Archive for September, 2012

Today we continue the weekly serialization of Steam and Thunder.

If you feel so inclined to provide feedback for the project that would be great as well.

Steam and Thunder takes a look at the marriage of Steam, invention and innovation to feudal society and the agrarian economies that exist around such a period.

We had the boiling of water. We had pinwheels (400 BC). We had steam rooms in the stone age.

How long before someone thinks to just put a covered pot of boiling water that releases steam and pushed a pinwheel around? The genesis of the steam engine.

An Aeolipile was discussed by Hero of Alexandria in the first century.


We have Taqi al-Din describing a steam turbine in 1551.

Our story takes place in a world, much like our own, but a few hundred years earlier, where we meld the properties of steam and create a rudimentary engine. One that can turn into a functional engine.

But that is part of the backstory that you will find here. Though the period of invention and hard work to turn a simple device that turns a little windmill device and toots a horn into a working machine will take years, those that participate along the way will contribute to not only one innovation, but others that are suggested by it.

And these innovations will need men and women to build them. The second sons and daughters from the farms who seek a different life, a more lucrative life in the cities where new made factories support the building of new devices.

That is the world that I create and work towards showing you here.


Chapter One can be found either at our website


Or here on the blog


Chapter two can be found here

Chapter three is at this entry

Chapter four is at this entry

In this Chapter Jac’s who has been pushed into a duel, does not understand why. And is not told the reasons. He sees it in his own eyes. The nobles are exerting their authority by dueling to hurt those they feel should not have been rewarded in this new world that Jac has helped to create. Jac sees that the nobles are abusing their authority and privilege and at the center of those who are the most abusive is the crown prince.

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Dramatis Personae (so far)

Jacklincoln Cartwright – Our hero. The Inventor of the Steam Twirler

Princess Annaxier Farserit – The celebrations of the Princess’ birth is the first memory that Jac has. She is the daughter of the king of Hornik, Lancellnick Farserit

Samathon Cartwright – Father of Jac

Vivan Carthwright – Mother of Jac

Milosk Cartwright – Great Uncle of Jac

Master Builder Mikonal Gearman-Master Builder of Firtoskin to Cawless Canal

Lord Colndefroc – Governor of Cawless

Master Fenntrel – Wheelwright in Cawless

Master Jamestash – Metalsmith in Cawless

Master Carlincoln – Sawyer in Cawless

Master Gunthertic – Jeweler in Cawless

Master Mikaelstan – Glazier in Cawless

Lincarjirt – Uncle of Jac, Pater (Priest) of Krien (Now an Under ArchPater)

ArchPater Larwellton-Head of Lincarjirt’s order

Henriforlu – Cousin of Jac, journeyman at Cartwright Foundry

Karlplatt – Senior apprentice at Cartwright Foundry

Kathierin Cartwright – Sister of Jac

Coloskthon – Brother of Jac

Melissandier Cartwright-Sister of Jac


General Artshikal-Tutor for Jac

General Barthome-Tutor for Jac

Cortormain-Journeyman at Gearman and Cartwright Creatory

Henrycarmon-Apprentice at Gearman and Cartwright Creatory

Lem-Bodyguard for Jac

Pad-Bodyguard for Jac

Sergeant Formilham-Princess Annaxier bodyguard

Prince Edmanstow

Lord Riclarpur, son of the Duke of Conlinton

Lord Perimont-Part of Prince’s Retinue

Chapter 5

“This is not good news, my son.” Samathon Cartwright said again. They were in the main room of the house. It was separated from the door and entrance hall by a stout oak door, for in winter having that kept the chill from the house when guests entered. This side was a room that was used as a common room for all. Comfortably furnished with chairs, and benches with wood backs that had embroidered cushions upon them. Clustered in front of one of the two fireplaces that kept the room snugly warm in the colder months. In the front of the hall was a window, and there were three interspersed on the west wall as well. The back of the room had an even greater invention, a door of glass with panel windows to each side that opened to the back gardens of the house.

Jac had repeated the tale three time for his parents. All that he had asked come to their home had finally arrived. Master Gearman being the last to join them. Jac’s sister Kathierin was a surprise, arriving just before the guildmaster.

“It is in the hands of the gods,” his Uncle said. He was an Under ArchPater of Krien. Most likely he would succeed ArchPater Larwellton, which Jac had learned from the Princess that day. Uncle Linc had not been at the palace earlier in the day, but he had learned of Jac’s appointment from his ArchPater. It seemed that two members of the family were destined to serve on the King’s Council.

That was, should Jac survive the duel.

“You must not draw your sword. Nobles can choose a defender, and that is why Pad and Lem serve you. They will take the blows…” Master Gearman said.

“I fight better than they do.” Jac said. It was true. He was a better student of the sword than any of his bodyguards.

“But do we want people to know that?” The master said, more aloud as a question, than as a decision.

Kathierin laughed, “What will it hurt if people know that Jacklincoln is trained in the sword? Even if he is better at it then many others? In the city everyday more train and learn to fight, if they can afford it. It was even so before the Creators became a guild, Master Mikonal. I do not think you should worry about it. I think that if anything, the noble’s sons, those that are such a bother to the rest of Firtoskin, and that is Prince Edmanstow and his friends, would do well to be taught a lesson.”

Under ArchPater Lincarjirt had been taking a drink of Samathon’s ale. It was a very good ale as he had money of his own, and largess from his children that allowed him to buy the best of such simple pleasures. Linc spluttered ale out of mouth and nose, choking a little when he heard his nieces statements. Kath though was always saying such progressive notions and it should not of shocked their uncle. He had years to have grown accustom to her statements. The priest reached for a towel to wipe himself clean.

Melissandier was next with an opinion. “There are some nice lords amongst the Prince’s party, but this Riclarpur isn’t one of them. He is one of the worst. I think Lord Riclarpur would rape me, were he able to get me alone. He may have raped some of the girls in the chorus for they are less protected then I.”

As a featured actor in her troupe, she would never be left alone unless she wished it. The girls who were of the chorus, and might only act in one play before they left for some other profession, would have little or no protection. Jac looked to Col, and then towards his own guards quickly. Col caught that. From then on their sister Mel would have her share of guardsmen shadowing her. The brothers were not going to allow their sister to be injured. They would be devastated.

Their father started up again, “This is not good news, my son.” Jac knew he was concerned. Samathon Cartwright thought his children all led lives that should be quieter. Recently he had been saying they should take the money they each had and go back to the foundry in Cawless. He wanted to turn it into just a small shop where they could tinker, and live in old uncle Milosk’s house, like they had before Jac had left to become a Creator.

There was a pounding from the gate in the courtyard. Their mother was closest to the window made of the new transparent glass. She looked out to the front courtyard.

“Oh my.” Vivan said. “First the Prince has an altercation with Jac and now it seems Princess Annaxier has come to our house.”

Vivan looked into the courtyard and repeated that it had filled with royal guards and the Princess. Their uncle rose from his seat, still wiping at the ale that stained his robes, and swore. Jac knew that Uncle Linc had met the Princess many times.

Only Master Gearman and Col knew that Jac tutored Annaxier. Jac had not told the rest of his family. When he had mentioned that he had become a councillor of the king that day, he did not say it was because of the work he did with the princess. He let them believe it was because he was the Creator GrandMaster. “Melissandier, please straighten your hair. Katherien, straighten your, oh no that won’t do. Just please do not say anything insulting. She is a princess.”

The house was such that a minor noble might have lived in it. Before Samathon and Vivan purchased it the house had been that of the king’s admiral. Upon his death, the son already had his own house, and sold this to the Cartwrights. The new admiral lived nearer the docks and his fleet.

There was a staff of fifteen in the house to serve Jac’s two parents and his youngest sister. Melissandier, could afford her own house, but her profession caused Samathon to place his principles before her freedom. She would remain at home until she married. Katherien, had her own house, but their father did not think that the oldest girl was in a profession that would lead to her getting into trouble.

The chief steward came in saying that the Princess had come. Right after him Sergeant Formilham entered. He looked around quickly and exited. “Ah, thank you, Jastenson…” Princess Annaxier said. Learning their steward’s name so quickly and thanking him showed her kindness.

Since he had last seen her, Princess Annaxier had changed again. He was still in the clothes he had worn to the ceremony at the palace. Annaxier now wore a dark houppelande. Her sleeves were so full that he feared were she to allow her arms to fall, they would drag across the floor. But except for white trim with some sort of gold design, the dress itself was black. There was a train and it was dragging across the floor, much as his sisters dresses did. The look on Kathierin’s face showed she studied every detail of how the Princess was dressed.

“Mistress Samathon, I hope you will forgive me for coming without our being introduced. But I have recently heard that my brother is causing dissension amongst my father’s ministers, especially our newest one. I thought to come and speak to GrandMaster Cartwright at once. With your permission, I would ask that I have a chance to do so?” His entire family and Master Gearman were somewhat shocked.

“Mother, I shall just escort the Princess to the garden so she and I may talk of the matters of court,” Jac said.

“Yes, dear, of course.” Vivan Cartwright said. Then she curtsied and motioned towards her daughters to do the same.

Jac hurriedly went to the Princess and took her by the arm and guided her from the room. In the hallway the princess’ guards and Jac’s were doing their best to ensure that all the servants stayed back. As the two appeared there was bowing and curtsying again as the entire staff honored Annaxier. “If your highness will come this way. My father is particularly proud of the gardens and spends most days there, tending his plants as any master gardener.”

Annaxier said, “I should be honored to see what his efforts have produced.”

They didn’t say anything else until they reached the garden and were quite alone. The guardsmen pacing themselves off to all sides. Annaxier said, “I am sorry, I did not forsee my brother doing this. He means well I am sure, but wants to establish his dominance over you, for the day when he will be king.”

“He will not be a very good king if he has to use dominance, threats and violence to gain my loyalty, or that of my colleagues in Creationism. We do not work well when motivated by threats or pressure,” Jac Said.

“Yes, I have seen that. I know that. My brother though lives in a world that threats and pressure are all there is. He thinks that Hornik will find its way through use of our military might,” she said.

“We talked of that a half moon ago. You and I know that we have the men, though we do not use them. That we may need to increase our soldiers to outnumber our neighbor’s warriors. But were we to fight one kingdom, the others would join with it, and we would be outnumbered. Fighting in defense, we must do. To take action against our neighbors would be a disaster.”

She nodded. They had spent near an entire round talking of that. Jac thought the kingdom would fall if their neighbors all decided it was time to take by force Hornik’s great wealth. But it was a real possibility.

“I went to my father, but he had already heard of this duel. He asked me if I thought you were any good with the sword. I know you train each day, and you have Sergeant Formilham wondering if you are good, but I did not know how to answer him. I believe he expects that you must fight Lord Riclarpur. My brother has used him to scar several others,” Annaxier said.

Jac nodded, “Master Mikonal told me that the Duke of Conlinton is rich, but his land is bereft of the peasants that it used to have. More money, and less people. He is conflicted in whether he is better off, or not. However, he has tried to find those peasants that have left his lands to make an example of some, even if he has no work for them.”

Annaxier nodded. She said, “He is not a nice man and of course is on the King’s Council. His son, I fear is worse. When father postponed looking for a marriage alliance for me with the princes of other kingdoms, I think Riclarpur thought he could wed me, for they are rich and Riclarpur connotes that with power. Not in levies though, since so many men have fled to the towns. The Conlinton levy will be smaller than it was a few years ago. Riclarpur probably thinks he can raise a great force. Most lords probably think that. Duke Holsatzin will have a full levy should he ever need it, and command of my father’s armies until Edmanstow comes of age.”

Jac nodded. They were talking of other things then the fight he would clearly have to engage in. “I should rather learn more of how the young lord fights, then talk of such grand things presently, highness. I fear that once the heralds arrive and they say I am baron, then the men the lord has called seconds shall arrive.”

Annaxier nodded, “Formilham, come here. The sergeant speaks this language of fighting. He shall tell you all you need. As for the heralds, they shall arrive. As a baron you will outrank Riclarpur, for though the son of a Duke, he is but the son of a true lord. You will be a true lord once the heralds have written your name in the book of arms this night. My brother sometimes does not know what he does, my father said. You might use that to your advantage.”

Formilham had arrived. “Aye, GrandMaster. I would call for broadswords alone, no shield, or daggar. The choice of weapons is yours. The lord does not do well with the balance in one hand of the blades and would use two to grasp it well. You, if you have trained with Fredardic should know how to best use such a weapon.” Jac nodded, for he did.

“He likes to start on the attack. I expect you know how to wait for an opening. Good. His actions suggest that if he can overpower an opponent he can win quickly. He uses this, and his rank to intimidate others. Many fear his father. An even bigger man and possibly more dangerous then the son. Though the father at least has fear of the king.”

That was enough for Jac to work with. “I understand. Do not worry about me. It would seem that the lordling will stop at scarring me, and will not wish to kill me. I may not be under such a compunction. Perhaps I should mention that. It might give him fear at the right time.”

Formilham grinned. With his beard, the way it was, it looked very wolfish. The Sergeant withdrew. Annaxier said, “I may not stay long, though I would take my leave of your mother, for it is considered mannerly to do so.”

“You are a princess. That is the manners of the commons,” Jac pointed out to the princess.

“Still, I shall do so,” She was as good as her word and his parents were overwhelmed at the friendship she had for their son. After Princess Annaxier left his sisters wasted no time and began teasing him about his friendship with the princess. They wanted details and were attempting to extort them when the Heralds arrived and asked that he record his arms with them.

Jac had the Heralds place the image of the Steam Twirler in the upper corner of a shield, a sword reversed in the lower corner, the kingdom’s griffon in the right upper corner, and then a cart on the last quarter. It would serve all to know that he was the Cartwright that had invented the Steam Twirler and did so in service to the kingdom. If he proved himself the next day, then the sword would be well shown. If he fell by it, that too would bear meaning.

He had his mother’s soup and then took a drought of heavy liquor that he would sleep, for it was hard to do so in anticipation of what would happen the next day. The seconds had arrived and Col and Master Gearman dealt with them. At sunrise he would face the duke’s son on the banks of the river. All too soon he would rise in the dark and see how well he could do to appease the prince’s notion of honor.

In the morning it was not long before he was standing in the cool fog near the bank of the river, Jac noted that the lords were late. “Cortormain, fetch some chairs. Henry, get us some mead to drink, out of good Makory pewter if you can manage that. Hurry lads, I should like to be all of a piece when the prince arrives, for he seems to be late. If one of you can find some ham for my breakfast, that would be good as well.”

They were near the Creatory, for Jac had chosen location and weapons, even time. Though it had been suggested by his opponent’s seconds. Jac also was smart enough to have his own healers near, as well as several others who would serve as witnesses. Two carriages, with nobles inside had drawn nigh, but no one showed themselves behind the windows. One he did not need to guess who was inside, as Sergeant Formilham was perched atop the carriage.

HJace had a knife out and was peeling an apple. Jac had an apprentice sharpening his blade. Master Fredardic sat with Jac’s brother Col discussing when Col would come to learn how to fight. Fredardic had nodded to three other Blademasters that had gathered to watch or officiate. A duel was a thing to be respected, Master Fredardic had said.

“Do not get carried away with trying to make an image. It will all come down to the blades, and your bladework,” he said then.

“No, Master, this is not the trials. This is a bully who, if you have taught me anything, should be taken down a notch or two. Even the Prince should be taught manners if this is something he has been indulging in,” Jac said.

“Do not think to use this duel to teach a prince manners. Even if so, you are still a commoner…” The blademaster stopped himself. “I am sorry Baron.”

“I may have been made a noble so I could be taught a lesson, but it would be better to be the instructor,” Jac said. Words that Fredardic had often said.

