Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘2nd Earl of Liverpool’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Charles Cecil Cope Jenkinson 3rd Earl of Liverpool
29 May 1784 – 3 October 1851

 

Charles Cecil Cope Jenkinson 3rd Earl of Liverpool was the son of Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool by his second wife Catherine, daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, 6th Baronet, and the younger half-brother of Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool. He was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford During the Napoleonic Wars he notably served as a volunteer in the Austrian Army at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805.

Liverpool was elected Member of Parliament for Sandwich in 1807, a seat he held until 1812, and then sat for Bridgnorth from 1812 to 1818 and for East Grinstead from 1818 to 1828. He held office under the Duke of Portland as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department from 1807 to 1809 and under Spencer Perceval as Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies from 1809 to 1810, but did not serve in his brother’s 1812 to 1827 Tory administration. Liverpool succeeded in the earldom of Liverpool in 1828 on the death of his elder brother and took his seat in the House of Lords. In 1841 he was invested a member of the Privy Council and appointed Lord Steward of the Household in the government of Sir Robert Peel, a post he held until 1846.

On 19 July 1810, Lord Liverpool married Julia Evelyn Medley Shuckburgh-Evelyn, daughter of Sir George Shuckburgh-Evelyn, 6th Baronet and Julia Annabella Evelyn. The couple had had three daughters:

  • Lady Catherine Julia Jenkinson (23 July 1811 – 5 December 1877).
  • Lady Selina Charlotte Jenkinson (3 July 1812 – 24 September 1883); married, firstly, on 15 August 1833, William Wentworth-FitzWilliam, Viscount Milton, with whom she had one child: Hon. Mary Selina Charlotte FitzWilliam (9 January 1836 – 4 January 1899), who later married Henry Portman, 2nd Viscount Portman. Lady Selina married, secondly, on 28 August 1845, as his second wife, George Savile Foljambe (4 June 1800 – 18 December 1869), with whom she had four children:
    • Caroline Frederica Foljambe (died 20 October 1895).
    • Elizabeth Anne Foljambe (died 2 January 1930).
    • Frances Mary Foljambe (died 25 January 1921).
    • Cecil George Savile Foljambe (7 November 1846 – 23 March 1907); later the 1st Earl of Liverpool.
  • Lady Louisa Harriet Jenkinson (28 March 1814 – 5 February 1887).

Julia died in April 1814, shortly after the birth of her youngest child. Liverpool remained a widower until his death in October 1851, aged 67. On his death the Barony of Hawkesbury and Earldom of Liverpool became extinct. However, the baronetcy of Hawkesbury (created in 1661) also held by the late Earl, survived, and was passed on to a cousin (see Jenkinson Baronets). In 1905, the earldom was revived in favour of Liverpool’s grandson, the Liberal politician Cecil Foljambe, the son of Liverpool’s second daughter, Lady Selina Charlotte, and her husband George Savile Foljambe.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Thomas Frognall Dibdin
1776 – 18 November 1847

PastedGraphic-2015-10-3-06-00.png

Thomas Frognall Dibdin

Thomas Frognall Dibdin was orphaned at a young age. His father died in 1778 while returning to England and his mother died one of the following two years, and an elderly maternal aunt eventually assumed responsibility for Dibdin. He was educated at St John’s College, Oxford, and studied for a time at Lincoln’s Inn. After an unsuccessful attempt to obtain practice as a provincial counsel at Worcester, he was ordained a clergyman at the close of 1804, being appointed to a curacy at Kensington. It was not until 1823 that he received the living of Exning in Sussex. Soon afterwards he was appointed by Lord Liverpool to the rectory of St Mary’s, Bryanston Square, which he held until his death.

The first of his numerous bibliographical works was his Introduction to the Knowledge of Editions of the Classics (1802), which brought him under the notice of the second Earl Spencer, to whom he owed much important aid in his bibliographical pursuits. The rich library at Althorp was thrown open to him; he spent much of his time in it, and in 1814–1815 published his Bibliotheca Spenceriana. As the library was not open to the general public, the information given in the Bibliotheca was found very useful, but since its author was unable even to read the characters in which the books he described were written, the work was marred by the errors which more or less characterize all his productions. This fault of inaccuracy however was less obtrusive in his series of playful, discursive works in the form of dialogues on his favourite subject, the first of which, Bibliomania (1809), was republished with large additions in 1811, and was very popular, passing through numerous editions.

