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Archive for June, 2012

Regency Research

For well over twenty years since I first started my infatuation with the Regency Era, I have maintained a lexicon to help me decipher Georgette Heyer (follow the link to Frederica, my favorite of her books), and others. Then as I began to write in the genre in the years 2000, I put more emphasis on it.

I have seen a few others on the web, but I have not seen any as complete as the one maintained at Regency Assembly Press that I have contributed to.

With the emphasis that has been placed recently on Research RegencyResearch-2012-06-30-12-08.jpg there, with not only the Lexicon, but the Timelines, lives of the Prime Ministers, Dance Instruction and Regency Era Money, it is a growing resource for all Regency readers and writers. I urge everyone to have a look as it continues to grow.

I also provide here the next few letters of the alphabet to entice you to visit that page. Or even bookmark it for when you need to look up a particular Regency term. In the last few weeks since I first posted this, I found and am incorporating a new resource to the list. It is greatly expanded the main list and now I present again the letter A.

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  • A Crush–A very successful party where there is no room to circulate.
  • A Fudge–False rumor.
  • A Trifle Disguised–Slightly drunk.
  • Abbess, or Lady Abbess–A bawd, the mistress of a brothel.
  • Abel-Wackets–Blows given on the palm of the hand with a twisted handkerchief, instead of a ferula; a jocular punishment among seamen, who sometimes play at cards for wackets, the loser suffering as many strokes as he has lost games.
  • Abigail–A lady’s maid.
  • Abram–Naked. (Cant)
  • Abram Cove–A cant word among thieves, signifying a naked or poor man; also a lusty, strong rogue.
  • Abram Men–Pretended mad men.
  • To Sham Abram–To pretend sickness.
  • Academy, or Pushing School–A brothel. The Floating Academy; the lighters on board of which those persons are confined, who by a late regulation are condemned to hard labour, instead of transportation.—Campbell’s Academy; the same, from a gentleman of that name, who had the contract for victualling the hulks or lighters.
  • Ace of Spades–A widow.
  • Accoucheur-Man-midwife. Trained or acting as a doctor that specializes in pregnancy and the birth of children. Sir Richard Croft or Sir William Knighton as an example.
  • Accounts–To cast up one’s accounts; to vomit.
  • Acorn–You will ride a horse foaled by an acorn, i.e. The gallows, called also the Wooden and Three-legged Mare. You will be hanged.—See Three Legged Mare.
  • Act of Parliament–A military term for small beer, five pints of which, by an act of parliament, a landlord was formerly obliged to give to each soldier gratis.
  • Acteon–A cuckold, from the horns planted on the head of Acteon by Diana.
  • Active Citizen–A louse.
  • Adam’s Ale–Water.
  • Adam Tiller–A pickpocket’s associate, who receives the stolen goods, and runs off with them. (Cant)
  • Addle Pate–An inconsiderate foolish fellow.
  • Addle Plot–A spoil-sport, a mar-all.
  • Admiral of the Blue–who carries his flag on the main-mast. A landlord or publican wearing a blue apron, as was formerly the custom among gentlemen of that vocation.
  • Admiral of the Narrow Seas–One who from drunkenness vomits into the lap of the person sitting opposite to him. (Sea Phrase)
  • Adrift–Loose, turned adrift, discharged. (Sea Phrase)
  • Aedrotat, (CAMBRIDGE)–A certificate from the apothecary that you are INDISPOSED, (i. e.) to go to chapel. He sports an Aegrotat, he is sick, and unable to attend Chapel. or Hall. It does not follow, however, but that he can STRUM A PIECE, or sport a pair of oars.
  • Affair Of Honor–A duel.
  • Affidavit Men–Knights of the post, or false witnesses, said to attend Westminster Hall, and other courts of justice, ready to swear any thing for hire.
  • After-clap–A demand after the first given in has been discharged; a charge for pretended omissions; in short, any thing disagreeable happening after all consequences of the cause have been thought at an end.
  • Against the Grain–Unwilling. It went much against the grain with him, i.e. it was much against his inclination, or against his pluck.
  • Agog, All-a-gog–Anxious, eager, impatient: from the Italian AGOGARE, to desire eagerly.
  • Aground–Stuck fast, stopped, at a loss, ruined; like a boat or vessel aground.
  • Air and Exercise–He has had air and exercise, i.e. He has been whipped at the cart’s tail; or, as it is generally, though more vulgarly, expressed, at the cart’s a-se.
  • Alderman–A roasted turkey garnished with sausages; the latter are supposed to represent the gold chain worn by those magistrates.
  • Aldgate–A draught on the pump at Aldgate; a bad bill of exchange, drawn on persons who have no effects of the drawer.
  • Ale Draper–An alehouse keeper.
  • Ale Post–A may-pole.
  • All-A-Mort–Struck dumb, confounded. What, sweet one, all-a-mort? SHAKESPEARE.
  • All Holliday–It is all holiday at Peckham, or it is all holiday with him; a saying signifying that it is all over with the business or person spoken of or alluded to.
  • All Hollow–He was beat all hollow, i.e. he had no chance of conquering: it was all hollow, or a hollow thing, it was a decided thing from the beginning. See HOLLOW.
  • All Nations–A composition of all the different spirits sold in a dram-shop, collected in a vessel into which the drainings of the bottles and quartern pots are emptied.
  • Alls–The five alls is a country sign, representing five human figures, each having a motto under him. The first is a king in his regalia; his motto, I govern all: the second, a bishop in pontificals; motto, I pray for all: third, a lawyer in his gown; motto, I plead for all: fourth: a soldier in his regimentals, fully accoutred; motto, I fight for all: fifth, a poor countryman with his scythe and rake; motto, I pay for all.
  • All The Crack–Very fashionable
  • Almack’s–Assembly rooms on King Street in London. Private, very exclusive subscription balls were held there each Wednesday night of the Season. Its important patronesses (in 1814 they were Lady Castlereigh, Lady Jersey, Lady Cowper, Lady Sefton, Mrs. Drummond-Burrell, Princess Esterhazy, and Countess Lieven) determined who was allowed to purchase subscription vouchers.
  • Altamel–A verbal or lump account, without particulars, such as is commonly produced at bawdy-houses, spunging-houses, &c. Vide DUTCH RECKONING.
  • Altitudes–The man is in his altitudes, i.e. he is drunk.
  • Ambassador–A trick to duck some ignorant fellow or landsman, frequently played on board ships in the warm latitudes. It is thus managed: A large tub is filled with water, and two stools placed on each side of it. Over the whole is thrown a tarpaulin, or old sail: this is kept tight by two persons, who are to represent the king and queen of a foreign country, and are seated on the stools. The person intended to be ducked plays the Ambassador, and after repeating a ridiculous speech dictated to him, is led in great form up to the throne, and seated between the king and queen, who rising suddenly as soon as he is seated, he falls backwards into the tub of water.
  • Ambassador Of Morocco–A Shoemaker. (See Mrs. Clarke’s Examination.)
  • Ambidexter–A lawyer who takes fees from both plaintiff and defendant, or that goes snacks with both parties in gaming.
  • Amen Curler.–A parish clerk.
  • Amen–He said Yes and Amen to every thing; he agreed to every thing.
  • Aminadab–A jeering name for a Quaker.
  • Ames Ace–Within ames ace; nearly, very near.
  • To Amuse–To fling dust or snuff in the eyes of the person intended to be robbed; also to invent some plausible tale, to delude shop-keepers and others, thereby to put them off their guard. (Cant)
  • Amusers–Rogues who carried snuff or dust in their pockets, which they threw into the eyes of any person they intended to rob; and running away, their accomplices (pretending to assist and pity the half-blinded person) took that opportunity of plundering him.
  • Anabaptist–A pickpocket caught in the fact, and punished with the discipline of the pump or horse-pond.
  • Anchor–Bring your a-se to an anchor, i.e. sit down. To let go an anchor to the windward of the law; to keep within the letter of the law. SEA WIT.
  • Anglers–Pilferers, or petty thieves, who, with a stick having a hook at the end, steal goods out of shop-windows, grates, &c.; also those who draw in or entice unwary persons to prick at the belt, or such like devices.
  • Angling for Farthings–Begging out of a prison window with a cap, or box, let down at the end of a long string.
  • Ankle–A girl who is got with child, is said to have sprained her ankle.
  • Anodyne Necklace–A halter.
  • Anthony or Tanthony Pig–The favourite or smallest pig in the litter.—To follow like a tantony pig, i.e. St. Anthony’s pig; to follow close at one’s heels. St. Anthony the hermit was a swineherd, and is always represented with a swine’s bell and a pig. Some derive this saying from a privilege enjoyed by the friars of certain convents in England and France (sons of St. Anthony), whose swine were permitted to feed in the streets. These swine would follow any one having greens or other provisions, till they obtained some of them; and it was in those days considered an act of charity and religion to feed them.
  • To Knock Anthony–Said of an in-kneed person, or one whose knees knock together; to cuff Jonas. See JONAS.
  • Ape-Drunk–Very drunk.
  • Ape-Leader–An old maid or spinster. Their punishment after death for failing to procreate, it was said, would be to lead apes in hell.
  • Apoplexy–A stroke.
  • Apostles–To manoeuvre the apostles, i.e. rob Peter to pay Paul; that is, to borrow money of one man to pay another.
  • Apostles (CAMBRIDGE)–Men who are plucked, refused their degree.
  • Apothecary–To talk like an apothecary; to use hard or gallipot words: from the assumed gravity and affectation of knowledge generally put on by the gentlemen of this profession, who are commonly as superficial in their learning as they are pedantic in their language.
  • Apothecary’s Bill–A long bill.
  • Apothecary’s, or Law Latin–Barbarous Latin, vulgarly called Dog Latin, in Ireland Bog Latin.
  • Apple Cart–Down with his apple-cart; knock or throw him down.
  • Apple Dumplin Shop–A woman’s bosom.
  • Apple-Pye Bed–A bed made apple-pye fashion, like what is called a turnover apple-pye, where the sheets are so doubled as to prevent any one from getting at his length between them: a common trick played by frolicsome country lasses on their sweethearts, male relations, or visitors.
  • April Fool–Any one imposed on, or sent on a bootless errand, on the first of April; which day it is the custom among the lower people, children, and servants, by dropping empty papers carefully doubled up, sending persons on absurd messages, and such like contrivances, to impose on every one they can, and then to salute them with the title of April Fool. This is also practised in Scotland under the title of Hunting the Gowke.
  • Apron String Hold–An estate held by a man during his wife’s life.
  • Aqua Pumpaginis–Pump water. APOTHECARIES LATIN.
  • Arbor Vitae–A man’s penis.
  • Arch Duke–A comical or eccentric fellow.
  • Arch Rogue, Dimber Damber Upright Man–The chief of a gang of thieves or gypsies.
  • Arch Dell, or Arch Doxy–signifies the same in rank among the female canters or gypsies.
  • Ard–Hot. (Cant)
  • Armour–In his armour, pot valiant: to fight in armour; to make use of Mrs. Philips’s ware. See C—D—M.
  • Ark–A boat or wherry. Let us take an ark and winns, let us take a sculler. (Cant)
  • Ark Ruffians–Rogues who, in conjunction with watermen, robbed, and sometimes murdered, on the water, by picking a quarrel with the passengers in a boat, boarding it, plundering, stripping, and throwing them overboard, &c. A species of badger. (Cant)
  • Arrah Now–An unmeaning expletive, frequently used by the vulgar Irish.
  • Ars Musica–A bum fiddlle.
  • Arse–To hang an arse; to hang back, to be afraid to advance. He would lend his a-e and sh-te through his ribs; a saying of any one who lends his money inconsiderately. He would lose his a-e if it was loose; said of a careless person. A-e about; turn round.
  • Arsy Yarsey–To fall arsy varsey, i.e. head over heels.
  • Arthur, King Arthur–A game used at sea, when near the line, or in a hot latitude. It is performed thus: A man who is to represent king Arthur, ridiculously dressed, having a large wig made out of oakum, or some old swabs, is seated on the side, or over a large vessel of water. Every person in his turn is to be ceremoniously introduced to him, and to pour a bucket of water over him, crying, hail, king Arthur! if during this ceremony the person introduced laughs or smiles (to which his majesty endeavours to excite him, by all sorts of ridiculous gesticulations), he changes place with, and then becomes, king Arthur, till relieved by some brother tar, who has as little command over his muscles as himself.
  • Articles–Breeches; coat, waistcoat, and articles.
  • Article–A wench. A prime article. A handsome girl. She’s a prime article (WHIP SLANG), she’s a devilish good piece, a hell of a GOER.
  • Ask, or Ax My A-E–A common reply to any question; still deemed wit at sea, and formerly at court, under the denomination of selling bargains. See BARGAIN.
  • Assembly Rooms–Halls where dances, concerts and other social events were held. Most towns had assembly rooms. The most famous is Almack’s in London.
  • Assig–An assignation.
  • Astley’s Royal Amphitheatre–A circus in London featuring horseback riding, acrobats, clowns and the like.
  • At home to a peg–Driving term, manage unfamiliar horses. Drive a team of four or even six horses.
  • Athansian Wench, or Quicunque Vult–A forward girl, ready to oblige every man that shall ask her.
  • Aunt–Mine aunt; a bawd or procuress: a title of eminence for the senior dells, who serve for instructresses, midwives, &c. for the dells. (Cant) See DELLS.
  • Avoir Du Pois Lay–Stealing brass weights off the counters of shops. (Cant)
  • Autem–A church.
  • Autem Bawler–A parson. (Cant)
  • Autem Cacklers, Autem Prickears–Dissenters of every denomination. (Cant)
  • Autem Cackletub–A conventicle or meeting-house for dissenters. (Cant)
  • Autem Dippers–Anabaptists. (Cant)
  • Autem Divers–Pickpockets who practice in churches; also churchwardens and overseers of the poor. (Cant)
  • Autem Goglers–Pretended French prophets. (Cant)
  • Autem Mort–A married woman; also a female beggar with several children hired or borrowed to excite charity. (Cant)
  • Autem Quavers–Quakers.
  • Autem Quaver Tub–A Quakers’ meeting-house. (Cant)
  • Awake–Acquainted with, knowing the business. Stow the books, the culls are awake; hide the cards, the fellows know what we intended to do.

