As Perceval was not making a great deal, he was told to wait until Jane came of age in 1790. Hoping that Perceval by then would be making money. He was not. They eloped to East Grinstead. Their first home was over a carpet shop in Bedford Row and then Lindsey House in Lincoln’s Inn Fields.

The young man’s family connections got his positions:Deputy Recorder of Northampton, Comminssioner of Bankrupts in 1790; Surveyor of the Maltings and Clerk of the Irons in the Mint in 1791. Counsel to the Board of Admiralty in 1794. He was junior counsel for the Crown in the Thomas Paine seditious libel case in 1792, and John Horne Tooke for high Treason in 1794. He joined the Light Horse Volunteers in 1794.

He wrote in favour of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, and in defence of public order against sedition. It brought him to William Pitt the Younger’s notice. In 1795 he was offered and declined the appointment of Chief Secretary for Ireland. He could earn more as a barrister. In 1796 he became a king’s Counsel with an income of £1000.

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“I have nothing to say to the nothing that has been said.”

Early Political Career 1796-1801
When a cousin succeeded his father in the House of Lords the Northampton seat was open and Perceval was invited to stand. In the by-election he was elected unopposed but a few weeks later there was a hotly contested general election. This was the first and last contested election, after which he won every election unopposed again. He is the only MP of Northampton to ever have been Prime Minister.

When he took his seat in Commons he was for Pitt and the Constitution and against Fox and France. He continued with his legal practice to pay the bills. In 96 and 97 he gave several speeches in the House reading from his notes. In 98 he spoke in support of the Assessed Taxes Bill and Pitt described the speech as one of the best he had ever heard. Perceval was then given the post of Solicitor to the Ordnance.

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Solicitor and Attorney General 1801-1806
Pitt resigned in 1801 and under Addington he was appointed Solicitor General and Attorney General in 1802. He remained Attorney General in 1804 when Pitt returned as Prime Minister. During his time as Attorney General he saw to improving conditions for convicts transported to New South Wales (Australia).

When Pitt died in 1806, Perceval was an emblem bearer, and then with little money to spare, helped to pay off Pitt’s debts with a contribution of £1000. Refusing to serve in Grenville’s ministry with Charles James Fox, he became the leader of the opposition.

During this time he defended Princess Caroline during the ‘delegate investigation.’

Chancellor of the Exchequer 1807-1809
During the second Ministry of the Duke of Portland Perceval was asked to become Chancellor of the Exchequer, Leader of the House of Commons and Duchy of Lancaster (so he could have a better salary.) Shortly after his youngest son was born Ernest Augustus whose godmother was Princess Caroline. HIs wife then became ill and the family moved to Ealing purchasing the Elm Grove estate. In London, the Duke of Portland vacated #10 Downing St, and so the Perceval clan moved in.

As Chancellor, Perceval ensured that Wilberforce’s bill to abolish slavery moved forward to passage and that countries with neutrality to France had trade restricted to them. (Another step in the waging of war against the Tyrant. He also had to raise money to pay for the war with France. He had to defend the Duke of York whose mistress had been selling army commissions at this time as well.

When the Duke of Portland had a stroke and resigned, there was maneuvering of other candidates to be Prime Minister, but they could not compromise and the other Cabinet ministers all asked the King to appoint Perceval.

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Prime Minister 1809-1812
While the ministry was not expected to last, it did for sometime. Perceval continued to find funds for the army and war. The government though suffered in early January 1810 and fumbled about. Then, King George III was also showing signs that the madness was returning. The Prince of Wales favored the Whigs, so another Regency was not attractive as this could mean the Tories being forced from power. On December 19th of 1810 Perceval wrote to the Prince of his plans to introduce a Regency Bill as the king just did not recover. Though it was only for one year, in case the king did recover.

Even though the Prince of Wales and the Whigs objected, Perceval got the bill passed. The King signed the bill and the Prince swore the Royal oath. 1811 saw the sessions of Parliament concerned with Ireland, economic depression and the bullion controversy. And the war.

The Prince Regent changed his tune about Whigs and through his support to the Tories who then passed a longer Regency Act. There were troubles with the United States as well as depression and unemployment in England in 1812. There had been rioting in the Midlands and North, and the Orders in Council were going to be reevaluated as to their impact on trade and manufacture. This began in early May of 1812

Assassination
At 5:15 on May 11th 1812, John Bellingham who had been unjustly imprisoned in Russia and wanted the government to repay him, shot and killed Perceval outside of Parliament. He was dead within a few minutes. His last words were “murder” or “Oh my god.”

Legacy and Family
Perceval left 12 children, and a wife with about £100 in the bank. Parliament voted the £50,000 and the oldest son Spencer, £1000 a year.

Ministry

04/10/1809 05/11/1812

    Spencer Perceval – First Lord of the Treasury, Leader of the House of Commons, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    Lord Eldon – Lord Chancellor
    Lord Camden – Lord President of the Council
    Lord Westmorland – Lord Privy Seal
    Richard Ryder – Secretary of State for the Home Department
    Lord Bathurst – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and President of the Board of Trade
    Lord Liverpool – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies and Leader of the House of Lords
    Lord Mulgrave – First Lord of the Admiralty
    Lord Chatham – Master-General of the Ordnance
    Lord Harrowby – Minister without Portfolio

Changes

  • December, 1809 – Lord Wellesley succeeds Lord Bathurst as Foreign Secretary.
  • Bathurst continues at the Board of Trade.
  • May, 1810 – Lord Mulgrave succeeds Lord Chatham as Master-General of the Ordnance.
  • Charles Philip Yorke succeeds Mulgrave as First Lord of the Admiralty.
  • March, 1812 – Lord Castlereagh succeeds Lord Wellesley as Foreign Secretary.
  • April, 1812 – Lord Sidmouth succeeds Lord Camden as Lord President.
  • Camden remains in the cabinet as a minister without portfolio.

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