To the same class belonged the Bibliographical Decameron, a larger work, which appeared in 1817. In 1810 he began the publication of a new and much extended edition of Ames’s Typographical Antiquities. The first volume was a great success, but the publication was checked by the failure of the fourth volume, and was never completed. In 1818 Dibdin was commissioned by Earl Spencer to purchase books for him on the continent, an expedition described in his sumptuous Bibliographical, Antiquarian and Picturesque Tour in France and Germany (1821).

In 1824 he made an ambitious venture in his Library Companion, or the Young Man’s Guide and Old Man’s Comfort in the Choice of a Library, intended to point out the best works in all departments of literature. His culture was not broad enough, however, to render him competent for the task, and the work was severely criticized. For some years Dibdin gave himself up chiefly to religious literature. He returned to bibliography in his Bibliophobia, or Remarks on the Present Depression in the State of Literature and the Book Trade (1832), and the same subject furnishes the main interest of his Reminiscences of a Literary Life (1836), and his Bibliographical, Antiquarian and Picturesque Tour in the Northern Counties of England and Scotland (1838).

Dibdin was the originator and vice-president, Earl Spencer being the president, of the Roxburghe Club, founded in 1812, the first “book club”.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Lieutenant-General Benjamin Bloomfield 1st Baron Bloomfield
13 April 1768 – 15 August 1846

PastedGraphic-2015-09-30-06-00.png

Benjamin Bloomfield

Lieutenant-General Benjamin Bloomfield 1st Baron Bloomfield was born in 1768, the son of John Bloomfield and Anne Charlotte Waller, and educated at the Royal Military Academy Woolwich. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery in 1781. After seeing action at the Battle of Vinegar Hill in June 1798 during the Irish Rebellion, he served in Newfoundland, Gibraltar, and at Brighton in 1806, where, as a brevet Major, he was in charge of a troop of the Royal Horse Artillery. He was also appointed a Gentleman in Waiting to the King that year. Promoted to major-general on 4 June 1814, he was appointed Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery on 21 February 1824 and became Commanding Officer of the garrison at Woolwich in 1826.

He served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Plymouth from 1812 from 1818 and was made a Privy Councillor on 19 July 1817.

He was an Aide-de-Camp, then Chief Equerry and Clerk Marshal to the Prince of Wales and finally was Private Secretary to the King, Keeper of the Privy Purse, and Receiver of the Duchy of Cornwall from 1817 to 1822. He was knighted on 12 December 1815, appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 1 April 1822, and ennobled in the peerage of Ireland as Lord Bloomfield on 11 May 1825.

Benjamin Bloomfield took over this rather wretched position in 1817 following the extremely successful tenure of his predecessor, Sir John McMahon. Bloomfield was selected partly as a result of his skills of negotiation, shown through a secret mission to Sweden by the government as Minister Plenipotentiary. Bloomfield’s relationship with the Prince Regent was necessarily close, as the role of the Private Secretary to the Prince Regent was to suppress his most mischievous secrets to a media who so ferociously pursued his misdemeanours. This was no simple task as the Prince Regent’s flamboyant lifestyle did not abate despite pressure from various sources.

In the year that the Prince Regent became King, 1820, there were over 800 cartoons depicting him in various states of disorder, which greatly distressed the new monarch. Bloomfield was ordered to prevent as many of these cartoons from being published as possible by bribing cartoonists using a ‘secret service fund’. From 1819 to 1822, Bloomfield spent over £2,600 worth of taxpayer’s money on such bribery, including noted men of the field such as J.L. Marks and George Cruikshank. This provided them a fruitful second income and even more serendipitously saved them the cost of both paper and ink. This line of work put an increasing strain upon Bloomfield’s relationship with the King, and the former’s criticisms of his royal master became unbearable. Indeed, it became apparent that Bloomfield’s job of curbing the King’s royal expenditure was no more successful than his predecessors leading to Parliamentary discussions concerning the matter.

Bloomfield was summoned to a meeting with the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, and gave his most sincere assurances that he would do as much as he could to control the King’s wild spending. From then on in, the royal household had a financial regime based upon accountability imposed, meaning that Bloomfield had to scrutinise every scintilla of royal spending with an even keener eye. Bloomfield’s heightened meddling in royal expenditure infuriated the King, severing any last strands of friendship between them, with the King increasingly shouting at his secretary and even giving him a ‘good hearty shake’. In March 1822, Bloomfield complained to the Tory MP Charles Arbuthnot that the King no longer even shook hands or spoke to him when he entered the room, and even publicly abused him in the presence of a royal cook. Bloomfield’s persistence in curbing the royal purse was admirable, however, his efficiency now irked the King’s mistress, Lady Conyngham, who wished him to be relieved of his post. This gossip became public knowledge, which the contemporary satirists delighted in mocking, noting that Lady Conyngham and Bloomfield were perhaps too similar to ever fall out:

‘Ben Bloomfield and the fat old cook,
Herself a perfect larder,
A simple jig together took,
The tune was Shave the Barber’.