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The Regency Timeline

My previous posts I’ve explained that I was working on the Regency timeline. I posted my entries for 1788 thru 1798. Now I have the entrees for 1799 and have uploaded all these years to the Regency Assembly Press website. You can see a little preview of this below in the picture.

My sources which include the Internet and The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-06-30-08-47.jpg as well as the Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield should cover a lot of events. There are now over 5000 listed for the period between 1788 and 1837 when Victoria comes to the Throne. I have also just found a third book I own with timelines in it, very USA centric though. 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-06-30-08-47.jpg What Happened When by Carruth. I also have added a Dorling Kindersley book PastedGraphic-2012-06-30-08-47.jpg, History of the World.

I may post a year at time every so often in between scanning through all these to find something that will be a good article for this blog and the blog at English Historical Fiction Authors. I will also have the full listing up shortly at Regency Assembly Press.

Those who have feedback, it is appreciated or if someone would like a specific year in a future post. The very first entry is to show who was Prime Minister of Great Britain, later it was the United Kingdom, during the period of the chronology. In choosing our dates, 1788 is the first sign of madness in George the III, it is the beginning of the end of the French Monarchy with the riots in Paris, it is the time when the mama’s of the girls during the true Regency would be girls going to London for their own season, and when our heroes are young lads or babes as well.

We need to know of the events that occurred when they were children, as well as what happens when they are on stage in our stories.

Click on the link below or the picture to go to the entry. More years coming. The list is now over 5000 event entries long and growing.

Regency Assembly Press 1799 Tineline

TheRegencyEraTimeline-1-2012-06-30-08-47.jpg

Years Completed:

1788 1789

1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799

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Regency Research

For well over twenty years since I first started my infatuation with the Regency Era, I have maintained a lexicon to help me decipher Georgette Heyer (follow the link to Frederica, my favorite of her books), and others. Then as I began to write in the genre in the years 2000, I put more emphasis on it.

I have seen a few others on the web, but I have not seen any as complete as the one maintained at Regency Assembly Press that I have contributed to.

With the emphasis that has been placed recently on Research RegencyResearch-2012-06-28-10-26.jpg there, with not only the Lexicon, but the Timelines, lives of the Prime Ministers, Dance Instruction and Regency Era Money, it is a growing resource for all Regency readers and writers. I urge everyone to have a look as it continues to grow.