“Just do not get yourself killed. I am sure there are more Creations inside your skull, and to lose them would be a sad thing.” Master Gearman said. A third carriage arrived and pulled up to the other two. Sergeant Formilham seemed familiar with the other driver and guards.

“I think that is why we have so many spectators. I should like you to offer my chair to her highness when things start. Why not have her sit as witness where all can see,” Jac said.

“Nobles don’t do that, Jac,” Master Gearman rebutted.

“You go ahead and offer this to her. You tell her that all of societies mores need change. Master Fredardic, will you do this?”

“Aye, might as well. Should she sit here, she will have a better view. But here are all the lads and lasses, with the makings it looks like of a feast.”

The chairs had come, and all the journeymen and apprentices from not only Jac’s Creatory, but other nearby ones as well. Near sixty new arrivals on Jac’s side of the field. As the sun was now up, streaming over the river, Jac and his friends were soon seated and eating a hearty meal. Three of the apprentices even had instruments that they had fetched and were providing music, when the Prince and his handful of companions arrived.

“I see the new Baron has taken to his status quickly. Well I should not think he will be so happy once he has faced you, Riclarpur,” the Prince said loudly. He looked to the carriages, now five of them, and scowled. Sergeant Formilham seemed to smile larger at that moment. “Best you get on with it. There is a Council meeting this morning and I do not wish to be late.”

Jac let out an explosive laugh. “Well said little Prince man. Well said. These friends of the little Prince man are more than a round late. Have I not sat here and fought this duel already and they lost. Why the tale has gone back and forth through all of Firtoskin three times.”

“Do not try our patience. We are not late,” Riclarpur said.

“Unless you are as stupid as you are a fool for the dupe you are, then you are very late, and my boys and girls here have told all and sundry how you have fallen at our sunrise duel. If you look, you will see that the sun is well up. Who is there to dispute such a tale. Shit, I knew that the nobles were stupid, but this idiot, how did he ever grow tall enough to kiss a horse’s ass?” Jac’s being offensive was having the desired effect.

“Come, it is time for the two to duel,” Fredardic waved to the other Blademasters who came and took over. Fredardic gave Jac a look. Quietly he said to Jac, “Don’t push at the Prince’s pride. He will be a king.”

“No more discussion amongst the combatants. Please go to the field. No weapons but your sword, else we shall have to intervene as the terms were stated. We shall call begin and that is the signal to start. If we call halt, you must bring your sword up and withdraw from your opponent. You may not leave the marked field. You may not taunt each other again until we speak to start your duel. Now please, to the field,” one of Fredardic’s friends said.

Jac smiled widely and walked to the field, a sandwich of ham in one hand the other dragging the sword behind him leisurely. Fredardic surely did not like that. The Blademaster, though, went as he had been asked, to the carriage they thought conveyed the Princess. Jac stretched his neck and then took another bite of his sandwich.

He waited for the two Blademasters that were going to officiate to come and see that he was ready, and that his blade was proper. There were no tricks aside from trying to make Lord Riclarpur think that Jac was not whom the other thought he was. They could not taunt one another but Jac saw the man’s eyes widen and flow to where Fredardic was no doubt talking to the princess. That was behind Jac and he did not want to turn around. Surely, the fool lord recognized Fredardic.

Jac had gone to at least one day of the three day weapons trials each year since he had moved to Firtoskin. Sometimes all three days, but that took a lot of time away from the Creatory. “Are you ready, Baron?” Jac was asked. “I would suggest you finish your sandwich before we start. Else if you tell me you are ready, I shall withdraw to a vantage point and we will begin.”

“Do you not think I can take this blowhard with one hand holding a sandwich? You go ahead and call the start of the duel he insisted on fighting. I promise not to throw the sandwich at him when we begin, and I am not such a fool that I would fight with it in my hand.”

Jac at least told the judge that. Jac was not sure if he actually weren’t just such a fool that he might fight with the sandwich in his hand. The Blademaster then retreated to the sideline, and nodded to the other judge, “Begin.”

“You are a bastard, aren’t you?” Jac said loudly before anyone else could hear a word. “I mean they say you are the son of a Duke and all so I went to have a look at this father of your’s but you don’t look a thing like him do you? Do people tell you about that?”

Riclarpur let out a bellow and was charging Jac. Jac still held the sandwich in his off hand and his sword still had it’s point in the dirt. Riclarpur was still screaming as he used two hand to bring his sword up and swing towards where Jac’s head was atop his body. Jac was not moving. He had cocked his head left, and said “Bastard?” Then cocked his head right, “Bastard!”

Jac fell to one knee as the sword, with all it’s momentum in his opponents two hands was still aimed towards where his head had been when he stood. As he fell he leaned back, arching while his own sword whipped up and struck Riclarpur’s sword at an angle forcing it further up.

“Hmm, that worked well,” Jac said, his back now straight and getting to both feet. His sword recovering and in a circle and slashing across his opponents tunic before the man could recover, even as he tried to dodge out of the way and to the right for his charging momentum carried him that way. Jac was now standing and turning to face the man who had stumbled by him.

Riclarpur was not that ineffective, snapping his own blade to defend himself as he passed Jac. The two swords clanged as they hit each other and those observing were surely impressed. As the lordling recovered, and noted his cut tunic chest, Jac took another bite of his ham sandwich. He hoped it would upset the Duke’s son. That was not only important, but he thought it would help as the fight played out. Jac now had turned almost all around and was facing the other side where his friends, journeymen and apprentices sat or stood. Several guardsmen stood around a woman who sat in one chair that had been brought forward to watch. The princess. Now Jac was sure that nothing untoward would happen.

“I will kill you,” Riclarpur said looking at his cut clothes.

“Because I cut your pretties? Are you that vain. I could have cut your face. Now that would be a reason to kill me. But we fight to first blood.” Jac spoke loud enough so that all could hear him say such things. Riclarpur roared again and this time his blade came lower, towards Jac’s torso. Jac however blocked it with a defensive stroke, using very little motion.

Riclarpur continued to roar and brought his blade in arc to the other side of Jac’s torso. Again Jac was there blocking with very little motion. A third time, a fourth, a fifth, and each time it took little effort for Jac to block the attacks. Jac stepped forward one pace, and Riclarpur was put off his sixth stroke but came in lower at the ankles. Jac deflected the blow with the tip of his sword. Jac was too busy to take another bite of his sandwich and contemplated throwing the meat and bread from him so he could use both hands.

Riclarpur stopped his bestial growling and brought both hands to lift the sword, advancing himself. Jac deflected another attack and brought his blade close to the man’s left arm forcing the noble to shift his weight and force him out of his close attack stance. “You are somewhat well trained,” Riclarpur said.

“I have a Blademaster sitting at my table. I should think that would be an indication that I am somewhat well trained,” Jac said.

“But not well trained enough,” Riclarpur launched another attack. Again with ease Jac moved to the left and defended, four, five, seven times. Little movements against bigger ones. Jac just concentrated on using his blade to be where it needed to be to block, not to attack and allow any opening in his defense. Then one moment and Jac flicked his wrist more to the right and touched the man’s forearm with his very sharp blade. A little pressure and the cut must have drawn blood, yes Jac noted red spots on his own blade as well as on the tunic sleeve of Riclarpur.

“Touch!” Called one of the Blademasters observing. “Halt!” he shouted.

Jac immediately backed up away from the Duke’s son, but Riclarpur kept advancing. “Halt! Lord Conlinton! You must stop. Withdraw to your side, away from Lord Cartwright. Do it now!”

Riclarpur had stopped advancing towards Jac, and so Jac stopped withdrawing, but the noble did not withdraw. “Ric! To your side, now my lord!” That was the prince crying out.

As if the man’s head was on a cord and it had been yanked, Riclarpur looked to the prince with a fast twist of his head. What was exchanged between them was a sight that Jac could not see. He was sure that the look was not pleasant. Jac could see the face of the Prince, but he knew the boy was not pleased. Riclarpur shook his head, but moved back to his side of the field where one of the two Blademasters went to attend him. The other came to Jac.

“Do you wish to continue? There has been blood drawn and honor is served.”

“I did not provoke this fight. I do not serve at the brat’s pleasure. If Riclarpur would stop, so would I. If he wishes to continue, then let him come,” Jac said. It might not have been loud enough for Riclarpur to hear, but those behind Jac, for his people had rushed to be behind where he stood, shouted their defiance and support of Jac. Master Fredardic scowled, then shrugged.

“The boy is right. The lord is right. This will not end until the nobles have had their sport.” Fredardic said towards the Blademaster. They were friends, for once that level of skill was reached, it was best to be friends with the other Blademasters. An enemy amongst that group of professionals could make things ugly.

Jac shook out his limbs and then gave the remains of the sandwich he had carried to one of his apprentices to take back to the table. The Princess stood and looked to the Prince, Jac saw. She said something but Jac was too far away to hear.

The Prince held up his hands as if he had nothing to do with the fight. Jac watched as the other Blademaster, who had asked the same questions of the Duke’s son that Jac had been asked, went to meet with the Blademaster who had attended him. They conferred in the center of the field for a moment, then one turned and announced, “The combatants wish to continue…”

Before he said more, the Princess said quite clearly, “This is dishonourable, Riclarpur. I shall ensure that all the court will know of it.” Jac watched as the man turned his gaze to the Princess as if a challenge. Then, at that moment, Jac decided that lord Riclarpur would pay and never forget. In the rounds since this challenge had been made, Jac had found that the lord had hurt seven others. One victim had lost the sight in an eye, three others were scarred, and one could not open or close his left hand from the cuts to the man’s muscles. He was not a good man, even if he served at the pleasure of the Prince.

The Blademasters were asking if the combatants were ready and Jac nodded. “Begin!” Came the call and as Riclarpur came at him once more, a charging attack, Jac did fancy hand work. That is what he and the other students of Fredardic called it. Moving his wrist with the sword as an extension, it went in and out of intricate patterns.If one looked at the patterns, they could discern the skill and discipline that it took to move a blade so.

The patterns were not flailings around of the heavy blade, but tight and controlled. Even Riclarpur had to realize that Jac must be a very good swordsmen, or he was a fool. Jac deflected the man’s attack and broke the lord’s grip on the sword, sending it flying. Forcing the noble to walk to pick it up. “Don’t worry. I was not a noble born like you. I won’t stab you in the back while you can not defend yourself,” Jac ensured all watching heard him. Riclarpur had attacked one defenseless man he had dueled before in that very way.

Riclarpur picked his blade up and now stood on the defensive. The first smart thing he had done since the fight had begun. There were two ways to fight, Jac knew. When he fought in the studio of Master Fredardic, he never would speak, for that was a distraction. But here, baiting his opponent into errors was important. Blademaster Fredardic was frowning at the tactic, Jac was sure. But it was working. It was working very well.

“You are really quite an idiot, and not much of a man, aren’t you, Conlinton’s get? You think you are a lord and privileged, but you jump to wipe the prince’s ass even before he has to shit!” Jac said loud enough again so all heard. He was sorry he was so vulgar in front of Princess Annaxier, but it was important to live and not die. Jac was pretty sure this would take care of that. He did not want to end life crippled with out the use of his hand.

“You dog, you do not want to insult the Prince!” Riclarpur shouted.

“I would insult the king if he proved to be such a fool as his son, or the idiots that the son has follow him, licking his balls in the hope of gaining some royal favor. Do you and your fellows not know that royal favor is for those who have something to contribute that the kingdom needs? Not what the petty whims of a tyrant needs?”

Riclarpur faked an attack but Jac did not take the bait. He stood ready a few feet outside of the range of his opponent’s reach. “You should stop your speech else you will find your neck stretched by a rope…” Riclarpur began.

“I am a noble now, else you would not be able to fight me. I am ennobled by the very turd that you would embrace. My head needs be separated by an axe now!” That was an even better taunt. Direct and to the point.

“Or my sword!” Lord Riclarpur attacked Jac again, though after he had his little sentence. That was showing the move to Jac with ages to spare. Jac blocked the first part of the attack, for it was a combination, and complex. It ended with Jac slashing Riclarpur from forehead to cheek, at an angle scoring the Duke’s son. More pressure, which Jac had withheld, and the man’s eye would have been sliced through. In moments Riclarpur would have to close that eye as he would not be able to see from it with the blood now pouring from his forehead.

Riclarpur screamed and now slashed awkwardly but determinedly at Jac. “Stop, or I shall scar you worse. You will not like what I shall do to you as payback for what you have done to others,” Jac said.

Jac was dodging and batting at the blade that kept trying to score on him. Riclarpur just yelled louder, and so Jac went and did what was needed. A horizontal slash that cut way part of the ear on the other side of the man’s face. He was going to be disfigured. He still would not stop.

“You blinded a man. You ruined one’s hand. Stop, or the same will happen to you.” Jac had spent time trying to find if this man he fought had any value to the kingdom other then being the bully for the prince. As far as he and several others could find, that was all he would ever be good at it. That and inheriting all the riches his father had been accumulating, just as the Duke of Conlinton before had done, and the one before that. The Conlinton’s had last put on armor in defense of the kingdom close to a hundred years before.

They lived on the contributions of past Dukes. “Stop, Riclarpur, or be hurt beyond belief,” Jac warned one last time.

The man would not, and Jac said it louder. “Stop, or you will be crippled for life.”

Still Riclarpur growled and tried assaults that would have killed an unskilled swordsman. Jac defended, and after several ticks he then cut low at the calf muscle behind his enemies right leg. A clean slice and Riclarpur fell. A hamstring like that would not be fixed by the healers. Riclarpur would not lose the leg but he would need a cane to walk for life, for he would be lamed. Until the cut was bound, and had healed he would not walk at all. Jac walked back towards the side as the fallen man screamed curses, in between his screams from the pain he was having. The healers were rushing to the fallen lordling.

Jac walked to stand in front of the prince, “Your champion shall not trouble this realm again. You are a boy, and would be a king. You obviously do not understand what is happening to the kingdom that you stand to inherit. I do not either, so I won’t lecture you. But if you want a kingdom to rule when you have grown to a man, best you try to understand and become prepared to rule. Oh, and should you send someone against me again, I won’t hold back. Your little shit of a man, I could have killed in the first pass with the Cetemaron response. If you do not know what that is, ask the Blademasters.” Jac pulled up his sword and spun very quickly lifting the sword in a figure eight and around until it rested between his arm and torso, pointing backwards. “The Cetemaron response.”

Jac walked away to his own table and people where he handed his sword to one of the guards that it should be wiped clean of all the blood. Quietly, he said without looking back to the Prince, “Has the boy wiped the blood from his face yet, or is he staring in shock trying to think of what to do?” Jac smiled.

The Princess was not amused, “Taking down the Duke’s son was foolish enough, but taunting my brother was stupid. He will be king one day. He will have you killed.”

Jac said, “Oh, that reminds me, I am sorry for my swearing upon the field Princess. It was not the best use of my tongue, but the man needed to be goaded into more mistakes. He was very proud.”

“Do not change the subject. I can not protect you when my brother becomes king,” Annaxier said.

“If your brother wants my head when he becomes king, then he can try and take it. The kingdom has a great many ills, one of which are these idle nobles who do not want to solve the problems that the kingdom has, but are preying on those who can help all. That is why your brother needs to be, oh, spanked like a baby. If he does not see that he should be doing more, then even your father needs to be taken to task no matter how ill your mother is. His responsibility is to the kingdom also. With beasts such as lord Riclarpur, the kingdom is not safe. I wish my swordarm were better that I could help defend it from other such vultures that exist.” Jac did not raise his voice. He even tried to keep his response relatively quiet so few ohers would hear. But close to the princess, were such people as her guardsmen, as well as Jac’s. Master Gearman and Fredardic were also close at hand. Jac should have known to curb his tongue.