The King and Lady Conyngham’s dislike of Bloomfield was further evident on the King’s trip to Scotland on 10 August 1822, as the rising star of the King’s entourage, Sir William Knighton, was situated next to the King’s cabin, whilst Bloomfield was rather coldly relegated to a cabin far further away. Furthermore, Conyngham encouraged her son, Francis, to shoulder some of Bloomfield’s responsibilities, much to Bloomfield’s obvious displeasure. There was even a rumour that some of Lady Conyngham’s jewels belonged to the Crown, a fact known by Bloomfield, and therefore the royal mistress felt compelled to have him removed. As Bloomfield began to be undermined by Sir William Knighton and Francis Conyngham, his self-confidence started to fade, his grip on the royal purse was weakened and he abruptly had his salary stopped by royal command- his demise was imminent. In an act of desperation he began to lobby Parliament, claiming ‘royal betrayal’, however, this was ineffective as Lady Conyngham’s family were attached to Bloomfield’s target audience- the Whig opposition- and therefore his pleas fell on deaf ears.

Bloomfield’s downfall was hastened further by a royal visit to Dublin in 1821. In one incident, the King visited a local theatre, and believing Bloomfield to be an important member of the King’s party, the manager began playing the national anthem as Bloomfield entered his box, responding by bowing and smiling jokingly as the crowd rose and began singing ‘God Save the King’ (believing Bloomfield to be a member of the royal family). The King, noted for his sense of humour, was unusually furious at this act, declaring it an insult. Another plausible explanation for Bloomfield’s demise is provided by a courtier, Sir William Freemantle in a letter to the Duke of Buckingham. The King’s expenses from the spring of 1822 showed a considerable amount of money had been spent on an undisclosed item, which Bloomfield revealed to be the purchase of diamonds by the King. The King considered this to be damaging, and showed beyond all doubt that Bloomfield had lost his ability to protect the King’s image at all costs. The diamonds were most probably for the royal mistress, an assertion which the media exposed. In a last humiliating episode for Bloomfield, he was ordered by the King to pay J.L. Marks a sum of £45 to prevent the publication of a cartoon which implicated the King and his mistress in the diamond affair, after Marks sent a copy to the King’s residence before its publication. Marks duly ripped up the plate before his eyes, despite having made copies sneakily beforehand. In fact Bloomfield had spent a fortune buying up caricatures.

Finally, to the relief of the King, ministers agreed that Bloomfield should be removed from his position. The King wrote to Lord Liverpool, asking for the post of Private Secretary to be abolished to make Bloomfield’s departure appear to be a matter of politics rather than the Crown. Bloomfield was offered the Governorship of Ceylon as compensation, or his current salary for life and the Order of the Bath. Bloomfield felt that his efforts deserved at the very least an English peerage, the King however flew into a rage when hearing Bloomfield’s demand, threatening to have him alienated from society, just as his wife had been. Bloomfield pragmatically refused the position of Governor of Ceylon, but accepted the Order of the Bath, a sinecure worth £650 per annum and the Governorship of Fort Charles in Jamaica, that he would later exchange for the post of Minister at Stockholm. The King invited him to the Royal Pavilion at Brighton one last time to receive the Order of the Bath from the King, but thought better of it, and did not journey to meet his former royal master for the last time.

Following his turbulent years in service to the King, Bloomfield unexpectedly embraced the values of Methodism and became a devout Christian. His house in Portman Square, London amused many a passer-by as he would often have a placard on his front door, adorned with the words ‘At Prayer’.

Bloomfield was promoted to lieutenant general on 22 July 1830 and died in Ireland in 1846. He was buried at Borrisnafarney Parish Church in the Bloomfield Mausoleum in County Offaly, Ireland which is located 1.5 miles from the village of Moneygall beside the Loughton Estate

Bloomfield married Harriott Douglas, daughter of John Douglas, on 7 September 1797. They had a son, John Arthur Douglas Bloomfield, 1st Baron Bloomfield of Ciamhaltha who was created Baron Bloomfield, of Ciamhaltha in the County of Tipperary, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, on his retirement as British Ambassador to Austria, and two daughters, Georgina and Harriott.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings 1st Marquess of Hastings
9 December 1754 – 28 November 1826

PastedGraphic-2015-08-13-06-00.png

Francis Rawdon-Hastings

Francis Rawdon-Hastings 1st Marquess of Hastings was born at Moira, County Down, the son of John Rawdon, 1st Earl of Moira and Elizabeth Hastings, 13th Baroness Hastings. He grew up there and in Dublin, Ireland. He joined the British Army on 7 August 1771 as an ensign in the 15th Foot. (The going rate for purchasing a commission for this rank was 200.) He was at Harrow School and matriculated at University College, Oxford, but dropped out. He became friends there with Banastre Tarleton. With his uncle Lord Huntington, he went on the Grand Tour. On 20 October 1773, he was promoted to lieutenant in the 5th Foot. He returned to England to join his regiment, and sailed for America on 7 May 1774.