I also provide here the next few letters of the alphabet to entice you to visit that page. Or even bookmark it for when you need to look up a particular Regency term.

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  • Damned Hum–False rumor, lie, trick etc.
  • Damned Low Water With Me–Have no money, be in debt.
  • Dandy–A gentleman who is fastidious about his appearance, especially his clothing. He is not, as is often believed, a flashy or even flamboyant dresser, as was his 18th century predecessor, the Macaroni. George “Beau” Brummell epitomized the Dandy. He was concerned with perfect tailoring and fabrics, cleanliness, and simplicity of dress. He believed that good fashion should be understated and elegant, not eye-catching.
  • Dangling After–Hanging about, enamored of.
  • Darken One’s Daylights–To give a black eye.
  • Demi-Monde–Literally “half world”; a class outside of proper Society. Generally used to refer to those of questionable reputation.
  • Demimonde, Demimondaine–A demimondaine is woman of who gives sexual favors in exchange for payment; a mistress or courtesan. The demimonde refers to this class of women. From the French literally meaning half world, or underworld.
  • Derby–The major horse race in England, held at Epsom Downs in late May or early June. Pronounced “Darby.”
  • Dernier Cri–The latest thing; the newest fashion. From the French meaning “the last word.”
  • Despatches–Report usually from a senior commander, usually of an army, to his superiors, detailing the conduct of military operations.
  • Diamond Of The First Water–A very beautiful young woman. The phrase comes from a technical term used to describe diamonds. The degree of brilliance in a diamond is called its “water”, so a “diamond of the first water” is an exceptionally fine diamond.
  • Dibs Not In Tune–To be in poor financial state.
  • Dicked In The Nob–Crazy.
  • Dipping Rather Deep–Drinking quite heavily.
  • Disguised–Inebriated, drunk.
  • Dispatchers–Loaded dice with two sets of 4, 5 and 6 on them. Able to dispatch a man’s money easily.
  • Displays To Advantage–Fights well – (boxing cant.)
  • Doing It Much Too Brown–Overdoing it so that it is not credible.
  • Domino–A short hooded cloak usually worn with a mask at masquerades. It was worn over evening attire by both men and women.
  • Done To A Cow’s Thumb–Fatigued to the point of illness/fainting.
  • Double Sovereign–2 pounds, (approx $4000).
  • Dowager–The widow of a peer, eg the Dowager Countess of Somewhere. The term was not added to a woman’s title unless and until the new holder of the title married. For example, if the new Earl of Somewhere, the son of the late earl, is a young man when he inherits the title and has no wife, his mother continues to be styled Countess of Somewhere. When he married, his wife takes that title and his mother become the Dowager Countess. The term is also used informally, and disparagingly, to refer to an older woman of the upper classes.
  • Dower House–A relatively small house on an estate to which the dowager would retire when the new heir took up residence.
  • Downhills–Loaded dice that roll low numbers.
  • Draw Someone’s Cork–Punch in the nose and cause to bleed.
  • Drawing The Bustle Too Freely–Spending too much money.
  • Driving terms:–At home to a peg, Driving to the inch, Featheredge a corner, First-rate fiddler, Go-by, Pickaxe, Randem-tandem, Springing, Unicorn.
  • Driving to the inch–Driving term, the best type of driving.
  • Drunk As A Wheelbarrow –Very drunk.
  • Dudgeon–Bad mood.
  • Duenna–Chaperone. From the Spanish.
  • Dun Territory–In debt. The tradition is that it refers to Joe Dun, a famous bailiff of Lincoln in the reign of Henry VII, who was famous for his skill at collecting debts. Also possibly from the Anglo-Saxon “dunan” meaning din or clamor.
  • Eaten Hull Cheese–Drunk.
  • Elbow-Crooker–Drinker.
  • Entail–An inheritance of real property which cannot be sold by the owner but which passes by law to the owner’s heir upon his death. The purpose of an entail was to keep the land of a family intact in the main line of succession. The heir to an entailed estate could not sell the land, or bequeath it to anyone but his direct heir. Some entails were tied to a title and were defined in the original letters patent granting the title. The complications arising from entails were an important factor in the life of many of the upper classes, leaving many individuals wealthy in land but still heavily in debt.
  • Facings–Material of a different color that shows when the cuffs and collar are folded over. In the military, different colored facings implied different regiments.
  • Fagged To Death–Exhausted, tired.
  • Fair Gutfounded–Very hungry.
  • Fairly Flush In The Pockets–Quite rich.
  • Faradiddle–Variation of “taradiddle” – a falsehood or lie.
  • Faro–A card game in which players bet on the order that cards will appear when dealt from the bottom of the deck.
  • Farthing–1/4th of a penny
  • Featheredge a corner–Driving term, turn a sharp bend, or in a small space.
  • Fichu–A length of fabric, usually triangular, worn around the neck and shoulders. Sometimes tucked inside the neckline of the bodice, sometimes crossed over the bodice.
  • Fiddle–6 pence, (approx $50).
  • Fiend Seize It–Damn it.
  • Find Oneself On The Rocks–To have no money, be in debt.
  • Find Self At A Stand–To have no money.
  • First rate fiddler–Driving term, best type of driver.
  • Fit Of The Blue-Devils–Depressed.
  • Flash Of Lightning–Gin.
  • Flat–Person, able to be tricked.
  • Fleet Prison, Fleet Marriages–Fleet Prison was a prison for debtors. Fleet marriages were clandestine marriages that were performed at the prison without the need for licenses or banns during the 17th and 18th centuries. The practice was ended with the Marriage Act of 1753.
  • Florin–2 shillings, (approx $200).
  • Flounce–An ornamental row of decorative trim at the edge of a skirt.
  • Fly A Kite–Raise money.
  • Fly To The Time Of Day–Wise to the ways of the world.
  • Flying One’s Colours–Blushing.
  • Foolscap–Writing paper. The term refers to the size of the paper (17 by 13½ inches, which was typically folded, and sometimes cut, in half ) and not the quality or weight. The standard foolscap size was in use since the 15th century, and the name derives from the watermark in the shape of a jester’s hat that was once used to identify it.
  • Footpads–Thieves in the streets, muggers.
  • Fop–A gentleman who dresses in excessively elaborate clothes and has affected manners.
  • Four Horse Club–Also the Four-in-Hand Club, Barouche Club, the Whip Club. For excellent carriage drivers, there was a uniform; A drab coat that reached to the ankles with three tiers of pockets and mother of pearl buttons as large as five shilling pieces. The waistcoat was blue with yellow stripes an inch wide, the breeches of plush with strings and rosettes to each knee. It was fashionable that the hat should be 3 1/2 inches deep in the crown. Members also were to have barouches should be yellow bodied with ‘dickies’, the horses should be Bays, with rosettes at their heads and the harnesses should be silver-mounted.
  • Four-In-Hand–Driving a carriage pulled by four horses, an exercise requiring skill. The Four-in-Hand Club was a notable club for gentlemen who were excellent drivers.
  • Foxed–Inebriated, drunk.
  • Frank–A Member of Parliament, including peers in the House of Lords, could frank letters — mail them free of charge — by affixing his personal seal along with the word “frank” or “free.” This practice continued until 1840, when cheap postal rates were introduced.
  • Free-Traders–Smugglers.
  • Freebooters–A person who robs and plunderers, especially pirates and smugglers. From the Dutch “vrijbuiter” and the German “freibeuter,” meaning to rove freely.
  • French Leave–To take French leave is to go off without taking leave of the company: a saying frequently applied to persons who have run away from their creditors.The allusion is to the French soldiers, who in their invasions take what they require, and never wait to ask permission of the owners or pay any price for what they take.
  • Fribble–An effeminate fop; a name borrowed from a celebrated character of that kind, in the play Miss in her Teens (1746) by David Garrick. 
  • Friday-Faced–A dismal countenance. Friday was a day of abstinence.
  • Fulhams–Load dice used in gambling, first made in the town of Fulham.
  • Full Of Juice–Very rich.
  • Funds–Government securities that could be purchased by investors. See also consols.
  • Fustian–Bombast; made up of pompous, high-sounding language. Also a coarse, heavy cloth made of cotton and flax.
  • Fustian Nonsense–Rubbish.