The Princess starred at him with wide eyes, then shaking her head turned and went back to her carriage, hurrying. Her guardsmen turning and quickly surrounding her. Sergeant Formilham stood for a second, “Don’t end up a fool,” the man said. Then he too followed his mistress.

“Come, you have blood on your tunic. Let us clean you up for you have a few rounds before you are to the palace for the King’s Council.” Master Gearman said.

“No, I shall wear the blood upon me. It shall be part of what the King should deal with. He can not punish me, for he has never punished the Duke’s son for his dueling. If he were to try, I think there would be a riot of all the workers in all the Makories. No, I do not fear that. I shall even curb my tongue if the King does justice about this duel. Though that I do not expect.”

The others tried to convince him to change his mind and his tunic, but he did not.

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Each time I start a year, I have already compiled a list, months ago with about 6000 entered of what happened from 1788 to 1837. My first step now (It took several trials to get this down to a science) is to cut out the specific year I will work on and paste it into its own spreadsheet to work with. When I worked on the entire spreadsheet, sometimes inserting a line, with all the graphics I had begun to place, took a long time. Working on each year alone, is a lot faster.

With the year separated out, I now turn to my book sources,

The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-29-09-05.jpg

Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield

1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-29-09-05.jpg What Happened When by Carruth.

PastedGraphic-2012-09-29-09-05.jpg, History of the World. A beautiful Dorealing Kindersley book.

I now diligently look through each of these to find entries that I did not come across on the internet, and other printed lists. It is possible that there are places that have more listings for each year. I have not found them. And when you go to the Timelines at the Regency Assembly Press page, there you will see all the graphical references as well. Something that I did not find anywhere else.

Here is the start of 1829:

Year Month Day Event
1829 Jan 19 Johann von Goethe’s “Faust, Part 1,” premiered.
1829 Jan 28 In Scotland William Burke was hanged for murder following a scandal in which he was found to have provided extra-fresh corpses for anatomy schools in Edinburgh. His partner William Hare had turned king’s witness. The scandal led to the 1832 Anatomy Act.
1829 Feb 11 Alexander Griboyedov (b.1795), Russian diplomat, playwright and composer, was beheaded by a mob attack on the Russian embassy in Tehran. Griboyedov was protecting an Armenian eunuch, who had escaped from the harem of the Persian shah along with 2 Armenian girls. The Russians let the incident pass after an Iranian apology. They were already at war with the Turks and in regional competition with the British.
1829 Feb 16 Francois-Joseph Gossec (95), Belgian-French composer (Messe de Morts), died.
1829 Feb 26 Levi Strauss, creator of blue jeans, was born.
1829 Mar 2 Carl Schurz, was born. He was a Civil War general, political reformer and anti-imperialist.
1829 Mar 2 New England Asylum for the Blind, 1st in US, was incorporated in Boston.
1829 Mar 4 An unruly crowd mobbed the White House during the inaugural reception for President Jackson, the 7th US President. The event was later depicted by artist Louis S. Glanzman in his painting “Andrew Jackson’s Inauguration” (1970).
1829 Apr 6 Niels Henrik Abel (b.1802), Norwegian mathematician, died of tuberculosis. After him comes the term Abelian group, an algebraic commutative group. In 2004 Peter Pesic authored “Abel’s Proof: An Essay on the Sources and Meaning of Mathematical Unsolvability.”
1829 Apr 10 William Booth, founder (Salvation Army), was born.
1829 Apr 13 English Emancipation Act granted freedom of religion to Catholics.
1829 May 8 Louis Moreau Gottschalk (d.1869), American pianist, was born in New Orleans.
1829 May 10 Thomas Young, physicist, decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphics, died.
1829 May 15 Joseph Smith was “ordained” by John the Baptist- according to Joseph Smith.  Mormon church was founded in NY.
1829 May 18 Bernardo Bittoni, composer, died.
1829 May 29 Humphrey Davy (84), scientist, inventor (Miner’s safety lamp), died at age 50. In 1963 Anne Treneer authored “The Mercurial Chemist: A Life of Sir Humphrey Davy.”
1829 May In Poland Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840), Italian violinist, performed in concert in Warsaw. Frederic Chopin (19) was so impressed that he proceeded to compose a series of piano studies a la Paganini. Chopin’s 27 Etudes later became a cornerstone of every gifted pianist’s repertoire.
1829 Jun 8 John Everett Millais, painter (Order of Release), was born in England.
1829 Jun 12 Johanna Spyri (d.1901), Swiss author (Heidi), was born. [see June 12, 1827]
1829 Jun 27 James Smithson (b.1765), Englishmen scientist, died. His 1926 will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. In 2003 Nina Burleigh authored “The Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams and the Making of America’s Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian.” [see 1836]
1829 Jul 4 Cornerstone laid for 1st US mint (Chestnut & Juniper St, Phila).
1829 Jul 4 In Boston, Mass., abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, from 1831-1865.
1829 Jul 23 William Austin Burt of Mount Vernon, Mich., received a patent for his “typographer,” a forerunner of the typewriter.
1829 Aug 9 The locomotive “Stourbridge Lion” went into service.
1829 Aug 16 The original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, arrived in Boston aboard the ship Sachem to be exhibited to the Western world.
1829 Aug 25 Pres. Jackson made an offer to buy Texas, but the Mexican government refused.
1829 Aug 31 Giachinno Rossini’s final opera “William Tell” was produced in Paris.
1829 Sep 8 George Crook (d.1890), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1829 Sep 12 Charles Dudley Warner, essayist and novelist who, with Mark Twain, wrote “The Guilded Age,” was born.
1829 Sep 25 There was a failed assassination attempt on Simon Bolivar.
1829 Sep 28 Walker’s Appeal, a racial antislavery pamphlet, was published in Boston.
1829 Sep 29 London’s reorganized police force, “bobbies”, which became known as Scotland Yard, went on duty. In 1828 Sir Robert Peel set up a committee whose findings paved the way for his police Bill, which led to the setting up of an organized police service in London.
1829 Sep Ralph Waldo Emerson married Ellen Louisa Tucker. She had active tuberculosis and died two years later. His two brothers, Edward Bliss and Charles Chauncy died of TB in 1834 and 1835. [see 1883-1885]
1829 Oct 5 the 21st president of the United States, Chester Alan Arthur, was born in Fairfield, Vt. Some sources list 1830.
1829 Oct 16 Tremont Hotel, 1st US modern hotel, opened in Boston.
1829 Oct 17 Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay Canal formally opened. The Chesapeake-Delaware Canal was 14 miles long.
1829 Oct 17 Sam Patch (~23), stunt diver, successfully dove 120 feet from a platform on Goat Island at Niagara Falls.
1829 Oct 23 The Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia received its 1st prisoner, burglar Charles Williams (18). It was based on the Quaker idea of reform through solitude and reflection. It opened to tourists in 1971 after being closed to prisoners. The prison was designed by John Haviland.
1829 Oct 29 Maria A. [Nannerl] Mozart, Austrian pianist (Wolfgang’s sister), died.
1829 Nov 8 Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General of the East India Company, called for the abolition of sati (suttee), the practice of a widow burning herself to death on her husband’s funeral pyre. [see Dec 4]
1829 Nov 13 Sam Patch (~23), stunt diver, dove 125 feet from a platform at the Genessee Falls in Rochester. His body was found the following March in the Genessee River ice. In 2003 Paul E. Johnson authored “Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper.”
1829 Nov 16 Anton G. Rubinstein, Russian pianist, conductor and composer, was born.
1829 Nov 20 Jews were expelled from Nikolayev and Sevastopol, Russia.
1829 Nov 28 Anton Rubinstein (d.1894), pianist and composer (Omitri Doskoy), was born in Vykhvatinetz, Podolia. He was the teacher of Tchaikovsky and considered the only rival of Liszt. His work included 6 symphonies, dozens of concertos and chamber works, and 20 operas, of which only “The Demon” has shown staying power. It was based on Lermontov’s Byronic poem.
1829 Dec 4 British colonial rulers abolished “suttee” (Sati) in India. This was the practice of a widow burning herself to death on her husband’s funeral pyre.
1829 Dec 8 The first presidential address of Andrew Jackson.
1829 Dec 14 In France Joseph Niepce signed a 10-year partnership agreement with Louis Daguerre to perfect a new photographic imaging process discovered by Niepce.
1829 Dec 18 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (~85), French nature investigator, died.
1829 Dec 21 The 1st stone arch railroad bridge in US was dedicated in Baltimore.
1829 Dec 22 The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad opened the first passenger railway line.
1829 Dec 27 Hinton Helper, southern abolitionist, was born. He wrote “The Impending Crisis,”  the most stinging indictment of slavery.
1829 British authorities abolish the practice of suttee in India, whereby Hindu women were burned on their husband’s funeral pyres.
1829 English actress Fanny Kemble, at 19, makes her debut at London’s Royal Theatre in Covent Garden, playing Juliet in the company headed by her father, Charles Kemble, and her mother, Maria Theresa De Camp Kemble. She is an immediate success and revives the failing popularity of the Royal Theatre.
1829 Russia and Turkey come to terms under the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Adrianople.
1829 Sir Robert Peel forms the police force.
1829 The Catholic Emancipation Act gives Catholics civil rights.
1829 The Catholic Emancipation Act is enacted in Britain, which means that Roman Catholics can now hold public office.
1829 The country of Greater Columbia is now divided into the countries of Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and New Granada.
1829 The settlement of Perth is founded.
1829 The whole of Australia is claimed as British territory.
1829 In London, parliament extends tolerance, passing the Catholic Emancipation Bill, making it possible for Catholics to hold public office.
1829 The Treaty of Adrianople ends war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire grants Greece independence.  Russian authority in Georgia is recognized. The Russians are allowed access through the narrow straits from the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. Autonomy is extended to Serbia and to the Romanians of Moldavia and Walachia, under Russian protection.  
1829 Scotch tape is invented.
1829 Mexico abolishes slavery in its territories, hoping to discourage migration into Texas from the United States.
1829 David Walker, an outspoken black abolitionist, stated the Mr. Jefferson’s remarks (on white superiority) “have sunk deep into the hearts of millions of whites and will never be removed this side of eternity.” [see 1743]
1829 Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) published his first literary work: “A Walking Tour from Holmen’s Canal to the Eastern Point of Amager.”
1829 William Cobbett, British writer, authored “The Emigrant’s Guide,” offering advice on settling in the New World.
1829 Mendelssohn’s revived Bach’s St. Matthew Passion.
1829 Frederic Chopin at 19 published his Waltz #10, Op.69/2 and Waltz #13 Op.70/3. These were his first and second published waltzes.
1829 Utopian reformers opened the Hall of Science in a disused downtown Manhattan church, across the street from Tract House, the headquarters of a new Christian evangelical movement.
1829 The American Bible Society published scripture in the Seneca Indian language.
1829 Sister Mary Elizabeth Lange of Haiti co-founded the first black religious order of nuns (the Oblate Sisters of Providence) in the US.
1829 US Senator Daniel Webster appointed the first Senate page. The first US House page was appointed in 1842.
1829 Plymouth Brethren missionaries from the US made their 1st trip to Baghdad.
1829 Abner Cutler started a cabinet making business in Buffalo, New York. The company manufactured roll-top desks for decades.
1829 The Yeungling Brewery began producing beer in Pottsville, Pa.
1829 William Austin Burt patented his typographer, the first practical typewriter writing machine.
1829 In Western Australia the Nyoongar people were largely dispossessed by white settlement. In 2006 they proved native title to over more than 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) covering Perth and its surrounds by continuing to observe traditional customs.
1829 Daniel O’Connell, an Irish Catholic, took a seat in the House of Commons and began to work for the repeal of the union between Britain and Ireland. Nationalistic sentiments became identified mainly with the Catholics.
1829 In England the ban on Catholic voting was lifted.
1829 Oxford and Cambridge held their first boat race on the River Thames at Henley in Oxfordshire. The second race occurred in 1836, with the venue moved to be from Westminster to Putney.
1829 The Obelisk of Luxor, a gift from Egypt, was transported to the Place de la Concorde in Paris. [see 1836]
1829 Friedrich Buschmann, German musician, invented the accordion and laid out the buttons in a circle of fifths pattern.
1829 A hurricane destroyed the town of Loreto in Baha California except for the Mission Nuestra Senora de Loreto. The center of government was moved down the coast to La Paz.
1829-1833 Walter Bowne served as mayor of NYC.
1829-1833 Honore Daumier, French artist, created his bust of Comte de Lameth. Daumier honed his caricaturing skills with a series of terra-cotta busts that lampooned the right-wing leaders of the Court party. Lameth had fought for the colonists in the American Revolution and had voted to abolish the aristocracy during the French revolution.
1829-1837 Andrew Jackson was President of the US. In 2001 Robert V. Remini authored “Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars.”
1829-1877 This period in US history was covered by Walter A. McDougall in his 2008 book “Throes of Democracy: The American Civil War Era 1829-1877.”
1829-1900 Charles Dudley Warner, American author and editor: “Public opinion is stronger than the legislature, and nearly as strong as the Ten Commandments.”
1829-1904 John Rogers, sculptor. He depicted Americans the way they wanted to be seen and became known as the “People’s Sculptor.”
1829-1906 Carl Schurz, American politician: “Ideals are like stars; you will not succeed in touching them with your hands. But like the seafaring man on the desert of waters, you choose them as your guides, and following them you will reach your destiny.”
1829-1908 Thomas Hill, American landscape painter.
1829-1912 General William Booth was the founder and leader of the Salvation Army, a Christian and social welfare organization taking spiritual and material help to the needy, first in London and then around the world. Booth, ordained a Methodist minister in 1858 but later becoming an independent evangelist, changed the name of his Christian Mission to the Salvation Army in 1878, adopting a military structure. Booth‘s seven children toiled in the Army, organizing units (including the Volunteers of America) throughout the world.

Read Full Post »


Each time I start a year, I have already compiled a list, months ago with about 6000 entered of what happened from 1788 to 1837. My first step now (It took several trials to get this down to a science) is to cut out the specific year I will work on and paste it into its own spreadsheet to work with. When I worked on the entire spreadsheet, sometimes inserting a line, with all the graphics I had begun to place, took a long time. Working on each year alone, is a lot faster.

With the year separated out, I now turn to my book sources,

The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-28-08-49.jpg

Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield

1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-28-08-49.jpg What Happened When by Carruth.

PastedGraphic-2012-09-28-08-49.jpg, History of the World. A beautiful Dorealing Kindersley book.

I now and diligently look through each of these to find entries that I did not come across on the internet, and other printed lists. It is possible that there are places that have more listings for each year. I have not found them. And when you go to the Timelines at the Regency Assembly Press page, there you will see all the graphical references as well. Something that I did not find anywhere else.