In May 1789 he acted as the Duke of York’s second in his duel with Lieut.-Colonel Lennox on Wimbledon Common.

Rawdon was posted at Boston as a Lieutenant in the 5th Regiment of Foot’s Grenadier company, which was then under the command of Captain Francis Marsden. He first saw action at the Battles of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Bunker Hill. Serving with the grenadiers, he participated in the second assault against Breed’s Hill (which failed), and the third assault against the redoubt. As his superior, a Captain George Harris, was wounded beside him, he took command of his company, for the successful assault. John Burgoyne noted in dispatches: “Lord Rawdon has this day stamped his fame for life.” He also was wounded during the assault. He was promoted Captain, and given a company in the 63rd Foot. After having recognized him, it is said that it was Lieutenant Lord Rawdon killed the American general Joseph Warren. Lord Rawdon is depicted in John Trumbull’s famous painting, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Rawdon is in the far background holding the British ensign.

During the Boston winter quarters, Rawdon made his stage debut, delivering a prologue for Aaron Hill’s tragedy, Zara, which had been written by John Burgoyne. He was appointed Aide-de-camp to General Sir Henry Clinton, and sailed with him on the expedition to Brunswick Town, North Carolina, on the Cape Fear River, and then to the repulse at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, South Carolina. He returned with him to New York. On 4 August, he dined with General Clinton, Admiral Lord Howe, Lord Cornwallis, General Vaughan, and others. During the Battle of Long Island, he was at headquarters with Clinton.

On 15 September, Rawdon led his men at Kip’s Bay, an amphibious landing on Manhattan island. The next day, he led his troops in support of the Light Infantry that attacked Harlem Heights until the Americans withdrew.

He participated at the landings at Pell’s Point. The British pressed the Americans to White Plains, where on 1 November the Americans withdrew from their entrenchments.

On 8 December Rawdon landed with Clinton at Rhode Island, securing the ports for the British Navy. On 13 January 1777, with Clinton, he departed for London, arriving 1 March. During a ball at Lord George Germain’s, he met Lafayette, who was visiting London.

Returning to America in July, while Howe went to his Philadelphia campaign, Rawdon went with Clinton to the New York headquarters. He participated in the battles of the New York Highlands, where on 7 October, Fort Constitution (opposite West Point) was captured. However, this was too late to link up with General Burgoyne at Albany.

Rawdon was sent to Philadelphia with dispatches and returned to New York for the winter, where he raised a regiment, called the Volunteers of Ireland, recruited from deserters and Irish Loyalists. Promoted colonel in command of this regiment, Rawdon went with Clinton to Philadelphia. starting out on 18 June 1778, he went with Clinton during the withdrawal from Philadelphia to New York, and saw action at the Battle of Monmouth. He was appointed adjutant general. Rawdon was sent to learn news of the Battle of Rhode Island.

At New York, on 3 September 1779, he quarreled with Clinton, and resigned his position as adjutant general. He served with the Volunteers of Ireland during the raid on Staten Island by Lord Stirling on 15 January 1780.

He went south to the Siege of Charleston with reinforcements. After the city fell to the British, Lord Cornwallis posted him at Camden (16 August 1780) as the British sought to occupy South Carolina. Rawdon commanded the British left wing at the Battle of Camden. When Cornwallis went into Virginia, he left Rawdon in effective command in the South.

Perhaps his most noted achievement was the victory in 1781 at the Battle of Hobkirk’s Hill, in which, in command of only a small force, he defeated by superior military skill and determination, a much larger body of Americans. Thinking (in error) that General Nathanael Greene had moved his artillery away, Rawdon attacked Greene’s left wing, forcing the Americans to retire.

However, Rawdon was forced to begin a gradual retreat to Charleston. He relieved the Siege of Ninety-Six, evacuating its small garrison and conducting a limited pursuit of American troops. He withdrew his forces to Charleston. In July 1781, in poor health, he gave up his command. On his return to Great Britain, he was captured at sea by François Joseph Paul de Grasse, but was exchanged. After Rawdon’s departure, the British evacuated Charleston as the war drew to a close. They took thousands of Loyalists and freed slaves with them, having promised freedom to slaves of rebels who joined their lines, resettling these groups in Nova Scotia and the Caribbean.