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Regency History

Often in my research I keep needing to find who was leading the government and do this through every book. I thought that having the list handy would be good, and then turning it into a research webpage even better. Here is the list. After I post a few more Timeline years and write some more, I will work on the web page with notes about each PM.

The next PM I am doing is Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool and I am hosting a page devoted to him and then all our period PMs at Regency Assembly Press. That page is here.

Prime Ministers of England

William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 04/02/1783
12/19/1783
Whig
William Pitt the Younger 12/19/1783
03/14/1801
Tory
Henry Addington 1st Viscount Sidmouth, “The Doctor” 03/14/1801
05/10/1804
Tory
William Pitt the Younger 05/10/1804
01/23/1806
Tory
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville 02/11/1806
03/31/1807
Whig
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 03/31/1807
10/04/1809
Tory*
Spencer Perceval 10/04/1809
05/11/1812
Tory
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool 06/08/1812
04/09/1827
Tory
George Canning
04/10/1827
08/08/1827
Tory
Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich
08/31/1827
01/21/1828
Tory
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
01/22/1828
11/16/1830
Tory
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
11/22/1830
07/16/1834
Whig
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
07/16/1834
11/14/1834
Whig
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
11/14/1834
12/10/1834
Tory
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet
12/10/1834
04/18/1835
Conservative
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
04/18/1835
08/30/1841
Whig
Tory* (Tory government, PM a Whig)

Robert Banks Jenkinson

Born 06/07/1770 London

Died 12/04/1828 Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey

Major Acts:

Importation Act 1815 – Prohibits import of foreign wheat until domestic reached minimum price.

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The Earl of Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, became known for repressive measures introduced to restore order, but he also steered the country through the period of radicalism and unrest which followed the Napoleonic Wars.

Having served earlier in his career as leader of the House of Lords, Foreign Secretary and War Secretary, Liverpool was asked to form a government after the assassination of Spencer Perceval in 1812.

Few expected Liverpool to survive in office very long, as at first his government seemed very insecure. Which had also been said of Perceval’s government. Liverpool’s government survived for 15 years.

But the opposition provided by the Whig party was weak and disunited, and Liverpool was able to draw on the talents of individuals such as Sidmouth, The Duke of Wellington, Castlereagh and Canning.

The ending of the Napoleonic Wars with France in 1815, aided by Wellington’s victories in the field, further boosted support for Liverpool.

But after the war, unrest broke out at home, partly caused by an economic recession that started in 1817. Unemployment, a bad harvest and high prices produced riots and protests.

Actions such as the repeal of income tax and the creation of the Corn Laws tended to make the situation worse. Lord Liverpool’s government reacted by suspending habeas corpus for two years.

Things became even worse in summer 1819, when large gatherings in favour of parliamentary reform culminated in a massive public meeting in Manchester on 16 August. Soldiers attacked the crowds, killing eleven and wounding many more.

The shocking event became known as the Peterloo Massacre. Liverpool’s subsequent ‘Six Acts’ curtailed the right to hold radical meetings.

The crackdown on liberty prompted an attempt by radicals in 1820 to murder Liverpool and his Cabinet and start a radical revolution.

But the Cato Street Conspiracy, as it became known, proved unsuccessful, and the conspirators were hung or transported.

During the 1820s Liverpool’s policy became increasingly liberal, and a period of economic prosperity began.

Liverpool also returned Britain to the Gold Standard in 1819. The anti-trade union laws were repealed, and many trading restrictions were removed.

A stroke forced Liverpool to resign and he died the following year. Liverpool Street in London is named after him.

Ministry

06/08/1812                04/09/1827

Lord Liverpool – First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Lords

Lord Eldon – Lord Chancellor

Lord Harrowby – Lord President of the Council

Lord Westmorland – Lord Privy Seal

Lord Sidmouth – Secretary of State for the Home Department

Lord Castlereagh (Lord Londonderry after 1821) – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Leader of the House of Commons

Lord Bathurst – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies

Lord Melville – First Lord of the Admiralty

Nicholas Vansittart – Chancellor of the Exchequer

Lord Mulgrave – Master-General of the Ordnance

Lord Buckinghamshire – President of the Board of Control

Charles Bathurst – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Lord Camden – minister without portfolio

Changes

  • Late 1812 – Lord Camden leaves the Cabinet
  • September 1814 – William Wellesley-Pole (Lord Maryborough from 1821), the Master of the Mint, enters the Cabinet
  • February 1816 – George Canning succeeds Lord Buckinghamshire at the Board of Control
  • January 1818 – Frederick John Robinson, the President of the Board of Trade, enters the Cabinet
  • January 1819 – The Duke of Wellington succeeds Lord Mulgrave as Master-General of the Ordnance. Lord Mulgrave becomes minister without portfolio
  • 1820 – Lord Mulgrave leaves the cabinet
  • January 1821 – Charles Bathurst succeeds Canning as President of the Board of Control, remaining also at the Duchy of Lancaster
  • January 1822 – Robert Peel succeeds Lord Sidmouth as Home Secretary
  • February 1822 – Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn succeeds Charles Bathurst at the Board of Control. Bathurst remains at the Duchy of Lancaster and in the Cabinet
  • September 1822 – Following the suicide of Lord Londonderry, George Canning becomes Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons
  • January 1823 – Vansittart, elevated to the peerage as Lord Bexley, succeeds Charles Bathurst as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. F.J. Robinson succeeds Vansittart as Chancellor of the Exchequer. He is succeeded at the Board of Trade by William Huskisson
  • 1823 – Lord Maryborough, the Master of the Mint, leaves the Cabinet. His successor in the office is not a Cabinet member

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“(I consider) the right of election as a public trust, granted not for the benefit of the individual, but for the public good.”

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The Regency Timeline

My previous posts I’ve explained that I was working on the Regency timeline. I posted my entries for 1788 thru 1798.

Now I have the 1796 Timeline again. I went back added a significant amount of graphics. This is the last of the original years that I have had to revisit and add graphics to. With this posting, I will then turn to alternating between our pages for Regency Era Prime Ministers and new timelines. The next will be 1799.

I have uploaded all these years to the Regency Assembly Press website. You can see a little preview of this below in the picture. I especially like how the Duchess of Alba by Goya looks a lot like Cher.

My sources which include the Internet and The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-06-26-09-40.jpg as well as the Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield should cover a lot of events. There are now over 5000 listed for the period between 1788 and 1837 when Victoria comes to the Throne. I have also just found a third book I own with timelines in it, very USA centric though. 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-06-26-09-40.jpg What Happened When by Carruth. I also have added a Dorling Kindersley book PastedGraphic-2012-06-26-09-40.jpg, History of the World.

I may post a year at time every so often in between scanning through all these to find something that will be a good article for this blog and the blog at English Historical Fiction Authors. I will also have the full listing up shortly at Regency Assembly Press.

Those who have feedback, it is appreciated or if someone would like a specific year in a future post. The very first entry is to show who was Prime Minister of Great Britain, later it was the United Kingdom, during the period of the chronology. In choosing our dates, 1788 is the first sign of madness in George the III, it is the beginning of the end of the French Monarchy with the riots in Paris, it is the time when the mama’s of the girls during the true Regency would be girls going to London for their own season, and when our heroes are young lads or babes as well.

We need to know of the events that occurred when they were children, as well as what happens when they are on stage in our stories.

Click on the link below or the picture to go to the entry. More years coming. The list is now over 5000 event entries long and growing.

After the Regency Timeline, I plan to do a short addition on Regency Era Prime Ministers. They always come up in my research and I think we need a page where we can find out all about them in one place. Then, the Edwardian Timeline. I am thinking the years 1890 to 1918 (The end of WWI)

Regency Assembly Press 1796 Timeline

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The Writing LIfe

My new writing project, The Heir finished. I will finish off Chapter 3 here, and then advise through the blog when I revisit the draft for publication. My new project will be a Fantasy, the third part of my trilogy on the son of Duke.

The Heir is about the heroine of course can not stand the hero, who is trying to understand why she dislikes him so. Part of the action takes place in St. James Square, where I have located our Heroine’s home. That was written about, in a blog post from fellow writer Angelyn Schmid on her post about Let’s do Business in Bed.

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I enclose a few more paragraphs from the first draft.