Here is the start of 1828:

Year Month Day Event
1828 2-Jan Prime Minister of the United Kingdom: Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
1828 Jan 31 Alexandros Ypsilanti (35), Greek resistance fighter, died.
1828 Feb 8 French author Jules Verne (d.1905) was born. He is considered the father of science fiction. Many of his 19th-century works forecast amazing scientific feats–feats that were actually carried out in the 20th century–with uncanny accuracy. Verne’s 1865 book From the Earth to the Moon told the story of a space ship that is launched from Florida to the moon and that returns to Earth by landing in the ocean. Something of a scientist and traveler himself, Verne’s 1870 work about a submarine, “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea,” and “Around the World in Eighty Days” also foretold technological advances that seemed fantastic at the time. “Anything one man can imagine, other men can make real.”
1828 Feb 12 George Meredith, English poet and novelist, was born.
1828 Feb 18 More than 100 vessels were destroyed in a storm at Gibraltar.
1828 Feb 21 The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix, the 1st American Indian newspaper in US, was printed, both in English and in the newly invented Cherokee alphabet.
1828 Mar 5 Johann Gungl, composer, was born.
1828 Mar 8 Johann Anton Sulzer (75), composer, died.
1828 Mar 17 Maj. Gen’l. Patrick R. Cleburne, the “Stonewall” of the West, was born.
1828 Mar 20 Henrik Ibsen (d.1906), poet and dramatist was born in Skien, Norway. His work included “Peer Gynt” and “Hedda Gabler.” “The worst enemy of truth and freedom in our society is the compact majority. Yes, the damned, compact, liberal majority.” In 1971 the 3rd and final volume of “Ibsen: A Biography” by Michael Meyer (d.2000) was published.
1828 Apr 4 Casparus van Wooden patented chocolate milk powder (Amsterdam).
1828 Apr 14 The first edition of Noah Webster’s “American Dictionary of the English Language” was published. Webster had finished writing it in England in January, 1825.
1828 Apr 16 Francisco Jose Goya y Lucientes (b.1746), Spanish painter, cartoonist, died at age 82 in France. He had served 3 generations of Spanish kings as court painter. In 2002 Julia Blackburn authored “Old Man Goya.” In 2003 Robert Hughes authored “Goya.” See link for Goya timeline.
1828 Apr 21 Hippolyte Taine, French philosopher, historian (Voyage in Italy), was born.
1828 Apr 26 Russia declared war on Turkey to support Greece’s independence.
1828 May 6 The Cherokee Indians were forced to sign a treaty giving up their Arkansas Reservation for a new home in what later became Oklahoma. This led to a split in the tribe as one group moved to Oklahoma and others stayed behind and became known as the Lost Cherokees.
1828 May 8 Jean Henri Dunant (d.1910), Swiss philanthropist, was born. He founded the Int’l. Committee of the Red Cross and was the first recipient (jointly) of the Nobel Peace Prize.
1828 May 12 Dante Gabriel Rossetti (d.1882), English poet and painter, was born. He helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
1828 May 13 US passed the Tariff of Abominations. Congress raised duties on manufactured goods from abroad on which the South was dependent. South Carolina declared the tariff null and void within its borders and pres. Jackson threatened to send in troops. The tariffs were lowered in 1833.
1828 May 16 Sir William Congreve (b.1772), British artillerist and inventor, died. In 1805 he developed the Congreve Rocket.
1828 May 18 The Battle of Las Piedras, ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.
1828 May 22 Albrecht von Grafe, German eye surgeon, founder of modern ophthalmology, was born.
1828 Jun 7 A party led by Jebediah Smith completed a journey down the Klamath River and were on the verge of starvation when they were visited by Indians who brought food. Smith’s party proceeded north to Oregon and most of the party was killed by Umpqua Indians. Smith was killed in 1831 by Comanches on the Cimarron River. Smith’s party were the 1st white people to see Lake Earl, the biggest lagoon on the West Coast.
1828 Jun 13 Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) was proclaimed dictator (Colombia).
1828 Jul 4 James Johnston Pettigrew, scholar, teacher, Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
1828 Jul 4 Ground-breaking ceremonies were held in Baltimore for construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Charles Carroll, last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, turned the spade in Baltimore. At the groundbreaking, Carroll said, “I consider this among the most important acts of my life, second only to that of signing the Declaration of Independence, if even it be second to that.” On the same day, in nearby Georgetown, President John Quincy Adams, with great fanfare, lifted the first shovel of dirt to begin construction of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal that would link Washington, Baltimore and Pittsburgh by water. The railroad went on to become one of the nation’s longest rail lines, reaching St. Louis, Missouri, in 1857. The 185-mile canal, though it had many years of use, was quickly eclipsed as a transportation medium by the superior technology of the railroad.
1828 Jul 27 Gilbert Charles Stuart, painter, died.
1828 Aug 22 Franz Joseph Gall (70), German-French physician, fraud  (phrenology), died.
1828 Aug 28 Leo Tolstoy (d.1910), Russian novelist, was born. His work included “War and Peace” and  “Anna Karenina.” “History would be an excellent thing if only it were true.” “It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness.” [see Sep 9]
1828 Aug England’s Thames Tunnel Company was forced to halt operations due to accidents and loss of financial support. Work was halted for 7 years.
1828 Sep 8 Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), hero of Little Round Top at Gettysburg, was born.
1828 Sep 9 Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist, was born.  [see Aug 28]
1828 Sep 20 Gioacchino Rossini’s opera “Le Comte Ory,” premiered in Paris.
1828 Nov 1 Balfour Steward, Scottish physicist and meteorologist, was born.
1828 Nov 8 Thomas Bewick (b.1753), English engraver and ornithologist, died. In 2007 Jenny Uglow authored “Nature’s Engraver: A Life of Thomas Bewick.”
1828 Nov 19 Franz Schubert (b.1797), Austrian composer, died of syphilis in Vienna. In this he composed his song cycle “Schwanengesang.” His work included the C-Major Symphony, string quartets, 3 piano sonatas, and the C-Major String Quartet. Otto Erich Deutsch catalogued his work [hence the “D” numbers] and wrote a documentary biography. In 1997 Brian Newbould  wrote “Schubert: The Music and the Man.”
1828 Dec 3 Andrew Jackson was elected 7th president of the United States over John Quincy Adams. Resentment of the restrictive credit policies of the first central bank, the Bank of the United States, fueled a populist backlash that elected Andrew Jackson.
1828 Dec 22 Rachel Jackson, beloved wife of Andrew Jackson, died of heart disease just weeks before her recently elected husband was inaugurated as president of the United States. Andrew Jackson had been 21 and a promising young lawyer when Rachel Donelson Robards, his landlady’s daughter and the estranged wife of Lewis Robards of Kentucky, caught his eye. Robards had started divorce proceedings, but had dropped them without his wife’s knowledge. Believing she was a free woman, Rachel married Andrew Jackson in 1791. Two years later, the couple discovered that Robards was finally suing for divorce–on the grounds of adultery and desertion. The divorce was granted, and in 1794, the couple quietly remarried. Yet, for the rest of her life, Rachel was unjustly slandered for her irregular marriage. The gossip became particularly painful during the 1828 presidential campaign when the 37-year-old scandal was resurrected as a campaign issue. Andrew Jackson defeated his opponent John Quincy Adams, but when Rachel died soon after the election, Jackson bitterly attributed her death to “those vile wretches who…slandered her.”
1828 Dec 23 Mathilde Wesendonk, German writer, poet (Tagebuchblatter), was born.
1828 America’s Shakers drop their permissive attitude toward alcohol, forbidding the use of beer, cider, wines, and all ardent liquors, on all occasions, including house-raisings, husking bees, harvestings, and all other gatherings.
1828 An English physician suggests the word obstetrician from the Latin “to stand before” to be used to denote a specialist in childbirth instead of the more commonly used names of male midwife, man midwife, madman, accouter, and even androboethogynist.
1828 Girls and women organize the first strike of US women wage earners in Dover, N.H. after cotton mill owners post new rules which include: “The bell to call the people to work will be rung 5 minutes and tolled 5 minutes; at the last stroke the entrance will be closed and a fee of 12 1/2 cents exacted of anyone for whom it may be reopened”; “No person can be allowed to leave work without permission of the overseer.”; and “No talking can be permitted while at work, except on business.” 12 1/2 cents represents 1/3 of a day’s wages.
1828 In Portugal, regent Dom Miguel overthrows the government in the Miguelite Wars. He will not be defeated until 1834.
1828 Russia and Turkey engage in war.
1828 Scandal is abrew in the US. In a smear campaign, President-elect Andrew Jackson’s wife is accused of bigamy and adultery in speeches and handbills. It seems her first husband had filed for divorce, and she had married Jackson believing herself free although she was still technically married at the the time to her first husband.
1828 The Ladies Magazine begins publication in Boston.
1828 Dr. Paul Ferdinand Gachet was born in Lille. He moved to Paris in 1848 to study medicine and developed a clientele of artists that included Pissarro and Cezanne. He accepted paintings in exchanged for services and amassed a sizable collection. He also painted and used the pseudonym Paul Van Ryssel.
1828 Pietro Tenerani, Italian sculptor, made his two statues, allegories of Hunting and Fishing, at Carrara. They were placed in Carrara’s Academy of Fine Arts, the former Cybo-Malaspina palace.
1828 John Rubens Smith painted his watercolor “West Front of the United States Capital.” [see 1775-1844, Smith]
1828 Sister Mary Elizabeth Lange of Haiti co-founded the first black Catholic school in the US.
1828 Me-a-pa-te, “the hill that is hard to go around,” in western Nebraska was renamed Scott’s Bluff, after the body of trapper Hiram Scott was found nearby.
1828 Opponents of Andrew Jackson accused the general of having murdered a Baptist minister and five other white militiamen during the Creek War.
1828 John Overlord, Andrew Jackson and James Winchester, the founders of Memphis, Tenn., bestowed an easement to the Mississippi riverfront for a promenade.
1828 McKendree University, a private liberal arts college, was founded in Illinois.
1828 Conspirators broke into the presidential palace in Bogota in an attempt to murder Simon Bolivar, who escaped.
1828 The Republic of Gran Colombia fell apart due to political rivalries between its constituent provinces. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
1828 The Danish government decreed that all persons should have a surname which was inherited from the preceding generation.
1828 In France a perfume and cosmetics house was established. In 1998 the firm was led by Jean-Paul Guerlain, the great-grandson of the founder.
1828 In France Louis Daguerre contacted Joseph Niepce with an offer to work together on the photographic process that Niepce had developed.
1828 Rennee Caillie of France became the 1st Westerner to reach Timbuktu, Mali, and survive to tell the tale. In 1830 he published an account of his journey.
1828 The Mexican city of Valladolid was renamed Morelia after independence hero Jose Maria Morelos
1828 Russia conquered the Armenian provinces of Persia, and this had brought within her frontier the Monastery of Etchmiadzin, in the Khanate of Erivan, which was the seat of the Katholikos of All the Armenians.
1828 Siamese [Thailand] forces invaded Laos. Vat Sisaket, a temple in Vientiane, survived the invasion.
1828 Uruguay, created as a buffer state between Argentina and Brazil, declared its independence.
1828-1830 Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), the duke of Wellington, served as British prime minister. He blocked badly needed political reform and was later considered one of England’s worst prime ministers.
1828-1861 Queen Ranavalona I ruled over Madagascar.
1828-1896 Elizabeth Charles, British writer: “To know how to say what others only know how to think is what makes men poets or sages; and to dare to say what others only dare to think makes men martyrs or reformers — or both.”
1828-1909 George Meredith, English poet: “Cynicism is intellectual dandyism.”

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Each time I start a year, I have already compiled a list, months ago with about 6000 entered of what happened from 1788 to 1837. My first step now (It took several trials to get this down to a science) is to cut out the specific year I will work on and paste it into its own spreadsheet to work with. When I worked on the entire spreadsheet, sometimes inserting a line, with all the graphics I had begun to place, took a long time. Working on each year alone, is a lot faster.

With the year separated out, I now turn to my book sources,

The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-27-08-26.jpg

Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield

1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-27-08-26.jpg What Happened When by Carruth.

PastedGraphic-2012-09-27-08-26.jpg, History of the World. A beautiful Dorealing Kindersley book.

I now and diligently look through each of these to find entries that I did not come across on the internet, and other printed lists. It is possible that there are places that have more listings for each year. I have not found them. And when you go to the Timelines at the Regency Assembly Press page, there you will see all the graphical references as well. Something that I did not find anywhere else.

Here is the start of 1827:

Year Month Day Event
1827 Feb 1 Alphonse de Rothschild, French banker, was born.
1827 Feb 7 Ballet (Deserter) was introduced to US at Bowery Theater in NYC.
1827 Feb 7 Franz Anton Dimmler (73), composer, died.
1827 Feb 17 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (81), Swiss educator, died.
1827 Feb 27 Richard W. Johnson (d.1897), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
1827 Feb 27 A Mardi Gras street procession in New Orleans was initiated by students, who were home from school in France. They formed a parade of masked marchers on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the period of penance begins on Ash Wednesday.
1827 Feb 28 The first U.S. railroad chartered to carry passengers and freight, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co., was incorporated.
1827 Mar 5 Pierre-Simon Laplace (b.1749), French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, died. He invented perturbation theory and wrote the 5-volume work “Celestial Mechanics.” In 1998 Charles Couiston Gillespie published his biography “Pierre-Simon Laplace: A Life in Exact Science.”
1827 Mar 5 Alessandro Volta (b.1745), Italian physicist who made 1st battery (1800), died.
1827 Mar 16 The first Afro-American newspaper , Freedom’s Journal, was published in New York City.
1827 Mar 26 Ludwig von Beethoven (56), German composer, died in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bead “I shall hear in heaven.” It was later determined that he suffered from lead poisoning. In 1995 Tia DeNora authored “Beethoven and the Construction of Genius.” In 2000 Russell Martin authored “Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved.”
1827 Mar 29 Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was buried in Vienna amidst a crowd of over 10,000 mourners.
1827 10-Apr Prime Minister of the United Kingdom: George Canning
1827 Apr 2 William Holdman Hunt, English painter (Light of the World), was born.
1827 Apr 2 Joseph Dixon began manufacturing lead pencils.
1827 Apr 5 Joseph Lister (d.1912), English physician, was born. He founded the idea of using antiseptics during surgery.
1827 Apr 7 English chemist John Walker invented wooden matches.
1827 Apr 10 Lewis Wallace (d.1905), soldier, lawyer, diplomat and author (Ben Hur), was born. “As a rule, there is no surer way to the dislike of men than to behave well where they have behaved badly.”
1827 Apr 13 Hugh Clapperton, Scottish traveler and explorer of West and Central Africa, died in Sokoto, Nigeria, of dysentery.
1827 Apr 20 John Gibbon (d.1896), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1827 Apr 26 Charles Edward Hovey, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1827 May 4 John Hanning Speke, English explorer, was born. He discovered Lake Victoria and the source of the Nile.
1827 May 29 Reuben Lindsay Walker (d.1890), Brigadier General (Confederate Army), was born.
1827 Jun 5 Athens fell to the Ottomans during Greek War of Independence.
1827 Jun 12 Johanna Spyri (d.1901), Swiss author, was born. She is best known for her novel Heidi, the story of a young girl who leave her home in the Swiss Alps for adventures in the world below. [see June 12, 1829]
1827 Jul 4 New York state law emancipated adult slaves. The laws were rewritten to make sure that all slaves would eventually be freed.
1827 Jul 16 Josiah Spode, potter, died.
1827 8-Aug Prime Minister of the United Kingdom:Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon, 1st Viscount Goderich
1827 Aug 10 There were race riots in Cincinnati  and some 1,000 blacks left for Canada.
1827 Aug 12 William Blake (b.1757), English visionary engraver and poet, died. In 2001 G.E. Bentley Jr. authored “The Stranger From Paradise: A Biography of William Blake.”
1827 Aug 22 Industrialist Ezra Butler Eddy (d.1906) was born in Vermont. E.B. Eddy, who became known as the matchmaker of the world, moved his small friction-match factory from Burlington, Vt., to Hull, Que., in 1851. He expanded, modernized and diversified to produce a variety of wood and paper products. Eddy was elected mayor of Hull six times and was a member of the Quebec legislature for six years.
1827 Aug 22 Josef Strauss, Austrian composer (Dorfschwalben aus Austria), was born.
1827 Sep 18 John Towsend Trowbridge, poet and author of books for boys, who wrote the Jack Hazzard and Toby Trafford series, was born.
1827 Oct 15 Charles Darwin reached Christ’s Counsel, Cambridge.
1827 Oct 20 British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
1827 Nov 10 Alfred Howe Terry (d.1890), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1827 Nov 15 Creek Indians lost all their property in US.
1827 Nov 26 Ellen Gould White, founder of the Seventh Day Adventists, was born.
1827 A free school for infants opens in New York under Joanne Bethune, which is supposed to free working-class parents from some of their child-care burdens. The school is open to children ages 18 months to 5 years.
1827 At the Battle of Navarino, the Egyptian fleet is destroyed by the combined efforts of the French, Russian and British forces.
1827 Felix Mendelssohn’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” is performed for the first time. At 18, his talents are surpassed only by his sister, Fanny, who, now 21, has been told since the age of 14 that due to her sex “music….for you it can and must be only an ornament, never the root of your being and doing…and your very joy at the praise he (Felix) earns proves that you might, in his place, have merited equal approval.” She is not permitted to publish her choral and piano pieces, but Felix will publish six of her compositions under his own name.
1827 The Treaty of London is signed by Britain, Russia, and France to guarantee the Greeks their independence.
1827 Berkeley Ship Canal connects Sharpness (on the Severn) to Gloucester.
1827 Britain, Russia and France break with Austria regarding the Greek war of independence — Austria still feeling threatened by any revolt against empire while the Russians want to protect their fellow Orthodox Christians. Egypt, a part of the Ottoman Empire, is helping the Turks, but a combined British, French and Russian fleet sink an Egyptian and Turkish fleet at Navarino Bay, on the west coast of the Peloponnesian Peninsula. This weakens Ottoman power in Greece and in Arabia.  
1827 In Vienna, Austria, over 10,000 mourners attend the burial of Beethoven.
1827 New York passes a state law emancipating slaves.
1827 Luther Roby, a Concord printer, published “A Journal Kept By Mr. John Howe While He Was Employed As A British Spy during the Revolutionary War; Also While He Was Engaged In The Smuggling Business.” The book was later thought to based on the journal of British officer Henry De Berniere and published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty, in 1779.
1827 David Zeisberger, Moravian missionary, published “Grammar of the Language of the Lenni-Lenape,” a Delaware Indian tribe.
1827 V. Bellini wrote his opera “Il Pirata.” It was his 1st major success.
1827 August Marschner wrote his opera “Der Vampyr.”
1827 Franz Schubert composed his song cycle “Winterreise.”
1827 Businessman and publisher Louis A. Godey bought the Boston Godey’s Lady’s Book, a ladies’ magazine, and offered its editorship to successful novelist Sarah Hale, a widow with four children to support. Godey’s Lady’s Book, with Sarah Josepha Hale as its editor and driving force for 50 years, was an important cultural influence in 19th-century America. Godey’s enjoyed great success publishing morally upright and sentimental literature and avoiding unfeminine topics like politics, scandal and controversy. By mid-century it had 150,000 subscribers. Particularly popular were fashion plates, such as the steel-plate engraving of wedding gowns shown here, crafts, décor and housekeeping ideas that greatly influenced American home life. Competition and Hale’s retirement in 1877 led Louis Godey to sell the magazine in 1883. Thirteen years later, Godey’s was absorbed into another publication.
1827 The first edition of New York’s Freedom’s Journal was published by John Russworm and Samuel Cornish. “For too long others have spoken for us.” The journal lasted for 2 years.
1827 John Nelson Darby (1800-1882), British evangelical preacher, first conceived the doctrine of a secret rapture based on a passage of St. Paul’s letter to the Thessalonians.
1827 Joseph Smith, Mormon founder, received his tablets on Mount Cumorah near Palmyra, NY.
1827 Catherine McAuley (1787-1841), founded the Sisters of Mercy in Dublin, Ireland. They engaged chiefly in works of spiritual and corporal mercy. Frances Warde led the sisters out from Ireland. In 2002 John J. Fialka authored “Sisters: Catholic Nuns and the Making of America.”
1827 The U.S. and Great Britain submitted the Maine and New Brunswick boundary dispute to arbitration by the King of the Netherlands in 1827, whose compromise was accepted by the British but rejected by the U.S.
1827 Roger Brooke Taney became attorney general of Maryland.
1827 The government hired Capt. Henry Miller Shreve to remove a 100-mile “raft” of snags and trees that prevented steamboats from entering the Red River. His work camp later became the city of Shreveport, La.
1827 John Davis opened the doors of the first full-dress American gambling casino in New Orleans.
1827 John Herschel proposed contact lenses.
1827 Friction matches were first produced.
1827 Francois Soudre invented the artificial language Solresol. He proposed using the musical scale for the building blocks of an international vocabulary.
1827 Jean-Baptist-Joseph Fourier, French mathematician who served under Napoleon in Egypt, compared the interaction of the earth and its atmosphere to the setting in a hothouse. He said the Earth’s gases are like the greenhouse glass walls and help keep us warm.
1827 Greenwich Academy, the oldest school for girls in Connecticut, was founded.
1827 Balkaria, a Caucasus region later known as known as Kabardino-Balkari, was annexed by Russia.
1827 The Univ. of Toronto, Canada, was founded.
1827 The Chippewa community of Aamjiwnaang First Nation was founded in Ontario just across from Port Huron, Mich. Much of the original reserve was sold via questionable land deals in the 1960s. In 1993 the percentage of boys born in the community began dropping and by 2005 girls outnumbered boys by 3:1. Local petrochemical manufacturing was suspected as the cause.
1827 The Cocos Islands (aka Keeling Islands) in the Indian Ocean were settled by the Clunies-Ross family. A descendent ceded the coral atolls to Australia in 1978.
1827 In France Victor Hugo wrote the official coronation ode for Charles X, the last Bourbon king.
1827 The lithopane (lithophane) was patented in Paris. It allowed a picture, embedded in porcelain, to be viewed in light by varying the thickness of a porcelain base. Generally credited as being the invention of Baron Paul de Bourguignon, of Rubelles, France, in 1827, the earliest forms of lithophanes were actually produced in China many years before other countries produced them.
1827 Joseph Niepce, French inventor, met with English botanist Francis Bauer, who agreed to present Niepce’s ground breaking photographic work to the Royal Society, which rejected the bid. Before leaving London Niepce made a gift of his 1826 pewter image to Bauer. The pewter image was re-discovered in 1952 by photo historian Helmut Gernsheim.
1827 The Hanseatic city of Bremen, faced with the silting of its Weser River, bought land for Bremerhaven from the king of Hanover in order to maintain a link to the sea.

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‘The Prize is Not as Great as You Think

As I have been plugging for the last few weeks, I now present you with the serialization on Wednesday’s of The Prize is Not As Great As You Think. That has been my working title and it is possible that before all is done, something different will suggest itself. Something shorter.

As mentioned it is a Ruritanian Romance. I can’t remember just now how the idea came to me, but then after it did I started to research, and reread such works as Edgar Rice Burroughs 240px-E-R-Burroughs-2012-09-26-09-39.jpg the, The Mad King The_Mad_King-2012-09-26-09-39.jpg as well as the The Prisoner of Zenda 51RcgGgZclL._BO2%25252C204%25252C203%25252C200_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-click%25252CTopRight%25252C35%25252C-76_AA300_SH20_OU01_.yqqGlLNydzRb-2012-09-26-09-39.jpg to prep for writing my tale.

To prep you, the tale deals with events in the Grand Duchy of Almondy, as I describe ‘bordered the north of Switzerland. To the east was France and now Belgium. The Germanies to the west, and finally the Netherlands to its north. Almondy was landlocked.’

One of the characteristics of a good Ruritanian Romance is intrigue. And as you can tell from the position of the country, the buffer between Germany and France, there certainly will be opportunity for it. With such neighbors, and set 836 years after the conquest. The conquest that took place the same year the William invaded England and defeated Harold. The year of our story begins in 1902, September.

A period of time when the Great War is brewing.

I hope you enjoy and should you like to leave feedback before next Wednesday and the next installment, please do so.

Chapter One can be found either at our website


Or here on the blog


With the cavalry escort arrived, Gerald shows many of the problems he has been thinking about over the course of the afternoon. The patrol is led by a man Gerald does not know, but with the patrol, a distant cousin who is a friend has attached himself to it. Gerald makes changes and with the aid of the two men plots out his course back to the Capital. He is still worried about the attack and as the generals thought with the telegram they sent, that the attack may not have just been against Prince Reginald.

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Dramatis Personae (so far)


Athelstan Perry-Bastard son of the Grand Prince of Almondy

Crown Prince Reginald Baxter Simeon Fitzroy Perry-Heir of throne of Almondy

Grand Prince Michael Alan Henry Fitzroy Perry-Ruler of Almondy

Michael VII-Grand Prince around 1640’s

Gerald Henry William Fitzroy Perry-2nd in line to Grand Prince

Princess Margaritte-sister of Baron William

Baron William Fitzroy Perry-Leader of government

Prince Michael Fitzroy Perry the Castle Snatch, Founder of the Fitzroy Perry, and conqueror in 1066 of the Almondian Keep.

Samuel-Bodyguard of Crown Prince Reginald
Franc-Bodyguard of Crown Prince Reginald

The Citizens of Splatz
Henry Samuelson-Carter
Father Guiseppe
Doctor Coyne
Chief Constable Lestaing
Master Helmut-a Farmer and neighbor of Prince Gerald’s
Farmer Friedrich
Mr. Mueller
Master and Mistress Bette Kramer-onwers of the Blue Belle
Hilda-maid at the Blue Belle
Mr. Granowitz–the Bookseller
Mayor Goretz–previous mayor of Splatz


Celebont Palace-The permier castle of the Grand Prince of Almondy

Ritzlauer Hotel-Where Athelstan Perry lives


Almondy-Our mythical Country, north of Switzerland

Castle Repos where Reginald is headed to spend a few weeks before he is killed

Splatz–Small village where Prince Gerald has his farm on the outskirts of

Nantz–nearest town to Splatz and Castle Grayton where there is a railroad stop

Castle Grayton–Hunting Lodge near Splatz of Prince Reginalds

Glemaire–Village between Splatz and Nantz

4) The Safety of the Succession

“Well played, highness,” Sir David said when they had entered the dining hall and the guardsmen had given them a perimeter allowing some privacy. There were two small rooms above on the first floor that would have ensured privacy, but Gerald knew that he was not going to stay at the Inn very much longer. Ten more minutes, perhaps twenty at most.

“I am come to believe that this game is not anything we have ever played before,” Gerald said.

“No. You are right. Nothing like we have played before.” Sir David now looked serious.

As for Krabe, he seemed fit to be tied. He looked angered. “Captain Krabe, I may not keep you as my aide when we get settled in Steilenberg, but then I might. I trust David with my life and I think he still trusts me with his. We are distant cousins and I know something about him as an officer. I know that he is quite competent. Was it your idea, or his, to send the patrols to flank the building?”

Krabe took a moment then said, “Sir David’s, Highness.” Krabe clearly did not want to have admitted that.

Gerald said, “Yes.” Gerald than looked at his friend, “Sir David, that idea came from…?”

Sir David looked to Krabe when he answered, “You, Highness. We talked about something like this a few years ago. How the infantry should surround a building and how the cavalry would have to do so if given the task. This came from that discussion.”

“I want to say something that I hope you won’t say to any other,” Gerald began. “I do not like this. Sir David will tell you that I just wanted to live here in the country and tend my cows. My branch of the family has not been very good at being princes. My grandfather and father all but squandered my inheritance and now I think there is a rumor being spread that I have barely five crowns to rub together. I have a few more crowns then that, but many think of me as the bumpkin prince. Here,” he waved his hand to encompass the room and beyond, “people don’t even call me prince which is why I like Splatz. It is a small village with just these few streets. Seven hundred people live here, and their children. When all come in from around the countryside we have maybe three thousand adults and then their children. We are a small village and I do not have to think about France or Germany, and how they hate one another when I am here.”

David said, “That is over now.”

Gerald nodded sadly, “Yes, I suppose so.” He had so much to think of, so many problems, that inevitably he could think of nothing. For a moment he was quiet then asked, “Did you two leave right away or did you hear any more of what occurred?”

Sir David shook his head. “The Colonel burst into the Mess and said that Reginald had been blown up and that a rider had to get to the depot. That we had to send out a company and find the next prince. He then asked who was the next prince, and where ‘was he.’ I knew of course and told him your name and that you lived here. He sent me to the depot to get Krabe and his company to come and protect you. So technically I have not returned from that assignment, though my company had evening parade. That will look a little suspicious at six o’clock.”

“We don’t have a clock in the bell tower of the church yet. A few more years Father Guiseppe tells me, but it is past six now.” Gerald gestured to a clock over the bar. They could have looked at their pocket watches too, but he supposed they had not thought to do that with all the bustle they had been about. Or perhaps they had before reaching him.

“I am sorry Highness but I must protest. You do not have the authority to take my command from me,” Captain Krabe said.

Gerald shook his head. “Are you one of them? Are you a traditionalist? You have now twice made it clear that this is not comfortable for you. Well the next time shall be your last and you will just be relieved of all duties until I talk to your superior in Steilenberg. It is Colonel Cartier who commands the 1st and he is a Traditionalist. Funny but I should have thought you would realize that I am the Colonel-in-Chief of your regiment. The heir to the throne is always the Colonel-in-Chief of the 1st Cavalry. I think following my orders would indicate to all that you have my favor. I suggest you think this through very carefully. I have had a few hours to think about many things since they told me of Reginald’s death.”

Krabe took a half step back as if he had been hit. Gerald had been living in the country for a long time. But that did not mean he was weak, simple, or in any way lacking in the command skills he had learned when he trained as an officer. He may not have used them for five years, but he still had them. And he still knew when to use them. Krabe clearly needed the boundaries of command established. The man clearly needed to know who was at the top of the tower in this case. And it was not Krabe.

“I believe you to now be thinking of our very different positions and roles regarding them. Do we have an understanding? Do you comprehend that you, a Captain, are not someone that I truly think significant if I am now to struggle with France and Germany and all the problems of Almondy? If I succeed Prince Michael Alan, then what does the ruffled feathers of a cavalry captain matter to me. A captain though that is my aide and helps me with this horrendous task that has been thrust upon me is much more important than any other cavalry captain in our army. And should I trust my safety to a man I have never met? Or to my cousin whose life I saved once or twice, and who has saved mine?”

“No Highness. Forgive me.” Krabe said. Though he wore his emotion on his face and still was not happy. The man could just be a fool. This was a promotion. Krabe might not last the trip out of Splatz let alone to Nantz, or back to Steilenberg.

Sir David cleared his throat, “We are actually three saves by you of me, and my one return to you, cousin Highness. But who’s counting?” It broke the silence and the argument with Krabe.

“You will stop that nonsense Sir David. ‘Cousin’ when we are intimate like this is fine, and best you stick to highness in public. I have just given Captain Krabe a rather informal dressing down. I should not like to deliver another. I fear I shall have too few friends in Steilenberg when we arrive. Best though that you go see to your command and send over the Chief Constable. His name is Lestaing and he is a good man,” Gerald said.

“Yes cousin. Ten minutes I think and I’ll give orders to send riders ahead, but we should be back in Nantz in less than an hour,” Sir David said, and bowed with a click of his heels.

Gerald didn’t want to contradict his cousin, but with full dark, and only a sliver of moon that night, it might take longer than that hour. Sir David left the room and could be heard quickly issuing orders and consulting with the locals in the lobby. It stuck in Gerald’s mind that Krabe would not have thought to talk to the locals. Krabe would assume that no one but he could have managed matters. Either Gerald would break Krabe of such notions, or dismiss him when they returned to the Capital. That would probably end the man’s career. It was more important to Gerald though, that he himself had a life than that the officer in front of him had an outstanding career.