Rawdon became active in associations in London. He was F.R.S. (Fellow of the Royal Society ?) 1787 and F.S.A. (Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries ?) 1793. For 1806-8 he was Grand Master of the Free Masons.

Following the declaration of war in 1793 of France upon Great Britain, Rawdon-Hastings (as he was now known) was appointed major general, on 12 October 1793. Sent by the Pitt ministry, Rawdon-Hastings launched an expedition into Ostend, France, in 1794. He marched to join with the army of the Duke of York, at Alost. The French general Pichegru, with superior numbers, forced the British back toward their base at Antwerp. Rawdon-Hastings left the expedition, feeling Pitt had broken promises.

Rawdon sat for Randalstown in the Irish House of Commons from 1781 until 1783. That year he was created Baron Rawdon, of Rawdon, in the County of York. In 1787, he became friends with the Prince of Wales, and loaned him many thousands of pounds. In 1788 he became embroiled in the Regency Crisis.
In 1789, he took the surname Hastings in accordance with his uncle’s will. He succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Moira on 20 June 1793, and thereafter served in the House of Lords for three decades.

In 1797 it was rumoured briefly that Rawdon (Moira) would replace Pitt as Prime Minister. There was some discontent with Pitt over his policies regarding the war with France. Additionally Pitt’s long tenure in office had given him ample opportunity to annoy various political grandees, including but not limited to Lords Leeds, Edward Thurlow and Lansdowne.

In mid-May a combination of these various figures, coupled with a handful of Members of Parliament, proposed to make Rawdon (Moira) the Prime Minister. Having fought in the American War and having led an expedition to Quiberon, he commanded widespread respect. His relationship to the Prince of Wales also established him as a potential rival to Pitt, who was supported strongly by King George III.

The prime motivation for the plan of having Rawdon (Moira) become Prime Minister was to secure peace with France, the plotters having come to believe (somewhat unfairly) that Pitt was an obstacle to this objective. But their plan collapsed barely a month later in mid-June because of a lack of support from the political establishment. Additionally when Rawdon (Moira) wrote to the King to propose the change of chief ministers, the monarch ignored him. Thus the proposal came to nothing.

He became Commander-in-Chief, Scotland with the rank of full general in September 1803.

Rawdon was a long-standing advocate of Irish issues, in particular Catholic Emancipation. At one point he was described by the Irish revolutionary Wolfe Tone as “The Irish Lafayette”.

Becoming a Whig in politics, he entered government as part of the Ministry of All the Talents in 1806 as Master-General of the Ordnance and Constable of the Tower, but resigned upon the fall of the ministry the next year. Being a close associate of the Prince-Regent, Moira was asked by him to form a Whig government after the assassination of Spencer Perceval in 1812 ended that ministry. Both of Moira’s attempts to create a governing coalition failed. The Tories returned to power under the Earl of Liverpool. On 6 December 1816, Moira was raised to the rank of Marquess of Hastings together with the subsidiary titles Viscount Loudoun and Earl of Rawdon.

He also became the patron of Thomas Moore, the Irish poet. Moore visited his patron’s new seat, Donington Hall, and wrote about his impressions of it. “I thought it all exceedingly fine and grand, but most uncomfortable.” Moore was later disappointed when Moira, having been appointed Governor General of India, did not offer to take him to India on his staff. The two men met but once again.

Through the influence of the Prince-Regent, Moira was appointed Governor-General of India in 11 November 1812. His tenure as Governor-General was a memorable one, overseeing the victory in the Gurkha War (1814–1816); the final conquest of the Marathas in 1818; and the purchase of the island of Singapore in 1819.

After delays clearing affairs, he reached Madras on 11 September 1813. In October, he settled in at Calcutta. British India then consisted of Madras, Bengal, and Bombay. He commanded an army of 15,000 British regulars, a Bengal army of 27 regiments of native infantry, and eight regiments of cavalry; a Madras army, led by General John Abercrombie of 24 regiments of native infantry, and eight regiments of native cavalry.

In May 1813, the Gurkhas declared war. Hastings sent four divisions in separate attacks led by General Bennet Marley with 8,000 men against Kathmandu, General John Sullivan Wood with 4,000 men against Butwal, General Sir David Ochterlony with 10,000 men against Amar Singh Thapa, and General Robert Rollo Gillespie, with 3,500 men against Nahan, Srinagar, and Garhwal. Only Ochterlony had some success; Gillespie was killed. After inconclusive negotiations, Hastings reinforced Ochterlony to 20,000 men, who then won the battle of Makwanpur on 28 February. The Gurkhas then sued for peace, under the Sugauli Treaty.