Chapter 3 continues

Spend a little money, or actually a lot of money to be elected and the well versed politician could make much more. And the honest politician, were there such a creature, could well go broke making friendships and seeking to support justice, rather than ones pocket book.

Mr. Perceval took a moment and then let out a bombastic laugh. “Well said. Yes we shall need your services. Can you make a speech? Did you not tell me Lennox that he was the best read man of your acquaintance. I do hope my lord that you acquaintance is as large as your stables, then we shall expect such oration from this young man that perhaps he will one day serve his majesty by taking upon himself my small job.” Perceval laughed once more and then waved himself off.

“Well my lad, the Prime Minister knows your name.”

Sebastian replied, “And has a notion that soon I am to take Mr. Poppets seat? I agree that Poppet does little credit to the Tories and to yourself, sir. I had no quest to take his seat however.”

“Shh, we do not refer to ourselves as Tories any longer. We all think of ourselves as Whigs of course, though we are Tories in practice. Now as to Mr. Poppet, the by-election for our borough is upon us this year. I am not offering my support to the man.”

Sebastian took but a second to reflect, “But my lord, there is only one vote cast in that borough. Your own. If you do not offer him support, none shall stop you from choosing another.”

“It is so, that I am the only man who may vote, but I do want the tenants to know who represents them. They shall look to the man elected as their champion. Do you know, before I met the first Countess, Lady Samantha, who your sister is named after, and before I was Earl but only heir to my father, that I held the borough. That it was I who spoke in front of the tenants. It was long ago now. Before you were born, that I was the member. Great days that was. Great days, with Pitt leading us. I would speak to a question on occasion and well was I heard.” The Earl was lost in his memories then. Sebastian did not want to interrupt for there was a look of rapture upon him.

“Now you, I know you to be a man of letters. It was certainly costly enough to send you to the university, though I do not begrudge what I have spent on you and your siblings. You are my heir and I have learned to face the notion that Lady Elizabeth and I will not have a child. I have spent too long neglecting my teaching you the responsibilities of our station. You do realize that soon enough you will be called on to be the lord down at Combe Edinsley. I should like you to consider a long stay with us at the end of the season as well as of course making the house your residence when you attend the hustings.”

Sebastian felt he was being guided in life again, and once more his choices were being made for him. Not he making choices. “My lord, I am obliged to you, but you can not be sure that I shall be any more attentive than Mr. Poppet.”

“Oh, I am sure you will do your duty much better than Poppet. He is a sick man, and he uses drink as his medicine. That is no cure for what ails him, and it has gone on so long that death may be the only means he has to be rid of his ailment. Poppet though is not your concern, but tell me, were you Earl, what would you do with such a man? If I was gone and this instant you were Earl, to go into Lords and help the country, or would you return to our estates and ignore what is happening. By sitting in the hall below, you may effect what your brother James and Henry do. You realize that, do you not? And were you the member in Commons, then you may influence what the endure in their travails as well now. Before I am called to meet the lord. I do not fear that I shall going below for as profligate as I have been, I do not think I have given myself over to the devil.”

“No, my lord. No tale I have ever heard of you has said anything near that. You are considered an example for most men.”

“Except I spend too much time with my horses.” The Earl said.

Sebastian had to agree, “It has been said. And that you mayhap should spend time with your friends outside of those that you meet with here at Lords.”

“Ha,” he laughed, “That is what the Countess has said as well. Poor thing, been sick for a week and telling me that I must entertain should I wish to be a part of Perceval’s cabinet. So we have you to dinner and our other relations, then we shall try to discuss politics with those I must impress. She has little faith that I can talk about other than horses.”

“Can you my lord? Surely you would have me join you here in the work that Parliament does and I must speak of more than the classics. It, I do not think, will inspire those others of the Commons, nor those on your estate that I should speak to if I were to speak at the hustings.”

The Earl then went on to tell Sebastian of his early days in the House of Commons and the several speeches he had given in detail, one the second to last before the vote was called so he knew that what he had said had bearing on the matter. That he had helped determine the course of empire. Sebastian listened with half an ear. One had to stop listening and think.

That was what he needed to do then. Think. Sebastian of course could have asked for time to tender an answer, but he usually did not see the man for six months again. Yet he was to see the man in three days at his home. It meant, Sebastian thought, that he would see his cousin Annabella who had shown her contempt for him last year.

He had never done anything to warrant such hatred except for his being born, and there being no other man to inherit between her father and he. Sebastian thought it quite petty for the woman to take a hate towards him. If she could not control her spleen so, it was not his loss. Most likely it was his gain, for she had been thrice a ninny the year before with the men she had allowed to throw themselves at her.

If they had made an offer for her, he was sure the Earl had sent them packing. They each had offered for a dozen other women who had great wealth, but guardians who knew that the suitors were made of paper and nothing else. If he was a rake, at least no one would say he was made of paper. Or would they? Had he done anything to prove that he was someone who was serious. Not since he had returned from Corunna.

None could point and say that he had done much but spurn the acquaintance of all women he acknowledge by their sixth meeting.

He indeed was tending towards rakeishness, for that would quite fit the definition of a man who used a woman ill. If a man did that to his sisters, he would have to call them out. Considering the number of women Sebastian had shown interest in, he was surprised that no brother or father had challenged him, but then Prinny had made him a baronet because he had been quite good with gun and saber in battle. The truth of that was that he had survived, more than any other tale that was set about the Ton.

So to be serious, was that worthwhile. He had wanted occupation, and this would be it.

“I know that these tales are perhaps not so profound now, but in the day, they meant everything to me. It was how I met Lady Samantha and her admiration for more work allowed me to know she admired me entire. I knew then to offer for her and none other, for no other cared a fig at all what I did at night here at the House.”

“I am sure that your time in Commons was important and you must tell me more of it. I am looking for direction, and of course your support will carry me in such an endeavor. You are aware that should you have an heir, as I have long prayed for, then I must find a means to support myself…”

The Earl held up a hand. “As I said, I do not think that Countess Elizabeth shall be so blessed, so the line shall pass to you. Annabella could marry and I could make allowance were she to have a boy, but if that is the case, I shall draw up documents with my lawyers that you current allowance shall be entailed on you and any wife of yours. Should that not suffice?”

“My lord, were you to have an heir other than myself, it is too much.”

“Hardly. Here then, you have bought some little property but need more in order that you support yourself. What if we gift you with some lands we have. Enough that there is an income. You would have them when you become Earl, and if your line were replaced, it would still give you a comfortable income all your days. I have some little lands I may do this with. I am told that you have been lucky at the tables and I do not know that such a sobriquet attached to my heir is something that Bath should have. I know that you are not a reckless gambler else my banker would be asking that I sign your debts, yet he tells me that for near two months you have not drawn on your allowance, and that the bills for your household have gone elsewhere.”

Sebastian said, “I took the liberty of establishing mine own accounts my lord. It did seem prudent.”

The Earl shook his head, “You are a credit to your father, and I should have taken a greater hand in your rearing when he died. I am sorry that I have not now. And it is too late to have anything to say with your brothers. There careers are foreordained now. The girls, you will allow me to act like an indulgent uncle. I spoil Anna terribly, I know, but I should do so with your sisters and perhaps show that I am not some ogre. I should imagine the expense of their trousseau for the season shall be large, I know that Anna and the Countess have already told me that it shall be more this year than last since last year the men we had call were not those that should have.”

“I had heard somewhat similar my lord. There are men, and then there are men who do not care whom they wed, but do care if their bride will weigh as much as their portion.”

The Earl laughed, “Well Anna is quite a piece but not large at all. Yet I think any who are serious will see she is to get a good dowry. Your sisters, your father’s estate made allowance. If there is help needed to encourage a man, rather than an afterthought, you will speak to me. If the lands were already yours, you could attend to your sisters. No need for them to make a marriage that they will be unhappy with because you do not have the money you need now, but will have it ten years hence.”

“I am sure it would be longer than that, my lord.” The Earl had talked about his demise in nearly every interview the two had since Sebastian had returned from the Peninsula. Sebastian had always wondered if it was some way of pointing out that he needed to not consider an adventurous life which could end in disaster. That the Earl did not want to change the titles succession again.