Most of the officers of Almondy when they were still junior commanders did not think about anything but an spectacular career. One that would lead all the way to becoming Chief of the Command Staff. The highest rank one could achieve in Almondy’s military service. Often the position was held by a prince of FitzRoy Perry blood. Gerald had not thought of that during his two years of service. He had thought of a quite life and dairy farming. That was when the notion of a very small dairy farm began to appeal to him. Now he was sure that this life was gone forever.

Constable Lestaing entered. Gerald addressed him, “Chief Constable, I am not sure that I will be able to return to Splatz for some time. Can you have people pack up the house and arrange to ship my goods to the city? I should imagine that within the next couple days an address will be arranged and we will have it sent to you. I don’t need any of the furniture, so that should be covered with cloth. I may want my chair by the fire though. I will have someone instruct you on that.” Gerald had grown to like that chair a great deal. It was comfortable.

“We shall take care of it all, don’t worry highness. There are people here who will look after your possessions and we will see the cows get milked. We’ll have all the rest of your clothes sent up to you, and your other personal things. Don’t worry about anything here. You send a telegram and we will take care of it right away.”

Gerald nodded, “Thank you. Captain Krabe, can you see to it that you forward an address to Constable Lestaing when we have one? My thanks.” Gerald then took the constable by the forearm, “Also, over the years, especially since I became second in line, there have been strangers, you will recall, about the village and countryside. That might increase now. And men of the papers too, these reporters. How to tell who is a reporter and who is an agent of the French or Germans or some other foreign power is near impossible. If you could watch for such men and if you need more help to do so, please, you must contact us. We must lookout for spies.”

“That is a good point,” Captain Krabe said and turned to study the constable.

Constable Lestaing said, “We know who belongs here and who doesn’t. I may ask for some help, but not just yet. I’ll put some of the young men on this and they will walk all about the county and see if anyone is asking questions. People that no one knows. We shall be very respectful of all your privacy, highness.”

Gerald said, “Yes. I trust you Lestaing. I hope that I shall find as many men in Steilenberg to trust as I have found here. I fear, though, that it will be much more difficult to do so.”

The constable nodded, “I’m afraid highness you are right. And in Steilenberg it will be a great deal easier for someone to spy upon you. Best you remember that.”

Sir David stuck his head into the room, “When you are ready, highness.”

Gerald nodded then reached out a hand to shake the Constable’s. “Now I must pay Master Kramer for the meal and for upsetting all his guests.”

Master and Misstress Kramer came at once and the crowns that he tried to pass them were just put back into his hands. Then Mistress Kramer produced a wrapped pie, and it smelled good. “It is a cold pork pie for the road. I made it yesterday and it has been in the cold room all day. I think you will like it and I know that these train rides can be horrible and there is nothing to eat as well. You should enjoy it, Gerry,” then she remembered and curtsied saying quickly, “Highness, sorry.” She covered her frustration using his title. He had been Gerry for almost five years with all these people. That showed once again how things were now changed in his life.

“Stay well. I shall return, I promise, but better, I shall tell all that the Blue Belle is my favorite Tavern and Inn in all of Southern Almondy and that Master Kramer’s Almondy Ale has something special in it that he will never tell me the secret, and it is the best I have ever had,” Gerald said.

Master Kramer beamed and then looked puzzled, “But highness, I don’t put anything into my Ale.”

“I know, that will be our little secret, eh?” Constable Lestaing could not contain himself and was laughing as if he had heard the funniest of jokes. Then Master Kramer and Gerald joined him. Captain Krabe even had a smile, though when Gerald saw it, the man wiped it from his face.

Sir David came back in and started laughing though he did not know the joke. If David hadn’t been competent as well, then Gerald might not have made the switch of officers, David had already shown the way to better protection of Gerald. That was the most important thing at the moment. Protection.

Stay safe, get to the Capital, and then he could learn more about his role as Crown Prince And prepare for a role as Grand Prince. The Grand Prince did not have many options to find another heir, except perhaps for Gerald to also be killed. A thought Gerry was not going to pursue.

“Come, we are off.” It would be redundant Gerry knew to say goodbye again, but as he left the comfort of the Inn he saw that the platz was filled with people. The cavalry positioned to keep them all a little away and allow him to leave the village.

Gerald stopped and looked at all of the friends, neighbors of the last five years. Then he waved and the crowd that had been silent broke into cheering and shouts. Applause and calling his name. Then three or four started to say, “Long Live Crown Prince Gerald!”

Others heard that, and they too shouted it, “Long Live Crown Prince Gerald!”

It was becoming thunderous and he knew he could stop them for a moment and speak to them, or he could wave and ride away. Torn, he knew that so many here were his friends, that to this crowd, if none other, he should speak. He waved for silence.

When it came, he began, “My friends. My dear friends. Tragedy is the only thing that takes me from you for you all know how much I love Splatz and my little life here. My cows, my farm. If not for this tragedy, I would stay amongst you and have no thought of the big world outside of our little valley. But I go. I will come back. It will be winter soon, and then spring after. If I can not come back sooner, Castle Grayton in spring has always been a place visited by my cousins and there I surely will come and see all of you. Give me your blessing and your good wishes for what now I do, I need the strength of all of you to do well. Is Father Guiseppe here? A blessing father.”

“Yes, of course,” Guiseppe said. The man was at the front of the crowd just across the street, with many of his parishioners near him. “In the name of the lord,” Guiseppe was a Roman Catholic priest and also the leader of the entire religious community of Splatz. Too many did not share his faith so a happy medium had been found for prayers, “God protect our good friend Gerry Perry. Give him strength, grace him with your guidance. And give him peace for he is called now to speak and think on behalf of us all. Amen.”

Gerald crossed himself for he was raised a Roman Catholic and also said Amen. He waved then once more and went to mount the horse the cavalry had brought for him. The cheering started again and he continued to wave once he was on his horse and trotting away. He hoped he could live up to his promise about visiting in spring, but the truth was he did not know if he could. He promised himself that he would try. Reginald had visited Grayton several times since Gerald had lived near Splatz. Usually to have long parties with his many friends. Parties that could get out of hand. When visiting in spring though, the man had gone hunting with others of his cronies.

Five miles to the train station at Nantz. Then a few hours to Steilenberg.

“That was well done. They love you here,” Sir David said.

“Yes. I told you to come visit, though of course I never expected that you would.”

“Ha, I am here today,” David said. “Now I should not expect another such display until we arrive in Steilenberg. Then I should expect tens of thousands to come forward. We will take South Street if you don’t mind when we return. I shall cable the Colonel to act as if we go up High Street, but then a gallop by one of the flanking patrols along South Street and you can get up to the Celebont Palace with little or no fuss. Then I am sure someone else will take over your safety.”

“The Guards for instance? I think they are due for some embarrassment. They had three warnings that someone meant to kill Reginald. The fourth time someone does. That is upsetting. Krabe, before the train leaves Nantz, I want you to send a cable and have an officer waiting for us with all the details when we arrive in Steilenberg. This is unacceptable. What if the enemy, the anarchists learn you transport me now and blow up a tree trunk across the rail line and then attack the train. Do you use the telegraph with a secret code?”

“Yes highness,” Krabe said. Taking the idea of aide seriously it seemed.

“You have heard too many tales of the civil war in America,” Sir David said.

“The reports I have heard about the other attacks on Reginald were that it was anarchists responsible. They are not that creative and are quite the coward. A bomb here though, in Almondy can do a great deal of damage. We are not a country that is ruled by common law, but by whim encompassed by common law. The Grand Prince has near absolute control on the army, on the treasury, on justice. Despite that we have the Assembly, their powers are limited. Great Uncle Simeon, our current Grand Prince’s father agreed that there should be an Assembly and that he needed men to legislate laws in his country, for having a council of advisors just was not working. He came to the throne in 1820 when my great grandfather Henry died. Simeon may have had the idea to give the Assembly more powers each year, but instead gave them limited power at the beginning and never let it grow. Michael Alan has not made any chances to what his father had done.”

Sir David nodded, “And I do not think your cousin Reginald was planning to make any changes either.” Gerald noted the way that David said that. Reginald had been cousin to both of them.

“Then best I tell people that I will be making changes when I come to the throne, and tell them what those changes will be. Krabe, I must meet with the leaders of all parties in the Assembly, even should the party have but one man, as soon as I can. It may be that the Grand Prince shall need me and I should imagine that whatever duties I am tasked with, my duty to the Grand Prince shall be paramount. But my first moment to think, I should want the factions within the Assembly to come and speak to me. If there are other factions who have some claim in our politics, then I must meet with them as well,” Gerald said.

“And the generals, highness?” Krabe said.

“Yes, that was astute. I should meet with them also. I should imagine the current Chief of the Command Staff shall be at the palace, for I noticed that he was very much in attendance on the Grand Prince previously.” General de Poitier, not a member of the FitzRoy Perry family, though his wife was and thus his children were, was the first amongst the many generals Almondy had. There had to be over one hundred generals in the army and most did not have commands, but were part of the bureaucracy of the army, or promoted to the rank on the whim of Prince Michael Alan. Military ranks needed to be awarded based on capabilities, and aristocratic rank could be awarded for caprice or impulse.

The Grand Prince was no fool and perhaps it was a secret of being the ruler of Almondy, but holding the loyalty of the generals in one’s hand was key. Having many of them family members, and having a large military bureaucracy kept the FitzRoy Perry’s in power. If there was no handbook of how to be a Grand Prince of Almondy, with such secrets, Gerald believed that he should work on one for his own use. Gerry’s book of Ruling. It would be a bestseller, he was sure.

The third leg of control of Almondy had been the church, but that had changed greatly in the last two centuries. First the Jews had caused this to begin to change. Gerald knew that the Principality had grown rich by allowing the Jews to settle within their borders, and that by the early 1300s Almondy had doubled in size.

The Catholic Church had then lost it’s hold on the principality after almost two hundred and fifty years. They had wanted Almondy to also expel the Jews which would have taken away all that money, and many skills as well. There was no Chief of the Command Staff of the army then. Just three generals, and two of them were Jewish. As was the minister of the treasury, the Grand Prince’s doctor, and the Grand Prince’s Chief Minister.

Wisely when the Grand Prince agreed to meet with the Archbishop of Reims the Jewish members of the Prince’s Council were elsewhere. The Grand Prince though spelled it out. The crown supported the Creation of two Archdioceses within Almondy, growing to three, and each Archbishop would have a seat at the King’s Council table if they also allowed one seat for the chief rabbi amongst the Jews. The Grand Prince did not want to allow the Catholic Church to have total control over his people and used the Jews wisely as a counter to the church.

Later, when Martin Luther caused the Reformation, it added a giant third piece to the religious pie to balance out the Roman Catholics. Now all Bishops and Archbishops, Gerald knew, were represented in the Assembly but they, along with Jewish leaders, Protestant leaders and even a Buddhist leader met together and worked together to keep the people and the Grand Prince spiritually advised.

Gerald knew that the next war between France and Germany would not be over a religious matter. Even though Germany was Protestant and France of the older faith, religion would have little to do with the matter. Here in Almondy, Gerald knew that his people would not feel that they must kill each other over religion, but that too could see cowardly men throw bombs at each other in the name of their god. That would be worse than anything they would do in the name of their cultural heritage. But religious upbringing was part of their cultural heritage.

“I have also thought that I should meet with the religious leaders too. I suppose the true opposition, the anarchists who have been attacking Reginald would be a group to meet with also, but that is probably not possible.”

Sir David said flatly, “No. How would we ensure anyone’s safety. How could we find them?”

“I must meet with our spy masters then and see if they have ideas who might I speak to that would get word to the anarchists.” He moistened his lips.

Continuing, “The papers will want interviews and they can publish our ideas for reform. Athelstan has been at me for years that it is something that Reginald should have done. Speak out about changes to come. Though I am not so sure that he told his brother to do so. I asked Prince Reginald about that once and I did not have the impression that he had such a conversation with Athelstan,” Gerald said.

Sir David grumbled, “I would keep the Grand Prince’s son at arm’s length. I know that he befriended you, Highness. But I ask you, for I have known you long now, when was that? You have been marching in the St. Michael Pageant all the years we have been friends, as has Athelstan. But the Nonprince certainly was not your friend until you became directly in line to succeed, behind Prince Reginald.”

Gerald nodded. He said, “I had considered that as well. A long time ago. Athelstan acts like he is not upset that he is a bastard son of Grand Prince Michael Alan. Though I am not sure if he shows us his true feeling on the matter. I think he harbors resentment. The Grand Prince may have legitimized our cousin, but he did not bring him into the family with open and welcoming arms.”

“Yes, and it shows on occasion. You don’t live in the capital, so don’t see it, but it shows. Almost all those who you just named that you wished to talk with, I am sure I have seen Athelstan talk to as well. They are also men, and a few women, that Reginald should have talked to. I don’t think he ever did,” Sir David said.

“Krabe, you will need to find who were the aides to Reginald and enlist them in our service, but do not trust them. If my cousin was blown up, I do not rule out that those who did so might have known his plans. What better way then talking to an equerry or aide.” Gerald stated. It did not need to be a question.

“Yes, highness,” Captain Krabe said. Perhaps Krabe was settling his own resentments.

There were lights ahead which meant they were reaching the village of Glemaire. A little larger than Splatz, maybe by a third, but here there were few people out, it being an hour after dark and harvest having just started. Men were stumbling home in the countryside exhausted, and here, on market day, the people would call it a night early as well. All their custom would have retired after a day, though the taverns would stay open until midnight. Those who had a successful day at the market would no doubt celebrate, and be a good source to purchase one a drink.

These of Glemaire may have seen the cavalry company go through their town earlier that day, and they too may have heard the news on the telegraph wire, but perhaps no one in the village remembered that a few miles away was the farm of Prince Gerald. That meant that the telegraph officer here had not thought to tell anyone of the part of the message that had concerned the Prince. Quiet was good. The next stop was Nantz, which one could see the lights from, even as they rode out of Glemaire.

Less than two miles and they would be in that Town and harvest or not, Nantz had gaslamps now. One on each street and all around the central platz as well as all along some of the bigger streets. Nantz had well over ten thousand adult residents.

Gerald asked, “David, do you know why our census is only of adults? Krabe? I am curious. We have people count my chickens, cows, goats and horses. The schoolmarms and headmasters certainly know how many children and what ages they are, at least of those they will school, as the priests and rabbis know those they will teach to read and write for free.”

“Priests and Rabbis also seem to know who they will have in their own schools,” Sir David said.

The most pious of both religions sent their children to church schools and synagogues to learn. In Steilenberg the main Yeshiva for several hundred miles all around was right across the street from the school for officers. Very humorous placement, for the officer school was built during the reign of Michael VII, hundreds of years after the Yeshiva. The Yeshiva even predated the University of Steilenberg by twenty years. The original building of the University shared the same back wall of the Yeshiva and legend had it that instructors from the Yeshiva would teach at the University.

Now the University had moved, another change of Michael VII, who had given it grounds that had been outside of the city at the time. Not anymore though as Steilenberg had grown. Lecturers from the Yeshiva though still taught at the University, and also at the Officer’s College.

Gerald said, “But is it not interesting that we don’t think on our youth and how many there will be? I have heard that with these new antiseptics and cleanliness in the delivery rooms, more children are born and are living. The towns do seem full of them, do they not?”

“I suppose so,” Sir David said.

“Krabe, your thoughts?” he asked.

The man looked startled to be asked his opinion, “I have heard that there is a committee of the Assembly that thinks on how many people we have, and what professions there are. They think to advise the Grand Prince so incentives should be made to steer people to a trade where there is or will be a need. I have heard that one of the Assembly went to look for his favorite cobbler in Steilenberg and found the shop closed. The cobbler had no children and no one bought the shop. Then the Assembly man looked and found that in the next few years one in three in the cobbling trade would not have anyone to take their shops over. A crisis that he had to see to.”