After raids by Pindaris in January 1817, Hastings led a force at Hindustan in the North; in the South, the Army of the Deccan, under the command of General Sir Thomas Hislop. The Peshwa was defeated by William Fullarton Elphinstone on the Poona. Appa Sahib was defeated at the battle of Nagpur. Hislop defeated Holkar at the Battle of Mahidpur.

Rawdon was active diplomatically, protecting weaker Indian states. His domestic policy in India was also largely successful, seeing the repair of the Mughul canal system in Delhi in 1820, as well as educational and administrative reforms. He confirmed the purchase of Singapore from the Sultan of Jahore, by Sir Stamford Raffles, in January 1819.

He became increasingly estranged from the East India Company’s Board of Control (see Company rule in India). He was appointed Governor of Malta in 1824. He died at sea off Naples two years later, aboard HMS Revenge. Following his directions, his right hand was cut off and preserved, to be buried with his wife when she died. This request was observed, and his hand was interred, clasped with hers in the family vault at Loudoun Kirk.

Inheriting Donington Hall from his uncle, Rawdon rebuilt it in Gothic style; Wilkins was the architect. He placed the estate at the disposal of the Bourbon Princes upon their exile in England following the French Revolution. He is said to have left a signed cheque-book in each bedroom for the occupant to use at pleasure.
He was awarded the freedom of the city of Dublin in recognition of his service in America.

Loyalists whom he rescued from the Siege of Ninety Six during the American Revolution were resettled by the Crown and granted land in Nova Scotia. They named their township Rawdon in his honor.

Hastings County, Ontario, and three of its early townships were named after him, by Loyalists who were resettled in Upper Canada after the American Revolution.

The HMS Moira was named in his honour in 1805, as was the Moira River in Ontario, Canada.

On 12 July 1804, at the age of 50, he married Flora Campbell, 6th Countess of Loudoun, daughter of Major-General James Mure-Campbell, 5th Earl of Loudoun and Lady Flora Macleod. They had six children:

  • Flora Elizabeth Rawdon-Hastings (11 February 1806 – 5 July 1839), died unmarried.
  • Hon. Francis George Augustus (1807–1807), died in infancy.
  • George Augustus Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Marquess of Hastings (4 February 1808 – 13 January 1844)
  • Sophia Frederica Christina Rawdon-Hastings (1 February 1809 – 28 December 1859), married John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute and had children.
  • Selina Constance Rawdon-Hastings (1810 – 8 November 1867), married Charles Henry and had children.
  • Adelaide Augusta Lavinia Rawdon-Hastings (25 February 1812 – 6 December 1860), married Sir William Murray, 7th Baronet of Octertyre.

The marquess also allegedly fathered an illegitimate son by Jemima French, whom she named George Hunn Nobbs. Some sources do not believe this claim by Nobbs.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
31 January 1785 – 12 January 1851

PastedGraphic1-2015-07-17-06-00.png

Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton

Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne was the eldest son of Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, and his wife Lady Anna Maria (née Stanhope), and was educated at Eton College. His father died when he was ten years old. In 1803, encouraged by the Peace of Amiens which provided a break in hostilities with France, his mother and stepfather took him on a European Tour. Unfortunately, war broke out once again, and the young duke was detained at Tours in 1803, where he remained until 1806.

On his return to England in 1807, he entered on life with many personal advantages, and with a considerable fortune. He married at Lambeth, 18 July 1807, a great heiress, Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Miller Mundy of Shipley, Derbyshire. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1809 to 1839 and was also Steward of Sherwood Forest and of Folewood Park. In 1812 he was made a Knight of the Garter.

On 22 March 1821, Newcastle published a pamphlet in the form of a letter to Lord Liverpool, protesting against a Bill for Catholic Emancipation. Newcastle argued that if his government supported Emancipation they would be doing the country an injustice for two main reasons. Firstly, the attention of the nation was preoccupied with domestic problems and little interested in the question, so to pass Emancipation now would be a betrayal. Secondly, the government could not be neutral on this question because if the Bill passed Parliament, the King would have to refuse Royal Assent as it would be in breach of his promise, made in the Coronation Oath, to uphold the Protestant constitution. If the King were to do this without the advice of his ministers then it would be unconstitutional since the King could only act on the advice of his ministers. Thereby the government should adopt a position on the question, and this position should of necessity be opposed to Emancipation.

He did not hold any national office but he was extremely active in politics. From about 1826 he became one of the leaders of the so-called “Ultra-Tory” faction, staunchly supporting the traditional establishment of Church, Country and State. He rejected the label of Tory, however.