“I am near sixty and know that I am certainly closer to my end then I am to my start. Now, let us talk more about the seat in the House. Naturally all your expenses as a Member will be paid for by me. You need not worry about anything extra that being a member should cost, and if you succeed and need to socialize, host functions as I know one should when aspiring to be taken seriously in our circle, then I shall pay for that as well. In fact, the Countess assures me that if I have you to represent our borough, then you should attend all our soirees as she calls em, for the rest of the Season.”

Sebastian could only allow how that made sense. “Politics is not made so well on our speeches in the Houses, but on our suppers in our houses.”

The Earl looked up at that and smiled, “Speeches in the, suppers in our houses. I like that. But that does seem to be correct. We can talk amongst ourselves and often bend and shape laws to what is needed to get them passed in the Houses. I have been remiss in that I had forgotten that was the case. I had spent too much of my time thinking I need not bring home my work, but using my home is part of the work. The great lords that dabble in politics know this. We adopt our favorites, our clients and see to it that England rises and shall not fall.”

Sebastian said, “I see that. Might I have some time to think on this? You would not maneuver me into the corner without allowing to ponder this. I had not thought to worry so about politics until, well until I had to take you seat in Lords, my lord.”

“No, of course you may give my your answer in time. But you really do not have the luxury to wait for when I am gone. There is much to learn about politics and governance. Did not these last years show you that managing a household of so many people is not easily done? And then you purchased land. Have you not learned again that having tenants who rely on you is also not so easily handled. The same with the nation. There are many things that will seem to be just, but they also may seem to be shortsighted. Government needs to be a long game. A very long game, and even when you look at the victory of a year or two, you must plan for that victory to be forever. You may even admit defeat if it will bring true victory later on. Do you not think we would let Wellesley flounder if it meant that we were assured of success against the Tyrant through some other action. We aren’t of course, but we would.”

Sebastian had never considered that but it gave him something to ponder. He took his leave of the Earl, looking forward to dining at St. James Square some few days in the future. In the meantime he had to introduce his sisters to his friends and begin their calls. Though should the Earl’s other family be at his house, as he mentioned, then his sisters were destined to meet the Beauchamp’s. The very handsome and fashionable Viscount Christopher would dazzle their eyes and then he would say something that was witty, and Sebastian’s sisters would cover their ears.

“When are you to take us out, brother? We have been home all day, and we dined in last night as well.” Jennifer said later when they had gathered for dinner.

“I did explain that our cousin summoned me to speak with him. That we could make no plans, though we shall meet with some of my friends tomorrow. They have assured me that they will call.” He said.

“Jennifer is just impatient. I am glad that we do not have do dine with the Chaperones at every meal,” Samantha said.

Sebastian “No, if we are just family, then we do not have to eat with them but can have time to ourselves. It is only should we have other society that we will have the ladies join us. Now it is through the fortune of blood that we can afford to sit at such a table for dinner, for I have earned no money, nor had our father earned much either. Henry, who has successes, shall no doubt make a name of himself and it will be up to you two to help guide him to a wife when he returns from the sea. He shall want to have a family, and be of society I think, as will James. Though James shall take matters into his own hands.”

“As you have done? We may not have had any callers other than Lady Margaret today who wished to meet our chaperones, but she told us what news she had when she arrived at her daughters house. Twenty ladies all expected an offer, and you have given none any sign that they have held your heart. At first it was thought that you were to be caught and all the mamas wanted to have you hooked for their daughters. The Earl’s heir. You are to have a fortune. But for three years you have played with the affections of every young lady of means. You are labelled…” Jennifer had a lot to say.

Sebastian added before she could say it, “a Rakehell? It is not a name I would call myself. I had little idea that so many women expected an offer. I never, I assure you gave them such presumption. I did not kiss their fingers. I did not read, or worse, write poetry to them. They had no indication from myself that they were the true beating of my heart.”

Samantha asked, “Have you met the woman who is the true beating of your heart?”

Jennifer looked as if she had wanted to say something that was sure to lead to another argument, but that seemed to stop her. Not that he felt that he was arguing with his sisters, but there certainly was an interrogation occurring.

“If I have, I assure you that I would not tell you, unless I could say with confidence that such a lady reciprocated those feelings and you could wish me happy. To do so before I was sure of such could only lead to my being truly labelled Rakehell. I assure you, it is not a name I am deserving of.”

Jennifer said, “It will stand you well in the House of Commons. Women and mamas will despise you were you truly a Rake, but men, they all must admire such character and action.”

Sebastian shook his head, skewering a prawn on his plate so that he could chew it. “Now that I am not sure of. Many in the House are unmarried of course. Men of the world, but there are many fathers as well. I can not think that a father should like his daughter to be taken advantage of by such a man. I may have more work to do this year to repair my reputation. I may have a great deal of work to do to be sure that whatever has been attributed to me does not become attached to you.”

Jennifer had not seemed to think that would occur. “You do not mean to imply that you have behaved so improperly that my chances shall be ruined.”

“No. Not at all. And should any many say so, they shall find that they will have me to deal with the matter as much as father would have. You will not remember him much as he has been gone for many years now. But he would have challenged a man to a duel at the mere thought, let alone mention of such. James has met several captains in the Navy who were good friends with father and say he was quite skilled in such matters.”

Samantha asked, “Are you skilled in dueling? I would not like you to defend our names and end up dead over the matter. James and Henry risk enough as it is. I thought you were heroic to venture to the war but I was a child then. Now I think you were very foolhardy to have chanced it.”

Sebastian smiled, “You are right. I was very foolhardy. It made me aware that I would never do something like that again. Do not fear. But I would not let an insult against you or our name go unpunished.”

“But you could be hurt in a duel. You could be killed.” Samantha said. He could see that Jennifer was upset by this as well. Then it dawned on him that all them had lost their parents some years before. Left alone with only each other, and he and his brothers abandoning them to have careers. They were terrified that he, or the other two would die. And the other two were in careers that put them in a great deal of danger.

“I would only do so should I have to.” He said choosing his words with care.

Samantha said, “Even so, you could still be hurt. What do I care how others think a name is so important. Isn’t it enough that the French want to attack us, that we would have to fight amongst ourselves.” Then Sebastian knew that his sister was right. Why would he fight another englishman to defend honor, when they were fighting the French to stop tyranny.

“I will give the matter thought. You are concerned and I shall not quickly say a thing to make you calm, and then later when it seems expedient do another action entirely opposed to such a promise. No, I shall think on the issue. The Earl even advised me today that successful government must be carried out the same. That one must look long at a problem and think what the solution shall be in the years to come. Not just in the months that are at hand.”

The conversation turned and then later, as a custard was offered for them before the ladies went through to the drawing room, and he would have some port, a cigar should he wish it, it came back again to the Earl and his family. “Did you not tell us that you met with Lady Anna our cousin last year?”

“No, I became acquainted with her at a ball where I do believe, I was given the cut direct. She wrote an apology that I believe that the Countess directed her to do so. She knew who I was, but when I asked her for a dance, all had been taken. I was snubbed.”

“Oh my. Our own cousin as well.” Samantha said.

Jennifer observed, “It must be something more that that. You must have been a complete bore to her earlier. She came out at the beginning of last season.”

“Our paths did not cross till the one ball, and then I made sure that they did not cross again. I did not want all the Ton to think of this as an ondit. I am her father’s heir and were the Ton to think that there was animosity between us, it would not be well. The Earl would suffer by it as well, and he, we owe much too. We should surely have been in dire straits should he have not come to our aid when father was killed.”

The girls nodded. Each year they wrote very nice letters to the Earl at Christmass time thanking him for his generosity. Sebastian did not know if the Earl read them, but he had told the girls that making the letters personal, spending time with them, would one day reap them benefits that they could not begin to imagine. And of the offer to help with the dowries was what had come of those letters, than Sebastian had proved prescient.

Their father had died at the Battle of Copenhagen, and their mother a few years after. Sebastian was quite sure that Samantha had little remembrance of their father, and Jennifer probably only saw the man a little more, though he had been home for a spell when Jennifer was small. They even went to Plymouth as a family while father outfitted his ship before going forth. Henry had thought that a great adventure. Sebastian hated it for it meant that their father would once again be at sea for months and they would not see him. Other boys in their village saw their fathers each day. Sebastian and his siblings were lucky to have that luxury only when their father was in quest of a new command, and then he would venture to London often and wait at the Admiralty to try and get a posting.

That was humiliating, he remembered his father saying, and Henry agreeing when he too had waited nervously with other officers for such luck to come his way. It had with the influence of the Earl of Bath and of politics. Now more than ever, Sebastian was sure that Henry had gotten his ship because someone wanted favors from the Earl. And the Earl was happy to agree to them.

It was truly a foregone conclusion. Sebastian was the head of his branch of the Lennoxs. A branch that had owed all it had to the generosity of the Earl. His education, James commission, the girls expenses boarding with Aunt Margaret, and the augmentation of their Dowry. The Frigate that James commanded allowing him to accumulate prize money. If the Earl crooked his finger and said that he wanted Sebastian to represent a pocket borough, then he would. If the Earl said to vote against all the beliefs Sebastian held, he would do that as well. Part of being groomed for becoming the lord of Bath was to know who you owed and how you would pay them back.

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Regency History

Often in my research I keep needing to find who was leading the government and do this through every book. I thought that having the list handy would be good, and then turning it into a research webpage even better. Here is the list. After I post a few more Timeline years and write some more, I will work on the web page with notes about each PM.

The next PM I am doing is Spencer Perceval and I am hosting a page devoted to him and then all our period PMs at Regency Assembly Press. That page is here.

Prime Ministers of England

William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 04/02/1783
12/19/1783
Whig
William Pitt the Younger 12/19/1783
03/14/1801
Tory
Henry Addington 1st Viscount Sidmouth, “The Doctor” 03/14/1801
05/10/1804
Tory
William Pitt the Younger 05/10/1804
01/23/1806
Tory
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville 02/11/1806
03/31/1807
Whig
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 03/31/1807
10/04/1809
Tory*
Spencer Perceval 10/04/1809
05/11/1812
Tory
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
06/08/1812
04/09/1827
Tory
George Canning
04/10/1827
08/08/1827
Tory
Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich
08/31/1827
01/21/1828
Tory
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
01/22/1828
11/16/1830
Tory
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
11/22/1830
07/16/1834
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
07/16/1834
11/14/1834
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
11/14/1834
12/10/1834
Tory
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet
12/10/1834
04/18/1835
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
04/18/1835
08/30/1841
Tory* (Tory government, PM a Whig)

Spencer Perceval, Little P

Born 11/01/1762 Audley Square, London

Died 05/11/1812 Parliament, London

Major Acts:

Regency Bill 1810 – Enabled the appointment of Prince George as Regent

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Spencer Perceval is best remembered as the only British prime minister to be assassinated. A professional lawyer, he made his mark as by holding down the senior posts of Solicitor-General and Attorney-General. An admirer of William Pitt the Younger, he was politically conservative and an active Anglican, opposing Catholic emancipation.

In later life he became an expert on Biblical prophecy and wrote pamphlets relating to prophecies that he had discovered.

When the Duke of Portland put together a coalition of Tories in 1807, Perceval served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons.

With Portland old and unwell, Perceval was effectively the chief minister, and even lived at 10 Downing Street.

In 1809, Perceval formally succeeded the Duke of Portland as Prime Minister.

It was a difficult time due to the upheavals of the Industrial Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, and the final descent of George III into madness. His government also suffered from the absence of most of the senior statesmen of the period. He had to serve as his own Chancellor after obtaining six refusals of office.

Assassination

After two years his government had survived much longer than predicted amidst a severe economic depression. Indeed, it began to seem that the situation of his government looked as if it was set to improve.

But Perceval’s administration ended dramatically on 11 May 1812, when he was shot dead in the lobby of the House of Commons on his way to attend an inquiry into the recent Luddite riots. His last words were, appropriately, ‘Oh, I have been murdered’.

The assassin was John Bellingham, a merchant who had incurred business debts in Russia.

He had tried to recover compensation from the government for his losses, but was refused. He therefore sought revenge on a representative of that government and carried out his dark wish.

Perceval’s body rested in 10 Downing Street for five days, mourned by his wife and twelve children. Bellingham was later tried and hung for Perceval’s murder.

Family

Perceval left a widow and 12 children. He had only a little more than 100 pounds in the bank. Parliament voted 50 thousand pounds to his children and an annuity to his eldest son Spencer of 1000 a year.

Ministry

10/04/1809                                05/11/1812

Spencer Perceval – First Lord of the Treasury, Leader of the House of Commons, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Lord Eldon – Lord Chancellor

Lord Camden – Lord President of the Council

Lord Westmorland – Lord Privy Seal

Richard Ryder – Secretary of State for the Home Department

Lord Bathurst – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and President of the Board of Trade

Lord Liverpool – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies and Leader of the House of Lords

Lord Mulgrave – First Lord of the Admiralty

Lord Chatham – Master-General of the Ordnance

Lord Harrowby – Minister without Portfolio

Changes

  • December, 1809 – Lord Wellesley succeeds Lord Bathurst as Foreign Secretary. Bathurst continues at the Board of Trade.
  • May, 1810 – Lord Mulgrave succeeds Lord Chatham as Master-General of the Ordnance. Charles Philip Yorke succeeds Mulgrave as First Lord of the Admiralty.
  • March, 1812 – Lord Castlereagh succeeds Lord Wellesley as Foreign Secretary.
  • April, 1812 – Lord Sidmouth succeeds Lord Camden as Lord President. Camden remains in the cabinet as a minister without portfolio.

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“I have nothing to say to the nothing that has been said.”

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The Regency Timeline

My previous posts I’ve explained that I was working on the Regency timeline. I posted my entries for 1788 thru 1798.

Now I have the 1795 Timeline again. I went back added a significant amount of graphics. I will be doing this with all the years I previously posted and then ensuring that the new years have a lot of graphics as well.        

I have uploaded all these years to the Regency Assembly Press website. You can see a little preview of this below in the picture. I especially like how the Duchess of Alba by Goya looks a lot like Cher.

My sources which include the Internet and The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-06-23-08-41.jpg as well as the Chronology of CULTURE y Paxton and Fairfield should cover a lot of events. There are now over 5000 listed for the period between 1788 and 1837 when Victoria comes to the Throne. I have also just found a third book I own with timelines in it, very USA centric though. 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-06-23-08-41.jpg What Happened When by Carruth. I also have added a Dorling Kindersley book PastedGraphic-2012-06-23-08-41.jpg, History of the World.

I may post a year at time every so often in between scanning through all these to find something that will be a good article for this blog and the blog at English Historical Fiction Authors. I will also have the full listing up shortly at Regency Assembly Press.

Those who have feedback, it is appreciated or if someone would like a specific year in a future post. The very first entry is to show who was Prime Minister of Great Britain, later it was the United Kingdom, during the period of the chronology. In choosing our dates, 1788 is the first sign of madness in George the III, it is the beginning of the end of the French Monarchy with the riots in Paris, it is the time when the mama’s of the girls during the true Regency would be girls going to London for their own season, and when our heroes are young lads or babes as well.

We need to know of the events that occurred when they were children, as well as what happens when they are on stage in our stories.

Click on the link below or the picture to go to the entry. More years coming. The list is now over 5000 event entries long and growing.

After the Regency Timeline, I plan to do a short addition on Regency Prime Ministers. They always come up in my research and I think we need a page where we can find out all about them in one place. Then, the Edwardian Timeline. I am thinking the years 1890 to 1918 (The end of WWI)

Regency Assembly Press 1795 Timeline

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The Writing LIfe

My new writing project finishs today. It is another regency, tentatively titled The Heir. I am now over 300 pages into it. The heroine of course can not stand the hero, who is trying to understand why she dislikes him so. Part of the action takes place in St. James Square, where I have located our Heroine’s home. That was written about, in a blog post from fellow writer Angelyn Schmid on her post about Let’s do Business in Bed.

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I enclose a few more paragraphs from the first draft.

Chapter 3

Sebastian was not surprised to receive his first yearly summons to see the Earl. And once again at Westminster Palace. His sisters were to come the day before, and then on Friday, he would visit with his cousin. The summons was never something that he could respond with a polite no. At least Sebastian did not feel he should since the man supported him. The Earl also did ask how his family fared and would question him about it, seeing if there were any instructions that he should issue.

That meant that would the Earl need to send money for James Mess bill, or for Hank to outfit his stores aboard ship, then Sebastian must mention it, the Earl say that it was a small matter and all that Sebastian need do is make some instruction to the bankers. It meant writing a note to both banker and the Earl that the Earl could then forward his approval to the bankers. A convoluted way to secure monies, but it was how the Earl worked since he did not visit his bankers. They visited the Earl.

Sebastian put that from his mind, for he had not seen his Sisters but briefly when the Season had ended the prior year. He had journeyed to his aunt’s house near Southampton. There he found them, as always, living quite happily. He was not sure that the change from a small country village to that of London was something that they were going to be ready for. Yet the Earl had hired tutors that were supposed to prepare them for such. Women who had claims to society, unlike Countess Elizabeth, a woman who had been hired by the Earl’s first wife and the education of cousin Annabella put in her trust.

“Sebastian, do you not come to the hall to greet us?” He heard a voice from the foyer of the house. He moved as quick as he could from the desk where he had been reading the contracts for new lands to be added to his holdings in Kent. He and Marlowe had been very lucky at the tables three nights before and the money in his accounts were ready to be put to use again. Very lucky indeed. Marlowe said that if he was not a fool, his allowance had been made for the year and it was till but February.

“Here Samantha,” he said as he reached the landing and then looked down to the ground floor. “And Samantha you must not speak so loudly. I am sure, but a lady does not yell so.”

Jennifer, who was removing her bonnet, said, “That was not a yell brother, I assure you. Our little sister is quite capable of yelling.”

“Where is Lady Margaret, I am sure that I wish to greet her as well.”

Jennifer smiled, now working on removing her gloves a finger at a time while Samantha was examining every part of the hall. “Our aunt has gone ahead to her home. She has professed her love for us, but her joints, in getting in and out of the carriage, climbing the steps and then returning to her carriage, all would have been a great deal of work.” Jennifer said.

Sebastian reached the ground floor and then guided his sisters into the day room. “Here, we shall have tea, and some treats. This is of course now your home. But I am concerned that Lady Margaret did not stay.”

Samantha said, “We are no match for her grandchildren. She longs to go to her own family and now, she hopes is done with us, for we have been little joy for her, despite all that the Earl’s money has helped.” Lady Margaret had been married to a naval man as well. Sir Ben had survived his years at sea but was taken from the family by a failing heart. Her son was at sea in the family tradition, and her daughter here in London married to a clerk who did work for the House of Commons. Sebastian knew that the money that the Earl paid to Lady Margaret to maintain a decent house in the country, some made it’s way to London that her daughter and the many grandchildren did not live in penury.

“Well, you must have a chaperone, the both of you, but especially Jennifer. I am to launch you but I can not be at your side as a chaperone will. Lady Margaret would serve such a purpose. I shall also introduce you to the dowager Viscountess of Lowford, for she is launching her daughter Henrietta this season and I hope you shall be friends with her as I am friends with the Viscount.”

“I have heard that the Viscount Lowford is handsome.” Jennifer said.

“No one can be as handsome as our brother though. Is he not the most handsome of men. Are you a dandy?” Samantha asked.

“I should hope not. And Samantha, one does not praise a person so to their face. They shall develop a complex. But I thank you for your compliments. I suppose there are many who thinks that Lowford is handsome, and he is more a fashion plate that walks, then I. My clothes, are fine it is so, but I see no need for more then five coats all told. In my set, it is only Lowford who would swear that five is not even the minimum that one should own. That one needs at least thirty good coats.”

Jennifer seemed to agree, “At least thirty. Brother, you do know that I shall need many new dresses so that I can go out in society. And we shall need horses to ride, and you must throw a ball…” Jennifer had a long list, and it took some while for her to recite it.

“I do understand my obligations and have made allowance for it. Now, you do know that your dowry is not some great sum. I am not the Earl of Bath, nor do I have any greater claim than at present, should he have no son, that I am his heir. He still may do so and then we shall not have a great deal of money to give to a suitor. I should like you to think on that. You do not need marry a great fortune, but our family fortune will not even keep you in modest accommodations from the three percents.”

Samantha looked out a window onto the street while Jennifer said, “We know. James has done better with prize money than father ever had, and if not for the Earl’s generosity we would not even have this. Samantha and I both know what our destiny is, but surely, amongst the men of London, there are those who have fortunes and will look on the sisters of even a near Earl, with love.”

Sebastian smiled, “Yes, of that I am sure. And I know many of them. I shall introduce you to several as is my lot. Now, we must send for the ladies who shall be interviewed to be your chaperones. For they are to live here and must be agreeable to yourselves as well as to me. I have a list and they await our summons.”

In the end, two ladies were chosen. One had lost her husband in the war who was in the senior service, and the other was a widow of an officer of the junior service. Sebastian was sure, that Samantha was already devising names for the two ladies, but that was to be expected of a young girl still two summers away from her Season.

Mrs. Humphries spouse had been in the army while Mrs. Davis was the widow of a naval officer. The Earl may have wished for ladies of rank and title to be chaperones for his distant cousins, but Sebastian knew that until he did become the Earl of Bath his place in society, and that of his sisters were not of the first circle. There were friends and people he could introduce them to, but they also would not be of the first circle except on a very few occasions. They would of course, in their time, attend court at Carleton House and be presented to the Prince Regent.

Sebastian’s few months close association with the Prince would see that his sisters were honored, if not adopted into that society. He was a loving brother, but he did not want his sisters to end up in that set. There were plenty of good parts of the Ton where one could live out their loves in comfort and unnoticed. That should almost have been the first lesson mamas taught their daughters. How to now become an ondit and secure the notice of the Ton.

Sebastian was shamed that some had begun to think of him as rakish. He certainly did not think of himself that way. He thought that he was a very desirable gentlemen to meet and to be matched to. Did not everyman want to think that they were the son every mama wanted for their precious daughters?

Having settled his sisters he attended his cousin at Lords the next day. “Well there you are, and I suppose I am late once more. Never on time, for all these meetings of ours, have I been?” The Earl asked, but Sebastian was sure he expected no answer.

“Before we speak of your prospects this season, Lady Elizabeth has told me that I am to have you come to dinner on Monday she has planned it. And that she has word your sisters have some to town. It is just the family of course so the youngest, Samantha, must come as well.” If it had been others, then Samantha who was too young to have come out into society would have had to stay at home.

“We of course will come,” Sebastian said.

“Good, the Countess will send you your invitation. I think she expects that we must coordinate strategy for all the girls who are about this season. Why I have my niece Henrietta as well as Annabella and your sister. So many young ladies, you will be at many balls this year. I should think we will have many weddings in the fall to attend and honor. I like a good wedding. It reminds me of happy times.” Once more Sebastian was reminded that perhaps the Earl was not as happy as he wished he was. That the marriage to the Countess had not brought the man as much joy as he wished.

As they sat in the chambers of Lords, a man came there way, “Please don’t rise, I just wanted to meet you.” Sebastian of course did rise. The man who had approached them was Spencer Perceval who was Prime Minister. A new acquaintance and Sebastian grasped the man’s hand firmly.

“Lennox, this one, not you young sir, has told me a good deal about you. Good man to go and support the soldiers. I remember when his Highness asked my thoughts on your knighthood. Well deserved I said. And now you are to join us here where the real work is done. I shall be grateful of your support on the benches.” Sebastian had no idea about that last part and the Earl cleared his throat.

“I was just about to tell him of our plan, Perceval. Dare say you’ve put me in it right properly.”

The Prime Minister smiled. Sebastian was sure the man knew what he was doing, “What, did I. Well It has to do with how you will ever dawdle about my friend. We looked for a young strong voice for your borough last year. Poppet has been either truly sick and absent, or drunk and absent many more times than he has been in attendance to cast his vote. Votes we always are in need of.”

Mr. Poppet, Sebastian knew, to be the member for the pocket borough that the Earl controlled in commons. A suspicion that the Earl had something much more important than his yearly lecture to discuss began to form in Sebastian’s mind.

“I hope that should you gentlemen need my help, I can offer it.” Sebastian knew he had to be respective but he hoped he could be non-committal. He may have told his closest friends that he needed to direction. That he needed something useful to pursue. He hadn’t meant that he should take up any role in government. He of course did not worry about paying the expenses that such a career would entail, for it cost money were he desirous of making a name for himself. And one could make money were one to sell ones influence. Even the most silent of members had influence if they were a member of Parliament. Influence that could be quite lucrative.

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