Gerald laughed. He said “I am sorry that is good to know, but the cobbler in Splatz, let me tell you of him and the girl I was once sweet on…” Gerald told the story of Farmer Friedrich’s daughter and the cobbler. They too found it humorous.

David then said, “You do know now that you will have to marry? They were talking to Reginald about it, I am sure, for it was often in the paper. I advise you to read editorials and letters to the editor and those that seem to make the most sense, adopt their ideas. Or not. But now, now you will have to marry a princess and I think there is strong belief it should be a French girl. Though of course those who are German stock will want you to wed one of those.”

“Love of course is out of the question,” Gerald said wryly.

“Totally. Though I expect you can have a mistress or two or three. You will be the Grand Prince and if you make a dynastic marriage to keep the country at peace, they will not fault you for having something nice in your life,” David finished.

Gerald had thought to marry for love as soon as the succession was secured through Reginald and his cousin having sons. That had been the plan. Now that was not to be. He would need to meet a high ranking lady and Gerald knew that Sir David was correct. He had heard about the trade off of French and German ladies. His Great Grandmother was actually from the Low Countries and had a great deal of Spanish nobility in her roots. But then Spain had owned the Low Countries for some time.

“I don’t have to give thought to it this night. I just have to reach the Celebont Palace. Then I can think of it later. Much later.”

They were now at the first buildings of Nantz and soon in the thick of the Town. A lot of light ahead, and then the first riders halted as they turned the corner to the main Platz. One came back, “There are thousands of people, highness. I think they know we escort you.”

Gerald nodded then said, “Let us make a parade of it then. Troopers to ready arms and I will wave. No stopping though. Let us get to the train!”

That is what they did, riding through and there was a great cry as they did ride by. Shouting and cheers. He was their new Crown Prince. The word had gotten out. Gerald was not happy that it had, but he continued on and soon they were past the Platz. A hundred feet more and they were at the train station. The locomotive had turned around and reattached itself to the three transport carts and two passenger cars. One special car was also attached between the two passenger cars. Sir David said it had not been there when they had come down. A lounge car, obviously for Gerald. The station master, Mouton, was smart enough to take matters into his hand.

“Master Mouton, thank you. Thank you very much. I shall be glad of the car and a chance to think. All these soldiers about I do not believe I could do so,” Gerald said to the station master. Moments later they were leaving a ants. The train rumbling just as it had a week before to take him to the Pageant of St. Michael.

He waved off the officers who thought to attend him, and only allowed Sergeant Phillipe and six troopers to share the lounge with him. He told them, “You men will all be on guard duty though. Once we have reached Steilenberg and you can stand down, I will put in a good word for you. Be glad though that Sir David has not assigned you to the roofs. I am sure it will be quite chilly up there.”

Four men per car on the roofs. Sir David planned for the conductor to stop every half hour and relieve the men, actually just slow the train to a few miles an hour and make the switches. It would be safer if the train stopped, but the momentum to restart was not worth the cost in time. Gerald had to agree. Sir David had continued in the army these five years since Gerald left it, rising from Junior Lieutenant to Senior and now Captain.

Gerald had followed his cousin’s career and had visited him more than a few times in the Capital. There were other friends in Steilenberg as well. Men who he had trusted before, but then he was not anyone very special before. The friends had thought his time in the limelight would be short also. That Reginald would marry and produce heirs.

Francois Diedrou, Henry Levi, William Glau. Close friends and not any FitzRoy Perry blood though Glau was related to one of the Barons. His ancestor was with the Castle Snatch in 1066.

Glau was a man about town, as the saying went. His family was rich. Ammunition and arms. Deal making with the Krupps, for the Glaus had purchased land where crucial minerals were. Some horse trading and the Glau fortune, saw that Almondy had all the weapons it needed and more. William Glau’s older brother, Louis, ran the family company.

Levi was the intellectual, and the Jew, to Glau being the German of the group. Though that was just his lineage. Both were Almondians before they were anything else. Gerald was sure that was the case with all his friends. Almondy forever!

Levi though was published on several aspects of cultural thought and books of interaction amongst people and social classes. He had written a rebuttal treatise to the Communist Manifesto citing that although Marx’s ideas had merit for altruistic purposes, even should mankind have all its need met and could then begrudge no man anything; too many men, Levi had argued, would want more. Just because it is right to meet all of our needs somehow, it did not make greed, ambition, or desire disappear. So the Communist Manifesto was debunked in Almondy.

It did mean that Levi had risen high in the opinions of the socialists. He was a party leader, certainly number two amongst them trying to harness thought to implementation. What could be given to all, and how would that be paid for, so that the first of all men’s needs were met. What was that? Shelter, food or care? Levi was a good man but the last time Gerald had seen him, he had complained that there were questions that might not have an answer.

Francois, the French descendant of his three friends, remained at university. Gerald had studied and gotten a degree in one or the accepted arts that an unnecessary FitzRoy Perry prince could peruse, literature. The army and its two years, then off to farm. Francois had been at his studies nearly eight years and not only at the University of Steilenberg but had gone to take lessons at the two other universities in Almondy. He made a joke that he may not have finished his studies, but he was certainly well educated.

Talking to Francios could have been a trial if the man deliberately tried to make things sound complex. He did not though, at least not with Gerald. Francois knew a lot, but more importantly knew how to find things out. Gerald wrote their names down and then had Sergeant Phillipe take the paper to Captain Krabe and instruct that they all should be contacted and come to call on him at the same time as soon as he had time to see people. Even before he met with the Assembly members or Army Officers, if he were to do so, for his friends could advise him on things he needed to know.

What Gerald knew the most was to listen, though. Men said more and you certainly heard it, if you could cultivate listening. Though Gerald had observed that there was an ebb and flow to conversations. Sometimes he would talk and needed others to listen. Sometimes he would listen and learn.

He felt the train slow and knew this was not for a change of the men on the roof. They had done that enough times already so it was something else. He glanced out the window then and saw that the outskirts of Steilenberg had been reached. The Capital. Here he would learn how serious things were. Here he would understand how much his life had changed.

Gerald could see nothing for it. He had come to the capital to take the place of his dead cousin. Unless he too was killed, he would then become the next Grand Prince. Something that was not going to be easy to be.

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Each time I start a year, I have already compiled a list, months ago with about 6000 entered of what happened from 1788 to 1837. My first step now (It took several trials to get this down to a science) is to cut out the specific year I will work on and paste it into its own spreadsheet to work with. When I worked on the entire spreadsheet, sometimes inserting a line, with all the graphics I had begun to place, took a long time. Working on each year alone, is a lot faster.

With the year separated out, I now turn to my book sources,

The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-25-09-39.jpg

Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield

1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-25-09-39.jpg What Happened When by Carruth.

PastedGraphic-2012-09-25-09-39.jpg, History of the World. A beautiful Dorealing Kindersley book.

I now and diligently look through each of these to find entries that I did not come across on the internet, and other printed lists. It is possible that there are places that have more listings for each year. I have not found them. And when you go to the Timelines at the Regency Assembly Press page, there you will see all the graphical references as well. Something that I did not find anywhere else.

Here is the start of 1826:


Year Month Day Event
1826 Jan 26 Julia Dent Grant, First Lady and wife of Ulysses Grant, was born.
1826 Feb 2 Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (b.1755), French lawyer and epicure, died. “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are.” His famous work, Physiologie du goût (The Physiology of Taste), was published in December 1825, two months before his death.
1826 Feb 11 London University was founded.
1826 Feb 13 The American Temperance Society formed in Boston.
1826 Feb 16 Franz von Holstein, composer, was born.
1826 Mar 4 The Granite Railway in Quincy, MA, became the 1st US RR to be chartered.
1826 Mar 21 Beethoven’s Quartet #13 in B flat major (Op 130) premiered in Vienna.
1826 Apr 1 Samuel Mory patented the internal combustion engine.
1826 Apr 6 Gustave Moreau, French painter, was born.
1826 Apr 9 Chatham Roberdeau Wheat was born in Alexandria, Va. He studied law at the University of Nashville and then served in the 1st Tennessee Cavalry as a lieutenant during the Mexican War. He became a Confederate commander of the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion in the Civil War, also known as Wheat’s Tigers.
1826 Apr 12 Karl Maria von Weber’s opera “Oberon,” premiered in London.
1826 Apr 13 Franz Danzi (62), composer, died.
1826 Apr 22 Ibrahim, son of Mohammed Ali of Egypt, took Missolonghi (in West Greece) after a long siege. [see Apr 23]
1826 Apr 23 Missolonghi (in west Greece) fell to Egyptian-Turkish forces. [see Apr 22]
1826 Apr 28 Alexander Stadtfeld, composer, was born.
1826 May 4 Frederick Church, US romantic landscape painter (Hudson River School), was born.
1826 May 7 Varina Howell Davis (d.1905), 1st lady (Confederacy), was born.
1826 May 10 Giuseppe Sigismondo (86), composer, died.
1826 May 25 Christian Friedrich Ruppe (72), composer, died.
1826 May 29 Ebenezer Butterick, inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), was born.
1826 Jun 4 Karl Maria FE von Weber (39), German composer (Oberon), died.
1826 Jul 4 Stephen Foster (Stephen Collins Foster, d. Jan 13, 1864) composer, was born near Pittsburgh. His famous songs include “My Old Kentucky Home,” “O Susanna,” “Old Folks at Home,” “Old Black Joe” and “Camptown Races.”
1826 Jul 4 Construction of the Pennsylvania Grand Canal was begun.
1826 Jul 4 Thomas Jefferson, the nation’s third president, died at age 83 at one o’clock in the afternoon and was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia. He was the founder of the Univ. of Virginia and wrote the state’s statute of religious freedom. In 1981 Dumas Malone, aged 89 and nearly blind, published “The Sage of Monticello,” the sixth and final volume of his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Jefferson. In 1997 Joseph J. Ellis won the National Book Award in nonfiction for “American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson.” “Nothing gives one person so much of an advantage over another as to remain unruffled in all circumstances.”
1826 Jul 4 John Adams died at age 90 in Braintree [Quincy], Mass, just a few hours after Jefferson. Because communications was slow in those days, Adams and Jefferson, at their death, thought the other was still alive. Adams’ last words were, “Thomas Jefferson still survives.” It was 50 years to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted. Adams was the 2nd president of the US. A multi-generational biography of the Adams family was later written by Paul C. Nagel: “Descent from Glory.” The Joseph Ellis book The Passionate Edge” helped restore Adams to his rightful place in the American pantheon. The 1972 musical film 1776 focused on Adams’ efforts to get an independence resolution through Congress. In 1998 C. Bradley Thompson published “John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty.” In 2001 David McCullough authored “John Adams.” In 2005 James Grant authored “John Adams: Party of One.”
1826 Jul 4 In 2001 Andrew Burstein authored “America’s Jubilee,” a description of the jubilee year as it was experienced by various people.
1826 Jul 8 Luther Martin (b.1748), Maryland lawyer and former delegate to the Constitutional Convention, died in NYC. In 2008 Bill Kaufman authored “Forgotten Founder, Drunken Prophet: The Life of Luther Martin.”
1826 Jul 22 Giuseppe Piazzi (80), monk, mathematician (found 1st asteroid, 1801), died.
1826 Jul 26 Riots in Vilnius, Lithuanian, caused the death of many Jews.
1826 Aug 7 Marc Brunel hired his son, Isambard, to replace William Armstrong as chief engineer for building the tunnel under England’s Thames River.
1826 Aug 13 Major Gordon Laing, Scottish explorer, became the 1st European to enter Timbuktu (Mali), where some 12,000 people lived. Laing was killed by a Tuareg nomad spear on Sep 26 as he headed for Morocco. In 2005 Frank T. Kryza authored “The Race for Timbuktu: In Search of Africa’s City of Gold.”
1826 Aug 22 Colonies under Jedediah Strong Smith moved near Salt Lake Utah.
1826 Sep 3 USS Vincennes left NY to become 1st warship to circumnavigate globe.
1826 Sep 26 The Persian cavalry was routed by the Russians at the Battle of Ganja in the Russian Caucasus.
1826 Oct 7 The first railway in the United States opened at Quincy, Massachusetts.
1826 Nov 24 Carlo Collodi, the creator of Pinocchio, was born.
1826 Nov 27 Jedediah Smith’s expedition reached San Diego, becoming the first Americans to cross the south-western part of the continent. He crossed the Mohave Desert and the San Bernadino Mountains from Utah.
1826 Dec 3 George Brinton McClellen (d.1885), Union general who defeated Robert E. Lee at Antietam and ran against Abraham Lincoln for president, was born.
1826 Dec 26 Franz Coenen, composer, was born.
1826 New York in the US opens its first high school for girls; however it won’t stay open long.
1826 Russia and Persia are at war.
1826 The British Lying-in Hospital establishes courses for “monthly nurses”, which are women who will nurse mothers during their lying-in period but may not deliver their children.
1826 The first monthly children’s magazine is founded by Lydia Maria Francis, called Juvenile Miscellany, but will be out of circulation by 1833.
1826 Turkey captures Missolonghi from the Greeks.
1826-1842 Brunel builds the first subaqueous tunnel, under the Thames.
1826 In Spain the Inquisition had been ended by the Revolution in 1820 that had overthrown King Ferdinand VII, but with Ferdinand’s return it is revived.  A Jew is burned at the stake, also a Spanish Quaker schoolmaster who replaced “Hail Mary” with “Praise be to God” in school prayer. It is to be the last of such executions.
1826 Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor, experienced a nervous breakdown and began to make visionary paintings.
1826 Corot painted “Cascade of Terni.” “Its flat light, monumentalizing simplicity and minimal content anticipated Courbet, Manet and Cezanne.”
1826 The Erie Canal, 387 miles long and completed in 1826, connected Lake Erie, at Buffalo, to the Hudson River at Albany, New York. Begun in 1817 through the determined efforts of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, the canal, which utilized light packet boats drawn by horses, reduced the passenger schedule between Buffalo and Albany from the 10 days required by stage service to three-and-a-half days. The canal brought many settlers to the Mohawk Valley and formed a great highway for freight from the Northwest to the seaboard. [see 1825]
1826 David Farragut gathered youngsters from warships anchored in Hampton Roads and established America’s first floating Annapolis aboard the U.S.S. Alert.
1826 The Galerie Vero-Dodat (2, Rue de Bouloi), was built by two well-off charcutiers in Paris, France. Vero and Dodat spared no expense with the classical style interior that featured sculpted woodwork, ceiling frescoes, mosaic flooring, and brass ornament,
1826 Joseph Buchner refined willow bark in crystals that he named salicin, after salix, the Latin name for willow. [see aspirin in 1899]
1826 Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, German amateur astronomer, began a systematic program of observing the Sun from his home in Dessau. He kept careful records of sunspots over 17 years and in 1843 noted an 11-year cycle in their frequency.
1826 Scotsman Robert Stein invented the continuous still. It was later refined by Aeneas Coffey as the Coffey still.
1826 An American mechanic developed mold-blown glass.
1826 Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec, French physician and inventor of the stethoscope, died from tuberculosis.
1826 In Batavia Capt. William Morgan was kidnapped by brother Masons for divulging fraternity secrets. His body was never found. His book “Illustrations of Freemasonry” revealed some Mason secrets. His death inspired America’s 1st third party, the anti-Mason, who dominated western NY for almost a decade.
1826 In Argentina Bernardino Rivadavia (1780-1845) was chosen as the first president of the United Provinces of La Plata. He was forced to resign in 1827. His political opponents called him the “Chocolate Dictator.”
1826 Englishmen scientist James Smithson (1765-1829) drew up his will and named his nephew as beneficiary. In the will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.
1826 Pilkington, a British glass producer, was founded in St. Helens, Lancashire. In 2006 it was bought by Nippon Sheet Glass (NSG).
1826 The British Cape Colony was extended northward to the Orange River.
1826 John James Audubon (1785-1851), painter and ornithologist, arrived in Britain to oversee the production of his “Birds of America.” Although the 1st engravings were done in Edinburgh the project was soon transferred to London and completed over the next 12 years.
1826 Audubon read a technical paper before the Natural History Society of Edinburgh entitled: “Account of the habits of the turkey buzzard, particularly with the view of exploding the opinion generally entertained of its extraordinary power of smelling.” [see K.E. Stager in 1964]
1826 In Egypt Jean-Francois Champollion, French Egyptologist and decipherer of the Rosetta Stone, began collecting Egyptian artifacts. He convinced Charles X to purchase the private collections of the French and English consuls in Egypt.
1826 In Mexico Plutarco Elias Calles, founder of the modern Mexican political system, tried to suppress the Church. This fomented the Cristiada, 3 years of rebellion and outright war.
1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
1826 In Scotland the first exhibition of Clydesdale horses for show occurred at the Glasgow Exhibition. The horses had been bred for hauling coal.
1826 Methodist missionaries arrived at Tonga from Australia.
1826-1828 1826-1828    Corot was in Italy and painted “View of St. Peter’s and the Castel Sant’Angelo.”
1826-1829 1826-1829    Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842), French explorer and naturalist, sailed around the Pacific Ocean.
1826-1833 1826-1833    In NYC the Hawk and Buzzard newspaper subsisted largely on gossip.
1826-1852 1826-1852    The Duke of Wellington served as Constable of the Tower of London.
1826-1877 1826-1877     Walter Bagehot, English editor and economist: “One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea.” “It is good to be without vices, but it is not good to be without temptation.”
1826-1887 1826-1887    Dinah Maria Mulock Craik, English novelist. “The man who does his work, any work, conscientiously, must always be in one sense a great man.”
1826-1908 1826-1908    Henry Clifton Sorby, English geologist, invented a method for making thin rock slices for microscopic investigation.