On 13 March 1827, Newcastle told Lord Colchester that he wanted to form a group to support the King in forming a government opposed to Emancipation with the aid of Lords Mansfield, Salisbury and Falmouth, and that he could win the support of about 60 peers. On 24 March Newcastle had an audience with the King, George IV, on the question of Emancipation. However early in the conversation the King interrupted Newcastle, “it was only occasionally that I could edge in my remarks & opinions”. Newcastle said himself and other peers wishes for an administration “formed on anti Rom. Cath. principles & that if it would be H.M.’s pleasure to form such an administration it would be certain of support & success”. The King, however, said a Prime Minister could not be appointed until it was certain that Lord Liverpool would not recover from his stroke.

Nerwcastle responded by saying this delay could only help the pro-Emancipation politicians and that himself and other peers would help the King in his choice if he would choose Protestants, “not doubtful Protestants but such as are staunch and unequivocal in their opinions”. The King replied: “That you may safely rely upon”. When Newcastle was going to suggest Lord Eldon as Prime Minister, the King stopped him by saying Eldon was persona non grata and suggested Wellington instead. Newcastle was opposed to this choice and wanted the King to make a stronger declaration in favour of a government opposed to Emancipation. The King was annoyed at this and asked, “What more can I do?” Newcastle said nothing could be better than his declaration and that if he had the permission to make the King’s declaration publicly known. The King would not allow this, however.

Newcastle wrote to Lord Colchester on 15 January 1828, that he wanted “a sound, plain-dealing Protestant administration, devoid of all quackery and mysterious nonsense”. The Duke of Wellington sought Newcastle’s support for his new government, and when he learnt that it did not possess Newcastle’s confidence (and not receiving a reply to his first letter) he wrote again to him on 31 January, saying: “Nothing can be more unpleasant to me than that the friendly Relations between your Grace and the Govt. should be suspended”. Newcastle finally replied on 4 February, saying his government did not possess his confidence.

On 18 September 1828, Newcastle condemned the government for “neutrality, conciliation, and modern liberality”. Wellington “may be the victim of a monstrous error” but he had supported relieving the Dissenters and his first parliamentary session was “by far the most disastrous of any in the memory of man”. Newcastle advised that those opposed to Emancipation “must unite in Protestant associations from one end of the country to the other, and as Parliament is not sitting, they should address their Protestant King”. Failure to do this might provoke punishment from God.

Newcastle led a crowd to Windsor to petition the King against Emancipation. One contemporary Canningite called it “radical all over”.

When in October 1829, Newcastle was criticised for evicting tenants who had voted against his candidates, he famously wrote: “Is it presumed then that I am not to do what I will with my own?”. He repeated this in the Lords on 3 December 1830. In response to further evictions, The Times rebuked Newcastle for acting like the recently deposed Charles X of France in abusing his power and claimed that his actions were the best argument in favour of reform.

He was a vehement opponent of electoral reform. This stance led to attacks on his property during the Reform Bill Riots of 1831. Nottingham Castle was burnt to the ground and his residences at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire and Portman Square, London also had to be fortified against the mob.

In 1839, Newcastle objected to the appointment to the magistracy of two gentlemen nominated by the government, but of whose political and religious principles he disapproved (being Dissenters). He wrote a very offensive letter to Lord Chancellor Cottenham, and on his refusing to withdraw it he received a letter on 4 May from Russell informing him, that the Queen had no further occasion for his services as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire.

Charles Greville wrote in his diary on 2 May:
I met the Duke of Wellington at the Ancient Concert, and asked him the reason, which he told me in these words: “Oh, there never was such a fool, as he is; the Government have done quite right, quite right, they could not do otherwise”.

He died at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, 12 January 1851, and was buried in All Saints’ Church, West Markham on 21 January.

Pelham-Clinton married Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Edward Miller Mundy, in 1807. They had eight sons and six daughters:

  • Lady Anna Maria Pelham-Clinton (1808–1822)
  • Lady Georgiana Pelham-Clinton (1810–1874)
  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1811–1864)
  • Lady Charlotte Pelham-Clinton (1812–1886)
  • Lord Charles Pelham Pelham-Clinton (1813–1894), married Elizabeth Grant in 1848 and had issue
  • Lord Thomas Charles Pelham-Clinton (1813–1882), married Marianne Gritton in 1843, separated in 1865
  • Lord William Pelham-Clinton (1815–1850), died unmarried
  • Lt. Lord Edward Pelham-Clinton (1816–1842), died of illness aboard HMS Harlequin during the First Opium War
  • Lord John Pelham-Clinton (1817)
  • Lady Caroline Augusta Pelham-Clinton (1818–1898), married Sir Cornwallis Ricketts, 2nd Baronet in 1852 and had issue
  • Lady Henrietta Pelham-Clinton (1819–1890), married Admiral Edwin Clayton D’Eyncourt in 1859 and had issue
  • Lord Robert Renebald Pelham-Clinton (1820–1867), died unmarried
  • a stillborn daughter (1822), twin to
  • Lord George Pelham Clinton (1822), died 13 days after birth