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Each time I start a year, I have already compiled a list, months ago with about 6000 entered of what happened from 1788 to 1837. My first step now (It took several trials to get this down to a science) is to cut out the specific year I will work on and paste it into its own spreadsheet to work with. When I worked on the entire spreadsheet, sometimes inserting a line, with all the graphics I had begun to place, took a long time. Working on each year alone, is a lot faster.

With the year separated out, I now turn to my book sources,

The Timetables of History by Grun and Stein1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-24-08-40.jpg

Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield

1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-09-24-08-40.jpg What Happened When by Carruth.

PastedGraphic-2012-09-24-08-40.jpg, History of the World. A beautiful Dorealing Kindersley book.

I now and diligently look through each of these to find entries that I did not come across on the internet, and other printed lists. It is possible that there are places that have more listings for each year. I have not found them. And when you go to the Timelines at the Regency Assembly Press page, there you will see all the graphical references as well. Something that I did not find anywhere else.

Here is the start of 1825:

Year Month Day Event
1825 Jan 1 Dr. Gideon Mantell presented his paper “Notice on the Iguanodon” to members of England’s Philosophical Society. His paper linked the large hypothetical “Sussex lizard” to a modern species of reptile. This work led to his induction to the Royal Society on Dec 25, 1825.
1825 Jan 3 Scottish factory owner Robert Owen bought 30,000 acres in Indiana as site for New Harmony utopian community.
1825 Jan 19 Ezra Daggett and nephew Thomas Kensett received a patent from Pres. Monroe for food storage in tin cans. [see 1810]
1825 Jan 25 Eli Whitney (b.1765), cotton gin inventor and gun manufacturer, died.
1825 Jan 27 Congress approved Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the “Trail of Tears.”
1825 Jan 28 George Edward Pickett (d.1875), Major General in the Confederate Army, was born. When blame was being sought for why his ill-fated charge was the final action of the Battle of Gettysburg, and why the Confederacy did not win the three-day battle, George Pickett suggested that “The Union Army might have had something to do with it.” Pickett had been sponsored for West Point by the Illinois congressman, Abraham Lincoln.
1825 Feb 9 The House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams Jr. 6th U.S. president (1825-1829) after no candidate received a majority of electoral votes.
1825 Feb 12 Creek Indian treaty signed. Tribal chiefs agreed to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
1825 Feb 22 Russia and Britain established the Alaska/Canada boundary.
1825 Feb 24 Thomas Bowdler, self-appointed Shakespearean censor, died. His expurgated Shakespeare edition was published in 1818.
1825 Feb 25 William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived at Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. He met with Khan Haydar, Emir of Bukhara.
1825 Feb 28 Quincy Adams Gillmore (d.1888), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1825 Mar 2 The 1st grand opera in US sung in English was in NYC.
1825 Mar 4 John Quincy Adams was inaugurated as 6th President.
1825 Mar 12 The English Sloop, Eliza Ann, was captured by pirates, who proceeded to murder the crew of ten.
1825 Mar 25 The first Brazilian Constitution was promulgated by Peter I and solemnly sworn in the Cathedral of the Empire.
1825 Apr 16 John Henry Fuseli (aka Johan Heinrich Fussli b.1741), Swiss born British Romantic painter, died. His paintings included “Nightmare” (1782).
1825 Apr 25 Charles Ferdinand Dowd was born. He standardized time zones.
1825 May 1 George Inness, US landscape painter (Delaware Water Gap), was born.
1825 May 4 Thomas Henry Huxley (d.1895), British biologist, naturalist and author, was born. “God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me.” “My experience of the world is that things left to themselves don’t get right.” His work includes the collected Essays in nine volumes: 1. Method and Results, 2. Darwiniana, 3. Science and Education, 4. Science and the Hebrew Tradition, 5. Science and the Christian Tradition, 6. Hume, with Helps to the Study of Berkeley, 7. Man’s Place in Nature, 8. Discourses, Biological and Geological, 9. Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays. In 1997 Adrian Desmond wrote the biography: “Huxley.” “God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me.”
1825 May 7 Italian composer Antonio Salieri (74) died in Vienna, Austria.
1825 May 20 Charles X became King of France.
1825 May 25 American Unitarian Association was founded.
1825 May 29 David Bell Birney (d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1825 Jun 7 R.D. Blackmore, author (Norie), was born.
1825 Jun 19 Gioacchino Rossini’s “Il Viaggio a Reims,” premiered. Rossini wrote the “IL Viaggio a Reims” opera to celebrate the coronation of Charles X. The libretto by Luigi Balocchi was intended to show all major European nationalities coming together to celebrate the event.
1825 Jun 20 Coronation of French king Charles X, the surviving brother of guillotined Louis XVI.
1825 Jul 16 Alexander Gordon Laing (32), British Army Major, set off on camel from Tripoli in an attempt to become the 1st European to cross the Sahara Desert and reach the fabled city of Timbuktu (Mali).
1825 Aug 1 William Beaumont, a US Army assistant surgeon at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan territory, began experiments to study the digestive system of Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader who  was accidentally shot in the abdomen in 1822.
1825 Aug 6 Simon Bolivar drew up a constitution for Bolivia in which a life president appointed his successor. Sucre served as the sole capital until losing a brief civil war to La Paz in 1899. Upper Peru became the autonomous republic of Bolivia.
1825 Aug 25 Uruguay declared its independence from Brazil.
1825 Aug 27 William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, died near Balkh, Afghanistan, while returning to India following his trip to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. In 1985 Garry Alder authored “Beyond Bukhara: The Life of William Moorcroft, Asian Explorer and Veterinary Surgeon.”
1825 Sep 7 The Marquis de Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolution, bade farewell to President John Quincy Adams at the White House.
1825 Sep 27 The Stockton and Darlington rail line opened in England. The first locomotive to haul a passenger train was operated by George Stephenson in England. The British engineers Richard Trevithick and George Stevenson were the first innovators of the technology.
1825 Oct 9 The first Norwegian immigrants to America arrived on the sloop Restaurationen.
1825 Oct 16 Thomas Turpin Crittenden (d.1905), Brig. Gen. (Union volunteers), was born.
1825 Oct 17 Franz Liszt’s operetta Don Sanche premiered in Paris
1825 Oct 25 Johann Strauss (d.1899), Austrian orchestra conductor and composer, was born.
1825 Oct 26 The Erie Canal was opened in upstate New York. It cut through 363 miles of wilderness and measured 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep. It had 18 aqueducts and 83 locks and rose 568 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. The first boat on the Erie Canal left Buffalo, N.Y. after eight years of construction. At the request of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, the New York state legislature had provided $7 million to finance the project. The canal facilitated trade between New York City and the Midwest–manufactured goods were shipped out of New York and agricultural products were returned from the Midwest. As the canal became vital to trade, New York City flourished and settlers rapidly moved into the Midwest and founded towns like Clinton, Illinois. [see 1826] Gov. Clinton rode the Seneca Chief canal boat from Buffalo to New York harbor for the inauguration. In 2004 Peter L. Bernstein authored “Wedding of the Waters: The Erie Canal and the Making of a Great Nation.” In 2009 Gerard Koeppel authored “Bond of Union: Building the Erie Canal and the American Empire.”
1825 Nov 9 Ambrose Powell Hill (d.1865), Lt Gen (Confederate 3rd Army Corp), was born.
1825 Nov 26 The first college social fraternity, the Kappa Alpha Society, was formed at Union College in Schenectady, N.Y.
1825 Nov 29 1st Italian opera in US, “Barber of Seville,” premiered in NYC and was welcomed by the legendary librettist for Mozart (and friend of Casanova), Lorenzo DaPonte, who was Professor of Italian at King’s (later Columbia) College.
1825 Dec 27 The 1st public railroad using steam locomotive was completed in England.
1825 Dec 28 US General James Wilkinson (b.1757) died in Mexico City. He was generally regarded as an American patriot, but historians in the 1850s found evidence that he had worked as a spy on behalf of Spanish officials while serving as governor of the Louisiana Territory (1805-1806).
1825 Dec 29 Giuseppe Maria Gioacchino Cambini, composer, died.
1825 Dec 29 Jacques-Louis David (b.1748), French painter (Death of Marat), died.
1825 An uprising against the Tsar takes place in Russia.
1825 Every Woman’s Book: Or, What is Love? is the first book on birth control published in Britain. Written by physician Richard Carlile, he advocates partial or complete withdrawal or the use of a sponge, of which he says the French and Italians “wear them fastened to their waists, and always have them at hand.” Also recommended: a baudruche, or “glove” for the man.
1825 Greece is invaded by Egypt, under the command of Ibrahim, son of Mohammed Ali.
1825 Hawaii’s new king is now Kamehameha III, age 12, but Kamehameha I’s widow will rule as regent until she dies in 1832, when Kamehameha III will officially be crowned in the following year.
1825 Memoirs is written by English courtesan Harriette Wilson, who had her first lover at age 15 and included other such notables as the earl of Craven, the duke of Argyll, the marquis of Worcester, and the duke of Wellington. The duke of Wellington’s comments when it was suggested he pay her off to keep the book from being published? “Publish and be damned!”
1825 The first public passenger railway, the Stockton and Darlington Railway opens.
1825 Marc Brunel invents a tunnelling shield, making subaqueous tunnelling possible.
1825 Louis XVIII has died and is succeeded by his reactionary brother, 
Charles X.
1825 Russian military officers, who had been exposed to the Enlightenment during Russia’s occupation of France, attempt to replace authoritarian rule with a representative democracy. Their coup, called the Decembrist Rising, fails and they are crushed.
1825 Camille Corot created his painting “View of Rome.”
1825 Goya (79) made his 4 lithographs known as the “Bulls of Bordeaux.”
1825 Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), French lawyer and professor, invented the genre of food writing with his book “The Physiology of Taste.”
1825 Beethoven composed his String Quartet No. 15 in A Minor.
1825 The Marquis de Lafayette laid the cornerstone for the Monument at Bunker Hill in a ceremony addressed by Daniel Webster.
1825 Sing Sing Prison opened on the banks of the Hudson River. The name was from the local Sint Sinct Indian tribe. [see 1901]
1825 Franciscan missionaries planted vineyards north of San Francisco to make sacramental wine.
1825 Philadelphia druggist Elie Magliore Durand first touted the effervescent soda water as a health drink. Shortly afterward, New York inventor John Matthews originated the fountain apparatus that conveniently rested on a pharmacist’s counter to dispense carbonated drinks.
1825 The US government launched a mapping and surveying expedition of the Sant Fe Trail. The notes ended up filed for decades. In 2000 David Dary authored “The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends and Lore.”
1825 The US experienced a financial panic.
1825 The Bureau of Indian Affairs began as an office of the War Department that dealt with what white Americans saw as the “Indian problem.”
1825 A law that defined and set punishment for abortion was placed into the Missouri penal code. It was the 2nd US abortion law after a 1821 law in Connecticut. The law prohibited only abortions induced by poisoning.
1825 The element aluminium was discovered.
1825 William Sturgeon, English inventor, found that an electric current flowing through a coil of wire created a magnet. Shortly thereafter, the American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that placing an iron core inside the wire coil strengthened the effect- permitting this electromagnet to lift and drop small iron objects at the closing and opening of a switch connecting the coil to a storage battery.
1825 The Miramichi fires burned some 3 million acres in Maine and New Brunswick, Canada.
1825 Parson Weems, writer, died. His work included “Life of George Washington With Curious Anecdotes, equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to his Young Countrymen.”
1825 In Egypt British traveler and draftsman James Burton sketched tombs of the New Kingdom pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings.
1825 A French emissary of Charles X demanded that Haiti pay 150 million gold francs in exchange for recognition as French warships cruised over the horizon. The deal required 5 annual payments of 30 million and required a loan from a French bank for the 1st payment. Haiti renegotiated the debt in 1838.
1825 France established its imperial paramilitary, the Gendarmerie Coloniale, for law enforcement across its colonial empire.
1825 The impresario of La Scala in Milan, Italy, sold the theater’s library of manuscript opera scores to the young copyist Giovannin Ricordi. This initiated the rise of Ricordi’s music-publ. firm.
1825 Japan issued an edict that spelled out what would happen to uninvited guests. “Should any foreigners land anywhere, they must be arrested or killed.”
1825 A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
1825 The Decembrists consisted of idealistic military officers who plotted unsuccessfully against the Russian tsar.
1825-1829 1825-1829    John Quincy Adams served as the 6th president of the US.
1825-1832 1825-1832    Lambert Hitchcock marked all his furniture with the insignia “L. Hitchcock.”
1825-1833 1825-1833    Scottish botanist and gardener, David Douglas, visited the US Pacific Coast and sent a collection of poppies to the London Horticultural Society, where the species was successfully cultivated. [see 1792,1794, 1816]
1825-1852 1825-1852    Master Juba was a free black man and the first recognized master of tap dancing.
1825-1858 1825-1858    The Suffolk Bank operated a clearing house in Boston that served the New England region, and required all country banks doing business in Boston to maintain clearing deposits.
1825-1859 1825-1859    An ongoing project under Frederick Burkhardt has undertaken the task of editing and publishing the letters of Charles Darwin of this period. The first of 30 volumes came out in 1985 published by Cambridge Univ. Press, and the 10th in 1996. Selected letters over this period from the first 7 volumes have been published as “Charles Darwin’s Letters: A Selection 1825-1859.”
1825-1888 1825-1888    Sandwich glass, also known as pressed glass, was made by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Works in Sandwich, Mass. They made the original dolphin-based glassware.
1825-1893 1825-1893    Jean Martin Charcot, hypnotist. He taught Sigmund Freud and influenced Freud’s theories of the subconscious.
1825-1997 1825-1997    The 1997 book, “The American Opera Singer” by Peter G. Davis, covers the lives and adventures of opera and concert singers over this period.

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