The Duchess of Newcastle-under-Lyne died in 1822 in childbirth. Pelham-Clinton never remarried and died in January 1851, aged 65. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry, who was a prominent politician.

The papers of the 4th Duke, including his very detailed personal diaries for the period 1822–1851, are now held by Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham.

  • Letter of the Duke of Newcastle to Lord Kenyon on the Catholic Emancipation Question (1828).
  • An Address to all classes and conditions of Englishmen (1832).
  • Thoughts in times past tested by subsequent events (1837).

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Sir John Beckett 2nd Baronet
17 May 1775 – 31 May 1847

Sir John Beckett 2nd Baronet was a British lawyer and Tory politician.

Beckett was the son of Sir John Beckett, 1st Baronet (1743–1826), and his wife Mary, daughter of Christopher Wilson. He was also a descendant of Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London.

He was elected to Parliament for Cockermouth in 1818, a seat he held until 1821, and then sat for Haslemere from 1826 to 1832 and for Leeds from 1835 to 1837.

Beckett was admitted to the Privy Council in 1817 and appointed Judge Advocate General by Prime Minister Lord Liverpool the same year. He held this office until 1827, and again under the Duke of Wellington from 1828 to 1830 and under Sir Robert Peel from 1834 to 1835.

Beckett married Lady Anne Lowther, daughter of William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, in 1817.
He died in Brighton on 31 May 1847, aged 72, and is buried at All Saints Church, Fulham, London.

He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his younger brother, Thomas Beckett.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Charles Jenkinson 1st Earl of Liverpool
26 April 1729 – 17 December 1808

PastedGraphic3-2015-05-23-06-00.png

Charles Jenkinson

Charles Jenkinson 1st Earl of Liverpool was born in Oxfordshire, the eldest son of Colonel Charles Jenkinson (d. 1750) and Amarantha (née Cornewall). The earl was the grandson of Sir Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Baronet, of Walcot, Oxfordshire. The Jenkinson family was descended from Anthony Jenkinson (d. 1611), who was a sea-captain, merchant, and traveller and the first known Englishman to penetrate into Central Asia. He was educated at Charterhouse School and University College, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1752.

In 1761, Liverpool entered parliament as member for Cockermouth and was made Under-Secretary of State by Lord Bute. He won the favour of George III, and when Bute retired Jenkinson became the leader of the “King’s Friends” in the House of Commons. In 1763, George Grenville appointed him joint Secretary to the Treasury.

In 1766,after a short retirement, he became a Lord of the Admiralty and then a Lord of the Treasury in the Grafton administration. In 1772, Jenkinson became a Privy Councillor and Vice Treasurer of Ireland, and in 1775 he purchased the lucrative sinecure of clerk of the pells in Ireland and became Master of the Mint.

From 1778 until the close of Lord North’s ministry in 1782 he was Secretary at War. From 1786 to 1803, he was President of the Board of Trade and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and he was popularly regarded as enjoying the confidence of the king to a special degree.

In 1786 he was created Baron Hawkesbury, of Hawkesbury in the County of Gloucester, and ten years later, Earl of Liverpool. He also succeeded as 7th Baronet of Walcot in 1790. He lived in Addiscombe, Surrey and Hawkesbury, Gloucestershire. He died in London on 17 December 1808.

Liverpool was twice married. He married firstly Amelia, daughter of William Watts, governor of Fort William, Bengal, in 1769. She died in July 1770, only a month after the birth of her only child, Robert.

Liverpool married secondly Catherine, daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, 6th Baronet, and widow of Sir Charles Cope, 2nd Baronet, on 22 June 1782 at her house in Hertford Street, London. They had one son, Charles, and one daughter.

Upon Lord Liverpool’s death, he was succeeded by his only son from his first marriage, Robert, who became a prominent politician and eventually Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The Countess of Liverpool died in October 1827, aged 82.

Liverpool wrote several political works but except for his Treatise on the Coins of the Realm (1805).

The Hawkesbury River in New South Wales, Australia and Hawkesbury, Ontario, Canada were named after Jenkinson shortly after he was created Baron Hawkesbury.

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »