Archive for March, 2014

A Trolling We Will Go Omnibus:The Early Years Not only do I write Regency and Romance, but I also have delved into Fantasy.

The Trolling series, (the first three are in print) is the story of a man, Humphrey. We meet him as he has left youth and become a man with a man’s responsibilities.

We follow him in a series of stories that encompass the stages of life. We see him when he starts his family, when he has older sons and the father son dynamic is tested.

We see him when his children begin to marry and have children, and at the end of his life when those he has loved, and those who were his friends proceed him over the threshold into death.

All this while he serves a kingdom troubled by monsters. Troubles that he and his friends will learn to deal with and rectify.

Here are the first three books together as one longer novel.

A Trolling We Will Go, Trolling Down to Old Mah Wee and Trolling’s Pass and Present.

Available in a variety of formats.

For $8.99 you can get this fantasy adventure.


Barnes and Noble for your Nook


Amazon for your Kindle

Trade Paperback

The stories of Humphrey and Gwendolyn. Published separately in: A Trolling we Will Go, Trolling Down to Old Mah Wee and Trollings Pass and Present.

These are the tales of how a simple Woodcutter and an overly educated girl help save the kingdom without a king from an ancient evil. Long forgotten is the way to fight the Trolls.

Beasts that breed faster than rabbits it seems, and when they decide to migrate to the lands of humans, their seeming invulnerability spell doom for all in the kingdom of Torahn. Not only Torahn but all the human kingdoms that border the great mountains that divide the continent.


If you have any commentary, thoughts, ideas about the book (especially if you buy it, read it and like it 😉 then we would love to hear from you.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Addington 1st Viscount Sidmouth
30 May 1757 – 15 February 1844


Henry Addington

A British statesman, and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1804.
Henry Addington was the son of Anthony Addington, Pitt’s physician, and Mary Addington, the daughter of the Rev. Haviland John Hiley, headmaster of Reading School. As a consequence of his father’s position, Addington was a childhood friend of William Pitt the Younger. Addington studied at Winchester and Brasenose College, Oxford, and then studied law at Lincoln’s Inn.

Political career

He was elected to the House of Commons in 1784 as Member of Parliament (MP) for Devizes, and became Speaker of the House of Commons in 1789. In March 1801, William Pitt the Younger resigned from office, ostensibly over the refusal of King George III to remove some of the existing political restrictions on Roman Catholics in Ireland (Catholic Emancipation), but poor health, failure in war, economic collapse, alarming levels of social unrest due to famine, and irreconcilable divisions within the Cabinet also played a role. Both Pitt and the King insisted that Addington take over as Prime Minister, despite his own objections, and his failed attempts to reconcile the King and Pitt.

Prime minister

Addington’s period as Prime Minister was most notable for his reforms that doubled the efficiency of the Income tax and for the negotiation of the Treaty of Amiens, in 1802. While the terms of the Treaty were the bare minimum that the British government could accept, Napoleon Bonaparte would not have agreed to any terms more favourable to the British, and the British government had reached a state of financial collapse, owing to war expenditure, the loss of Continental markets for British goods, and two successive failed harvests that had led to widespread famine and social unrest, rendering peace a necessity. By early 1803 the United Kingdom’s financial and diplomatic positions had recovered sufficiently to allow Addington to declare war on France, when it became clear that the French would not allow a settlement for the defences of Malta that would have been secure enough to fend off a French invasion that appeared imminent.

Addington’s management of the war was characterized by the cultivating of better relations with Russia, Austria, and Prussia, that later culminated in the Third Coalition shortly after he left office. Addington also strengthened British defences against a French invasion through the building of Martello towers on the south coast and the raising of more than 600,000 men at arms.

Loss of office

Addington was driven from office in May 1804 by an alliance of Pitt, Charles James Fox and William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, who decided that they wanted Cabinet offices for themselves. Addington’s greatest failing was his inability to manage a parliamentary majority, by cultivating the loyal support of MPs beyond his own circle and the friends of the King. This combined with his mediocre speaking ability, left him vulnerable to Pitt’s mastery of parliamentary management and his unparalleled oratory skills. Pitt’s parliamentary assault against Addington in March 1804 led to the slimming of his parliamentary majority to the point where defeat in the House of Commons was imminent.


Lord President and Lord Privy Seal

Addington remained an important political figure, however, and the next year he was created Viscount Sidmouth. He served in Pitt’s final Cabinet as Lord President of the Council to 1806, and in the Ministry of All the Talents as Lord Privy Seal and again Lord President to 1807.

Home Secretary

He returned to government again as Lord President in March, 1812, and, in June of the same year, became Home Secretary. As Home Secretary, Sidmouth countered revolutionary opposition, being responsible for the temporary suspension of habeas corpus in 1817 and the passage of the Six Acts in 1819. His tenure also saw the Peterloo Massacre of 1819. Sidmouth left office in 1822, succeeded as Home Secretary by Sir Robert Peel, but remained in the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio for the next two years, fruitlessly opposing British recognition of the South American republics. He remained active in the House of Lords for the next few years, making his final speech in opposition to Catholic Emancipation in 1829 and casting his final vote against the Reform Act 1832.

Foundling Hospital

As Prime Minister, in 1802, Addington accepted an honorary position as vice president for life on the Court of Governors of London’s Foundling Hospital for abandoned babies.


Residences and land

Addington maintained homes at Up Ottery, Devon and Bulmershe Court, in what is now the Reading suburb of Woodley, but moved to the White Lodge in Richmond Park when he became Prime Minister. However he maintained links with Woodley and the Reading area, as commander of the Woodley Yeomanry Cavalry and High Steward of Reading. He also donated to the town of Reading the four acres (16,000 m²) of land that is today the Royal Berkshire Hospital, and his name is commemorated in the town’s Sidmouth Street and Addington Road as well as in Sidmouth street in Devizes.


Henry Addigton died in London on February 15, 1844 at the age of 86. He was buried in St. Mary-the-Virgin churchyard at Mortlake, Greater London.


03/17/1801 05/10/180

    Henry Addington            First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer
    Lord Eldon                      Lord Chancellor
    Lord Chatham                Lord President of the Council and Master-General of the Ordnance
    Lord Westmorland         Lord Privy Seal
    The Duke of Portland     Secretary of State for the Home Department
    Lord Hawkesbury          Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    Lord Hobart                    Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
    Lord St Vincent              First Lord of the Admiralty
    Lord Liverpool                President of the Board of Trade


  • May, 1801 – Lord Lewisham (who becomes Lord Dartmouth in July), the President of the Board of Control, enters the Cabinet
  • July, 1801 – The Duke of Portland succeeds Lord Chatham as Lord President (Chatham remains Master of the Ordnance). Lord Pelham succeeds Portland as Home Secretary.
  • July, 1802 – Lord Castlereagh succeeds Lord Dartmouth at the Board of Control.
  • August, 1803 – Charles Philip Yorke succeeds Lord Pelham as Home Secretary.

Read Full Post »

Colonel Fitzwilliam’s Correspondence For your enjoyment, one of the Regency Romances I published.

It is available for sale and I hope that you will take the opportunity to order your copy.

For yourself or as a gift. It is now available in a variety of formats.

For just a few dollars this Regency Romance can be yours for your eReaders or physically in Trade Paperback.


Visit the dedicated Website

Barnes and Noble for your Nook or in Paperback



Amazon for your Kindle or in Trade Paperback

Witnessing his cousin marry for love and not money, as he felt destined to do, Colonel Fitzwilliam refused to himself to be jealous. He did not expect his acquaintance with the Bennet Clan to change that.    

Catherine Bennet, often called Kitty, had not given a great deal of thought to how her life might change with her sisters Elizabeth and Jane becoming wed to rich and connected men. Certainly meeting Darcy’s handsome cousin, a Colonel, did not affect her.   

 But one had to admit that the connections of the Bingleys and Darcys were quite advantageous. All sorts of men desired introductions now that she had such wealthy new brothers.    

Kitty knew that Lydia may have thought herself fortunate when she had married Wickham, the first Bennet daughter to wed. Kitty, though, knew that true fortune had come to her. She just wasn’t sure how best to apply herself.


If you have any commentary, thoughts, ideas about the book (especially if you buy it, read it and like it 😉 then we would love to hear from you.

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Pitt the Younger
28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806


William Pitt

William Pitt was a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24. He left office in 1801, but was Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was also the Chancellor of the Exchequer throughout his premiership. He is known as “the Younger” to distinguish him from his father, William Pitt the Elder, who previously served as Prime Minister of Great Britain. In 1766 he gained the style of The Honourable when his father was created the Earl of Chatham. Pitt was the second son, his brother becoming the Earl of Chatham after their father. Pitt’s brother also served in his 2nd Cabinet.

The younger Pitt’s prime ministerial tenure, which came during the reign of George III, was dominated by major events in Europe, including the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Pitt, although often referred to as a Tory, or “new Tory”, called himself an “independent Whig” and was generally opposed to the development of a strict partisan political system.

He is best known for leading Britain in the great wars against France and Napoleon. Pitt was an outstanding administrator who worked for efficiency and reform, bringing in a new generation of outstanding administrators. Regained financial stability for Britain after the American War of Independence.  He raised taxes to pay for the great war against France, and cracked down on radicalism. To meet the threat of Irish support for France, he engineered the Acts of Union 1800 and tried (but failed) to get Catholic Emancipation as part of the Union. Pitt created the “new Toryism,” which revived the Tory Party and enabled it to stay in power for the next quarter-century. He defined the role of the Prime Minister as the supervisor and co-ordinator of the various Government departments.

Taking up office at the age of 24 years and 205 days, William Pitt was the youngest ever prime minister, and one of the longest in the role.


The son of Pitt the Elder, the Earl of Chatham, William Pitt was almost born to be prime minister. Immersed in political life from a young age, Pitt the Younger is said to have expressed parliamentary ambitions even at the age of seven. The Honourable William Pitt, second son of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was born at Hayes Place in the village of Hayes, Kent. Pitt was from a political family on both sides. His mother, Hester Grenville, was sister to former prime minister George Grenville. Pitt inherited brilliance and dynamism from his father’s line, and a determined, methodical nature from the Grenvilles.

Suffering from occasional poor health as a boy, he was educated at home by the Reverend Edward Wilson. An intelligent child, Pitt quickly became proficient in Latin and Greek. In 1773, aged fourteen, he attended Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he studied political philosophy, classics, mathematics, trigonometry, chemistry, and history. At Cambridge, Pitt was tutored by George Pretyman, who became a close personal friend. Pitt later appointed Pretyman Bishop of Lincoln then Winchester and drew upon his advice throughout his political career.

While at Cambridge, he befriended the young William Wilberforce, who became a lifelong friend and political ally in Parliament. Pitt tended to socialize only with fellow students and others already known to him, rarely venturing outside the university grounds. Yet he was described as charming and friendly. According to Wilberforce, Pitt had an exceptional wit along with an endearingly gentle sense of humour: “no man … ever indulged more freely or happily in that playful facetiousness which gratifies all without wounding any.”

In 1776, Pitt, plagued by poor health, took advantage of a little-used privilege available only to the sons of noblemen, and chose to graduate without having to pass examinations at the age of seventeen. Pitt’s father, who had by then been raised to the peerage as Earl of Chatham, died in 1779. As a younger son, Pitt the Younger received a small inheritance. He received legal education at Lincoln’s Inn and was called to the bar in the summer of 1780.


During the general elections of September 1780, Pitt contested the University of Cambridge seat, but lost. Still intent on entering Parliament, Pitt, with the help of his university comrade, Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland, secured the patronage of James Lowther. Lowther effectively controlled the pocket borough of Appleby; a by-election in that constituency sent Pitt to the House of Commons in January 1781. He was then 21. Pitt’s entry into parliament is somewhat ironic as he later railed against the very same pocket and rotten boroughs that had given him his seat.

In Parliament, the youthful Pitt cast aside his tendency to be withdrawn in public, emerging as a noted debater right from his Maiden speech. Pitt originally aligned himself with prominent Whigs such as Charles James Fox. With the Whigs, Pitt denounced the continuation of the American War of Independence, as his father strongly had. Instead he proposed that the Prime Minister, Lord North, make peace with the rebellious American colonies. Pitt also supported parliamentary reform measures, including a proposal that would have checked electoral corruption. He renewed his friendship with William Wilberforce, now MP for Hull, with whom he frequently met in the gallery of the House of Commons.

After Lord North’s ministry collapsed in 1782, the Whig Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham was appointed Prime Minister. Pitt was offered the minor post of Vice-Treasurer of Ireland; but he refused, considering the post too subordinate.

The following year Pitt became Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House under Lord Shelburne. His acceptance was regarded as a betrayal by Fox, who had refused to serve in this government himself. He was 24 when he took on the role, which caused some public concern. A popular ditty commented that it was “a sight to make all nations stand and stare: a kingdom trusted to a schoolboy’s care.”

Lord Rockingham died only three months after coming to power; he was succeeded by another Whig, William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne. Many Whigs who had formed a part of the Rockingham ministry, including Fox, now refused to serve under the new Prime Minister. Pitt, however, was comfortable joining the Shelburne Government; he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Fox, who became Pitt’s lifelong political rival, then joined a coalition with Lord North, with whom he collaborated to bring about the defeat of the Shelburne administration. When Lord Shelburne resigned in 1783, King George III, who despised Fox, offered to appoint Pitt to the office of Prime Minister. But Pitt wisely declined, for he knew he would be incapable of securing the support of the House of Commons. The Fox-North Coalition rose to power in a Government nominally headed by William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland.

Pitt, who had been stripped of his post as Chancellor of the Exchequer, joined the Opposition. He raised the issue of parliamentary reform in order to strain the uneasy Fox-North Coalition, which included both supporters and detractors of reform. He did not advocate an expansion of the electoral franchise, but he did seek to address bribery and rotten boroughs. Though his proposal failed, many reformers in Parliament came to regard him as their leader, instead of Charles James Fox with whom he had become a fierce rival.

The Fox-North Coalition fell in December 1783, after Fox had introduced Edmund Burke’s bill to reform the East India Company to gain the patronage he so greatly lacked while the King refused to support him. Fox stated the bill was necessary to save the company from bankruptcy. Pitt responded that: “Necessity was the plea for every infringement of human freedom. It was the argument of tyrants; it was the creed of slaves.”

The King was opposed to the bill; when it passed in the House of Commons, he secured its defeat in the House of Lords by threatening to regard anyone who voted for it as his enemy. Following the bill’s failure in the Upper House, George III dismissed the coalition government and finally entrusted the premiership to William Pitt, after having offered the position to him three times previously.

A constitutional crisis arose when the king dismissed the Fox-North coalition government and named Pitt to replace it. Faced by a hostile majority in Parliament Pitt in a matter of months solidified his position. Some historians argue that his success was inevitable given the decisive importance of monarchical power; others argue that the king gambled on Pitt and that both would have failed but for a run of good fortune.

Pitt, at the age of 24, became Great Britain’s youngest Prime Minister ever and was ridiculed for his youth. A popular ditty commented that it was “a sight to make all nations stand and stare: a kingdom trusted to a schoolboy’s care”. Many saw it simply as a stop-gap appointment until some more senior statesman took on the role. However, although it was widely predicted that the new “mince-pie administration” would not last out the Christmas season, it survived for seventeen years.

So as to reduce the power of the Opposition, Pitt offered Charles James Fox and his allies posts in the Cabinet; Pitt’s refusal to include Lord North, however, thwarted his efforts. The new Government was immediately on the defensive and in January 1784 was defeated on a motion of no confidence.

Pitt, however, took the unprecedented step of refusing to resign, despite this defeat. He retained the support of the King, who would not entrust the reins of power to the Fox-North Coalition. He also received the support of the House of Lords, which passed supportive motions, and many messages of support from the country at large, in the form of petitions approving of his appointment which influenced some Members to switch their support to Pitt. At the same time, he was granted the Freedom of the City of London.

When he returned from the ceremony to mark this, men of the City pulled Pitt’s coach home themselves, as a sign of respect. When passing a Whig club, the coach came under attack from a group of men who tried to assault Pitt. When news of this spread, it was assumed Fox and his associates had tried to bring down Pitt by any means.

Pitt gained great popularity with the public at large as “Honest Billy” who was seen as a refreshing change from the dishonesty, corruption and lack of principles widely associated with both Fox and North. Despite a series of defeats in the House of Commons, Pitt defiantly remained in office, watching the Coalition’s majority shrink as some Members of Parliament left the Opposition to abstain.

In March 1784, Parliament was dissolved, and a general election ensued. An electoral defeat for the Government was out of the question because Pitt enjoyed the support of King George III. Patronage and bribes paid by the Treasury were normally expected to be enough to secure the Government a comfortable majority in the House of Commons but on this occasion the government reaped much popular support as well. In most popular constituencies, the election was fought between candidates clearly representing either Pitt or Fox and North. Early returns showed a massive swing to Pitt with the result that many Opposition Members who still hadn’t faced election either defected, stood down, or made deals with their opponents to avoid expensive defeats.

A notable exception came in Fox’s own constituency of Westminster which contained one of the largest electorates in the country. In a contest estimated to have cost a quarter of the total spending in the entire country, Fox bitterly fought against two Pittite candidates to secure one of the two seats for the constituency. Great legal wranglings ensued, including the examination of every single vote cast, which dragged on for more than a year. Meanwhile, Fox sat for the pocket borough of Tain Burghs. Many saw the dragging out of the result as being unduly vindictive on the part of Pitt and eventually the examinations were abandoned with Fox declared elected. Elsewhere Pitt won a personal triumph when he was elected a Member for the University of Cambridge, a constituency he had long coveted and which he would continue to represent for the remainder of his life.


Losing the war and the 13 colonies was a shock to the British system. The war revealed the limitations of Britain’s fiscal-military state when it had powerful enemies, no allies, depended on extended and vulnerable transatlantic lines of communication, and was faced for the first time since the 17th century by both Protestant and Catholic foes.

The defeat heightened dissension and escalated political antagonism to the King’s ministers. Inside parliament, the primary concern changed from fears of an over-mighty monarch to the issues of representation, parliamentary reform, and government retrenchment. Reformers sought to destroy what they saw as widespread institutional corruption. The result was a crisis from 1776-1783. The peace in 1783 left France financially prostrate, while the British economy boomed thanks to the return of American business.

That crisis ended in 1784 thanks to the King’s shrewdness in outwitting Fox and renewed confidence in the system engendered by the leadership of Pitt. Historians conclude that loss of the American colonies enabled Britain to deal with the French Revolution with more unity and organization than would otherwise have been the case.


Against early predictions, Pitt’s ministry survived for 17 years. In government, he stood for parliamentary reform to reduce the direct influence of the monarch and the capacity for bribery; union with Ireland; Catholic emancipation; reorganization of the East India Company; reduction of the national debt; and free trade.

During his first year he suffered many defeats but was undeterred, and was increasingly fired by criticisms from his rival, Fox. His popularity rose steadily, and he won a very large majority in a well-timed General Election in 1784. During 1784 Pitt set about reducing the national debt and combating smuggling.

His administration secure, Pitt could begin to enact his agenda. His first major piece of legislation as Prime Minister was the India Act 1784, which re-organized the British East India Company and kept a watch over corruption. The India Act created a new Board of Control to oversee the affairs of the East India Company. It differed from Fox’s failed India Bill 1783 and specified that the Board would be appointed by the King.

Pitt was appointed, along with Lord Sydney who was appointed President. The Act centralized British rule in India by reducing the power of the Governors of Bombay and Madras and by increasing that of the Governor-General, Charles Cornwallis. Further augmentations and clarifications of the Governor-General’s authority were made in 1786, presumably by Lord Sydney, and presumably as a result of the Company’s setting up of Penang with their own Superintended (Governor), Captain Francis Light, in 1786.

In domestic politics, Pitt also concerned himself with the cause of parliamentary reform. The session of 1785 was more difficult. Pitt launched a Reform Bill, which would rationalize dozens of “rotten borough” constituencies. This key bill was rejected, as was a Union with Ireland Bill. In 1785, he introduced a bill to remove the representation of thirty-six rotten boroughs, and to extend in a small way, the electoral franchise to more individuals. Pitt’s support for the bill, however, was not strong enough to prevent its defeat in the House of Commons. The bill introduced in 1785 was Pitt’s last parliamentary reform proposal introduced in Parliament.

Another important domestic issue with which Pitt had to concern himself was the national debt, which had increased dramatically due to the rebellion of the American colonies. Pitt sought to eliminate the national debt by imposing new taxes. Pitt also introduced measures to reduce smuggling and fraud. In 1786, he instituted a sinking fund to reduce the national debt. Each year, £1,000,000 of the surplus revenue raised by new taxes was to be added to the fund so that it could accumulate interest; eventually, the money in the fund was to be used to pay off the national debt. The system was extended in 1792 so as to take into account any new loans taken by the government.

Pitt sought European alliances to restrict French influence, forming the Triple Alliance with Prussia and the United Provinces in 1788. During the Nootka Sound Controversy in 1790, Pitt took advantage of the alliance to force Spain to give up its claim to exclusive control over the western coast of North and South America. The Alliance, however, failed to produce any other important benefits for Great Britain.

In 1788, Pitt faced a major crisis when the King fell victim to a mysterious illness, a form of mental disorder that incapacitated him. (The Madness) If the sovereign was incapable of fulfilling his constitutional duties, Parliament would need to appoint a regent to rule in his place. All factions agreed the only viable candidate was the king’s eldest son, HRH The Prince George, Prince of Wales. The Prince, however, was a supporter of Charles James Fox; had he come to power, he would almost surely have dismissed Pitt. However, he did not have such an opportunity, as Parliament spent months debating legal technicalities relating to the Regency. Fortunately for Pitt, the king recovered in February 1789, just after a Regency Bill had been introduced and passed in the House of Commons.

The general elections of 1790 resulted in a majority for the government, and Pitt continued as Prime Minister. In 1791, he proceeded to address one of the problems facing the growing British Empire: the future of British Canada. By the Constitutional Act of 1791, the province of Quebec was divided into two separate provinces: the predominantly French Lower Canada and the predominantly English Upper Canada. In August 1792, George III appointed Pitt to the honorary post of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. The King had in 1791 offered him a Knighthood of the Garter, but he suggested the honour go to his elder brother, the second Earl of Chatham.

In the early 1790s the development of the revolution in France caused Pitt to worry about its effects in Britain. He reacted by expelling the French ambassador, and was blamed by Fox for the war with France that began in 1793.

The French Revolution encouraged many in Great Britain to once again speak of parliamentary reform, an issue which had not been at the political forefront since Pitt’s reform bill was defeated in 1785. The reformers, however, were quickly labelled as radicals and as associates of the French revolutionaries. Subsequently, in 1794 Pitt’s administration tried three of them for treason but lost. Parliament began to enact repressive legislation in order to silence the reformers. Individuals who published seditious material were punished, and, in 1794, the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus was suspended. Other repressive measures included the Seditious Meetings Act (which restricted the right of individuals to assemble publicly) and the Combination Acts (which restricted the formation of societies or organisations that favoured political reforms). Problems manning the Royal Navy also led to Pitt to introduce the Quota System in 1795 addition to the existing system of Impressment.

The war with France was extremely expensive, straining Great Britain’s finances. Unlike the latter stages of the Napoleonic Wars, at this point Britain had only a very small standing army, and thus contributed to the war effort mainly by sea power and by supplying funds to other coalition members facing France. In 1797, Pitt was forced to protect the kingdom’s gold reserves by preventing individuals from exchanging banknotes for gold. Great Britain would continue to use paper money for over two decades. Pitt was also forced to introduce Great Britain’s first ever income tax. The new tax helped offset losses in indirect tax revenue, which had been caused by a decline in trade. Despite the efforts of Pitt and the British allies, the French continued to defeat the members of the First Coalition, which collapsed in 1798. A Second Coalition, consisting of Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire, was formed, but it, too, failed to overcome the French. The fall of the Second Coalition with the defeat of the Austrians at Marengo (14 June 1800) left Great Britain facing France alone.

The French Revolution revived religious and political problems in Ireland, a realm under the rule of the King of Great Britain. In 1798, Irish nationalists even attempted a rebellion, believing that the French would help them overthrow the monarchy. Pitt firmly believed that the only solution to the problem was a union of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the defeat of the rebellion which was assisted by France, he advanced this policy. The union was established by the Act of Union 1800; compensation and patronage ensured the support of the Irish Parliament. Great Britain and Ireland were formally united into a single realm, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, on 1 January 1801.

Pitt sought to inaugurate the new kingdom by granting concessions to Roman Catholics, who formed a majority in Ireland, by abolishing various political restrictions under which they suffered. George III, however, did not share the same view. The King was strongly opposed to Catholic Emancipation; he argued that to grant additional liberty would violate his coronation oath, in which he had promised to protect the established Church of England. Pitt, unable to change the King’s strong views, resigned on 16 February 1801, so as to allow Henry Addington, his political friend, to form a new administration. At about the same time, however, the King suffered a renewed bout of madness; thus, Addington could not receive his formal appointment. Though he had resigned, Pitt temporarily continued to discharge his duties; on 18 February 1801, he brought forward the annual budget. Power was transferred from Pitt to Addington on 14 March, when the King recovered.

Pitt supported the new administration, but with little enthusiasm; he frequently absented himself from Parliament, preferring to remain in his Lord Warden’s residence of Walmer Castle – before 1802 usually spending an annual late-summer holiday there, and later often present from the spring until the autumn.

From the castle, he helped organize a local volunteer force in anticipation of a French invasion, acted as colonel of a battalion raised by Trinity House – he was also a Master of Trinity House – and encouraged the construction of Martello towers and the Royal Military Canal in Romney Marsh. He rented land abutting the Castle to farm, and on which to lay out trees and walks. His niece Lady Hester Stanhope designed and managed the gardens and acted as his hostess.

After France had forced peace and recognition of the French Republic from the Russian Empire in 1799 and from the Holy Roman Emperor (Austria) in 1801, the Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain marked the end of the French Revolutionary Wars. By 1803, however, war had broken out again between Britain and the new First French Empire under Napoleon. Although Addington had previously invited him to join the Cabinet, Pitt preferred to join the Opposition, becoming increasingly critical of the government’s policies. Addington, unable to face the combined opposition of Pitt and Fox, saw his majority gradually evaporate. By the end of April 1804, Addington, who had lost his parliamentary support, had decided to resign.

Three years after leaving office, King George III asked Pitt to form a second government when Napoleon was threatening invasion. Pitt accepted, despite his failing health, possible alcoholism and limited support in the House of Commons.


Pitt returned to the premiership on 10 May 1804. He had originally planned to form a broad coalition government, but faced the opposition of George III to the inclusion of Fox. Moreover, many of Pitt’s former supporters, including the allies of Addington, joined the Opposition. Thus, Pitt’s Second Ministry was considerably weaker than his first.

The British Government began placing pressure on the French Emperor, Napoleon I. Thanks to Pitt’s efforts, Britain joined the Third Coalition, an alliance that also involved Austria, Russia, and Sweden. In October 1805, the British Admiral, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, won a crushing victory in the Battle of Trafalgar, ensuring British naval supremacy for the remainder of the war.

At the annual Lord Mayor’s Banquet toasting him as “the Saviour of Europe”, Pitt responded that, “I return you many thanks for the honour you have done me; but Europe is not to be saved by any single man. England has saved herself by her exertions, and will, as I trust, save Europe by her example.”

Nevertheless, the Coalition collapsed, having suffered significant defeats at the Battle of Ulm (October 1805) and the Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805). After hearing the news of Austerlitz Pitt referred to a map of Europe, “Roll up that map; it will not be wanted these ten years.”


The setbacks took a toll on Pitt’s health. He had long suffered from poor health, beginning in childhood, and was plagued with gout and “biliousness” worsened by a fondness for port that began when he was advised to drink the wine to deal with his chronic ill-health. On 23 January 1806, Pitt died, probably from peptic ulceration of his stomach or duodenum; he was unmarried and left no children. He died at the age of 46. His last words were ‘Oh my country! How I love my country!’

Pitt’s debts amounted to £40,000 when he died, but Parliament agreed to pay them on his behalf. A motion was made to honour him with a public funeral and a monument; it passed despite the opposition of Fox. Pitt’s body was buried in Westminster Abbey on 22 February, having lain in state for two days in the Palace of Westminster. Pitt was succeeded as Prime Minister by William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, who headed the Ministry of All the Talents, a coalition which included Charles James Fox.

William Pitt the Younger was a powerful Prime Minister who consolidated the powers of his office. Though he was sometimes opposed by members of his Cabinet, he helped define the role of the Prime Minister as the supervisor and co-ordinator of the various Government departments. He was not, however, the supreme political influence in the nation, for the King remained the dominant force in Government. Pitt was Prime Minister not because he enjoyed the support of the electorate or of the House of Commons, but because he retained the favour of the Crown.

One of Pitt’s most important accomplishments was a rehabilitation of the nation’s finances after the American War of Independence. Pitt helped the Government manage the mounting national debt, and made changes to the tax system in order to improve its efficiency.

Some of Pitt’s other domestic plans were not as successful; he failed to secure parliamentary reform, emancipation, or the abolition of the slave trade – although this last did take place with the Slave Trade Act 1807, the year after his death.

First Ministry

12/19/1783 03/14/1801

Office                                            Name                                            Term

First Lord of the Treasury

Chancellor of the Exchequer        William Pitt                                1783-1801

Lord Chancellor                            The Lord Thurlow                      1783-1792

Lord President of the Council       The Earl Gower                         1783-1784

Lord Privy Seal                             The Duke of Rutland                  1783-1784

Foreign Secretary                         The Marquess of Carmarthen   1783-1791

Home Secretary                           The Lord Sydney                       1783-1789

First Lord of the Admiralty            The Viscount of Howe               1783-1788

Master-General of the Ordnance  The Duke of Richmond             1784-1795


  • March, 1784 – The Duke of Rutland becomes Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, remaining also Lord Privy Seal.
  • December, 1784 – Lord Gower (Lord Stafford from 1786) succeeds the Duke of Rutland as Lord Privy Seal (Rutland remains Viceroy of Ireland). Lord Camden succeeds Gower as Lord President.
  • November, 1787 – Lord Buckingham succeeds the Duke of Rutland as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
  • July, 1788 – Lord Chatham, Pitt’s elder brother, succeeds Lord Howe as First Lord of the Admiralty
  • June, 1789 – William Wyndham Grenville (Lord Grenville from 1790), succeeds Lord Sydney as Home Secretary.
  • October, 1789 – Lord Westmorland succeeds Lord Buckingham as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
  • June, 1791 – Lord Grenville succeeds the Duke of Leeds (Lord Carmarthen before 1789) as Foreign Secretary. Henry Dundas succeeds Grenville as Home Secretary. Lord Hawkesbury (from 1796 the Earl of Liverpool), the President of the Board of Trade, joins the Cabinet.
  • June, 1792 – Lord Thurlow resigns as Lord Chancellor. The Great Seal goes into commission.
  • January, 1793 – Lord Loughborough becomes Lord Chancellor
  • July, 1794 – Lord Fitzwilliam succeeds Lord Camden as Lord President. Henry Dundas takes the new Secretaryship of State for War, while the Duke of Portland succeeds Dundas as Home Secretary. Lord Spencer succeeds Stafford as Lord Privy Seal. William Windham enters the Cabinet as Secretary at War.
  • December, 1794 – Lord Chatham succeeds Spencer as Lord Privy Seal. Lord Spencer succeeds Chatham as First Lord of the Admiralty. Lord Fitzwilliam succeeds Lord Westmorland as Viceroy of Ireland. Lord Mansfield succeeds Fitzwilliam as Lord President.
  • February, 1795 – Lord Cornwallis succeeds the Duke of Richmond as Master-General of the Ordnance.
  • March, 1795 – Lord Camden succeeds Lord Fitzwilliam as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.
  • September, 1796 – Lord Chatham succeeds Lord Mansfield as Lord President, remaining also Lord Privy Seal.
  • February, 1798 – Lord Westmorland succeeds Lord Chatham as Lord Privy Seal. Chatham remains Lord President.
  • June, 1798 – Lord Cornwallis succeeds Lord Camden as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, remaining also Master-General of the Ordnance.
  • February, 1801 – Lord Grenville, Lord Spencer, and William Windham resign from the Cabinet. The first two are succeeded by Lord Hawkesbury and Lord St Vincent, while Windham’s successor is not in cabinet.

Second Ministry

05/10/1804 01/23/1806

Name                                                                Office                        Term

First Lord of the Treasury

Chancellor of the Exchequer                         William Pitt                1804-1806

Lord Chancellor                                            The Lord Eldon          1804-1806

Lord President of the Council                The Duke of Portland        1804–1805

Lord Privy Sea                                    The Earl of Westmorland     1804-1806

Foreign Secretary                                   The Lord Harrowby          1804–1805

Home Secretary                                   The Lord Hawkesbury        1804-1806

War and Colonial Secretary                       The Earl Camden         1804–1805

First Lord of the Admiralty                     The Viscount Melville        1804–1805

Master-General of the Ordnance            The Earl of Chatham       1804-1806

President of the Board of Trade            The Duke of Montrose      1804-1806   

President of the Board of Control            Viscount Castlereagh     1804-1806

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster     The Lord Mulgrave         1804–1805


  • January, 1805 – Lord Mulgrave succeeds Lord Harrowby as Foreign Secretary. Lord Buckinghamshire (previously Lord Hobart) succeeds Mulgrave at the Duchy of Lancaster. Lord Sidmouth succeeds the Duke of Portland as Lord President. Portland becomes a Minister without Portfolio.
  • April, 1805 – Lord Barham succeeds Lord Melville as First Lord of the Admiralty
  • July, 1805 – Lord Harrowby succeeds Lord Buckinghamshire as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lord Camden succeeds Lord Sidmouth as Lord President. Lord Castlereagh succeeds Camden as Colonial Secretary, remaining also at the Board of Control.

Read Full Post »

Beggars Can’t Be Choosier

This is the latest of the Regency Romances I’ve published. It is available for sale and I hope that you will take the opportunity to order your copy.

For yourself or as a gift. It is now available in a variety of formats. For $3.99 you can get this Regency Romance for your eReader. A little more as an actual physical book.


When a fortune purchases a title, love shall never flourish, for a heart that is bought, can never be won.

The Earl of Aftlake has struggled since coming into his inheritance. Terrible decisions by his father has left him with an income of only 100 pounds a year. For a Peer, living on such a sum is near impossible. Into his life comes the charming and beautiful Katherine Chandler. She has a fortune her father made in the India trade.

Together, a title and a fortune can be a thing that can achieve great things for all of England. Together the two can start a family and restore the Aftlake fortunes. Together they form an alliance.

But a partnership of this nature is not one of love. And terms of the partnership will allow both to one day seek a love that they both deserve for all that they do. But will Brian Forbes Pangentier find the loves he desires or the love he deserves?

And Katherine, now Countess Aftlake, will she learn to appreciate the difference between happiness and wealth? Can love and the admiration of the TON combine or are the two mutually exclusive?

Purchase here: Beggars Can’t Be Choosier


If you have any commentary, thoughts, ideas about the book (especially if you buy it, read it and like it 😉 then we would love to hear from you.

Read Full Post »

Anna Belfrage, a friend through my various writing endeavors, author of The Graham Saga 513eH7ob1lL._AA160_-2014-03-24-12-00.jpg, and recent nominee for the 2014 RONE Awards has invited me to participate in a blog hop on the writing process. At the time this post goes up, I will be on a project that I am not sure what it will be, though my hunch is the craft part of the process on some previous WIPs. When I am drafting this post though, I am writing the last chapter of my Lord Bennington’s Marriage Bed. It is a Regency Romance that has surpassed the 90,000 word target in first draft. I have about 15 more pages to go.

Anna’s series, The Graham Saga PastedGraphic1-2014-03-24-12-00.png is about Alexandra Lind. A young lady of our own time. A computer programmer who finds herself in a storm and transplanted in time to 1658 along the Scottish English border. Anna’s heroine meets Matthew Graham and a tumultuous tale brings forth love. Unlike some other time displacement tales that evolve into love, our modern heroine does not force or educate those of the past with all the vast changes from our present that she could. Instead Alex embraces the world she is now a part of only providing a few embellishments.

Anna lives in Sweden, crafting the The Graham Saga, now five books with more promised. That she is a friend of mine through this love of writing Historical Novels amazes me as I have no other friends in Sweden and if asked years ago would have doubted that my path would ever have led me to do so. It proves that the International love of Historicals has brought many of us from all over together. (Anna and I have a writer buddy in Cyprus as well. emoticons_-_Google_Search-2014-03-24-12-00.jpg )

My writing process

There are four questions that this particular Blog Hop is looking to ask, answer and delve into.

1) What are you working on?

I mentioned that I am in the last 15 pages of Lord Bennington’s Marriage Bed. It had been I think the entire year of 2013 that I had not drafted any new Regency Romance, and though faced with some health issues that have been slowing me down, I thought it was time to work on one. For some reason now lost to me, I saw in my mind at some time a lordling, youngish, younger than others who decide to marry through the marriage mart, being beset upon by his elder sisters to marry and secure an heir.

Classic Regency stuff.

But how to change it and give it interest and provide humor?

What is the sisters were six in number. And the eldest would come to visit on Mondays. The next would always visit on Tuesdays. You can see the pattern form.

Our young lord would try and hide from the sisters, which had little effect. He was free on Sundays but that was the Lord’s day. You know the Lord that all the lords of England allow to have precedence ahead of them, and kings as well.


At 25 Lord Bennington felt he should have more years left to his Salad Days. But to get his sisters to stop their visits he asks that if he were to marry by the end of that Season (1812) would they leave him in peace? The Deal is accepted and now Lord Peter Bennington has his obligation to uphold.

It just so happens that another lord who had borrowed money from Lord Bennington’s father has come to Town that Season to marry off his daughter, though he has yet to repay the debt to Lord Bennington as well as others. An embarrassment for his family.

For those who read Regencies, one can see that the daughter of our Lord with debts, must be our heroine. Lady Sarah of course has inherited her father’s reputation and no man will approach her twice, though Lord Peter falls for her instantly. Overcoming the obstacle of what the Ton will say, what an ondit this will be, by special license, they are married.

The question that arises and theme I explore is, ‘What is Love? How do you know?’

Our Heroes marry quickly so that the Ton will not know what is to occur and it will be a fait accompli. But could Lord Peter really fall in love with Lady Sarah in only 3 meetings? Did he choose her because she could not say ’no’? When he professed his love for her when offering, on only 3 meetings, did he mean it as truth?

Our hero and heroine each have questions to ask of themselves and then as they observe their friends falling in love, to see if this is the nature of love. To meet, and decide quickly if one is in love, or is there something more meaningful developing? Is it love, or is it desire?

And now, I am down to the last 15 pages where others in my story that we have observed together making commitments for various reasons helps to give insight into the feelings that our leading couple have been trying to understand.

2) How does your work differ from others of its genre?

This is perhaps the easiest of the questions in this Hop to answer. Most of my contemporaries in this genre, 19 of 20, are women. (DWW-not a statistical fact I can document but is appears to be this way.) I of course am not.


I got started in this genre first, I suppose from my mother. Pride and Prejudice PastedGraphic-2014-03-24-12-00.pngwas on television one day whilst I and my younger brothers were growing up. We did not want to watch and flipped the channel. My mom said “TURN IT BACK! That is my favorite show and its my turn.”

All of us have been children and can agree with my memory that it is never a mother or father’s turn when it comes to watching television. It is just another of those rights that are given up until the last child has left the nest for college or their own homes. And again a right lost at family gatherings when the children and their children gather.

For some reason we lost that day however, and were forced to watch the show that starred Laurence Olivier and Greer Garson. Didn’t like it then. Years later, my friends in the hopes of hooking me up said there was a girl I had to meet at a Regency Dance practice locally. I am fortunate to live in Southern California (great weather almost always) and it saw the birth in the USA of Regency style dancing. I have written about that elsewhere.

I went to the dance, and went on one date with the girl as well. Well one worked nicely, and one didn’t. As the years progressed, I learned the dances, and then taught the dances. And also learned to like the Olivier version of Pride and Prejudice. I read Jane Austen and Georgette Heyer, and a few others as well.

Then at one of our yearly balls, in walked the lady I would fall in love with and marry. She however did not live close and so to woo her, I wrote her a novel of the Regency sending her chapters to read. I had been spending 15+ years working on my craft as a writer and after we got together she encouraged me to attend even more classes on the craft of writing. I joined a writers group and added the Regency Romance genre to the other genres that I work in. Seldom in the genre do we see what the man is thinking, or if he has deep thoughts for the tales are written from the perspective of a woman. I do not think there is any POV of Darcy in Pride and Prejudice.

At this point, I have five published Regency Romances, 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic1-2014-03-24-12-00.pngThe End of the World, PastedGraphic2-2014-03-24-12-00.pngThe Shattered Mirror, PastedGraphic3-2014-03-24-12-00.pngTwo Peas in a Pod, PastedGraphic4-2014-03-24-12-00.pngBeggars Can’t Be Choosier and PastedGraphic5-2014-03-24-12-00.pngColonel Fitzwilliam’s Correspondence. I also have the romance, PastedGraphic6-2014-03-24-12-00.pngJane Austen and Ghosts which is set in our modern world with some familiar characters you would not necessarily expect and some plot elements that would be very familiar to Regency fans.

I have several unpublished works in progress. Their working titles are Lord Bennington’s Marriage Bed, Caution’s Heir (which could be the next Regency to be published), Mrs. Bertram’s Hazard, You Ought to Trust Your Mother, Lord Falmont’s Muddle, The Fastest Love, The Heir, The Other Shoe and Steamy Suasion which is a retelling of Jane Austen’s Persuasion PastedGraphic7-2014-03-24-12-00.png set in a world of Steampunk Dirigibles.

Another historic genre I have found and have decided to play in is the world of Ruritania. A Ruritania Romance is one where the era is Victorian or Edwardian paralleling our own world, so no Steampunk influence, but the countries of Europe grown by a few as the setting is a fictitious state that you add. Grand Fezziweg of the Mouse that Roared for instance is a Ruritanian setting as of course if PastedGraphic8-2014-03-24-12-00.pngThe Prisoner of Zenda.

3) Why do you write what you do?

I answered some of that above. But I did not address the attraction of the era to me. The men’s clothes make us who wear them look like peacocks! Got to love that.

I write in other genres with great fights, large battles, spaceships and fleets engaged in combat to save all humanity. There are some love stories in those tales. But here, in the Regency, I have real people who existed (If you follow my series on Regency Personalities you will meet one nearly every day) and my characters get to meet them and sometimes find that their lives are influenced by them.

There is a world war occurring just over on the continent in most of the tales of the Regency I write. Sometimes my gentlemen have been to war, sometimes not. I get to explore both sides of that coin. But mostly I take 15 chapters to engage in a battle of manners that will lead to love. The last page (even when my characters are married and engaged in love making with each other for many chapters) is where the true first kiss occurs.

Building the tension to that point I find to be great fun, a challenge and a love story that I hope will have my readers turning the pages in great anticipation to see how I pull off the very simple plot. After all, it is just Boy meet Girl. Boy loses Girl. And then Boy pursues and gets Girl.


Cheryl and I have this as a poster and it says a great deal about the era

4) How does your writing process work?

I wrote this down just before Anna asked me to join this Blog Hop:

Work Flow

  1. Notes APP
  2. Index Card APP
  3. Scrivener
  4. Pages/MS Word

But that is only part of it. The idea must come first for a novel of course. I find that these days it is 90% generated from the subconscious whilst I dream in sleep. A few ideas I sat down and thought hard of a basic story. But when I wake with a dream that has the elements of a story I come to the computer or iPad and start jotting down the dream.

I mull it over and then add to it in the Notes APP from Apple that uses the cloud to sync between my iPad/iPhone/MAC.

When it is ready to become a novel and the active project I am working on, then it is time to go to the Index Card APP that syncs between the iPad and Scrivener. Here I outline my 15 or more chapters and when they import into Scrivener, I have my outline that I will work from for each chapter.

I write in Scrivener. I don’t proselytize that I use this program, but when I do tell other writers of the features it has they all seem to adopt it as well. When I have reached THE END then I copy and paste the manuscript into Pages and MS Word.

And then the first draft WIP must rest for a period of time. Hence above where you saw the list of Regencies I still have in First Draft. I will then at some point go back and work on the second draft and after that, send out to my beta readers prior to readying for publication.

Many thanks to Anna Belfrage, for tagging me for this blog hop.

Today, you also can click on over to Linda Banche http://lindabanche.blogspot.com for she has also joined the 4 Question Inquisition (Don’t you have a vision of Mel Brooks asking you to beware?) Seriously, Linda is an author of Regency Romances (which we always want to support! since that is our main focus here as well). As she puts it there is hardly a Rake or Royal anywhere to be seen in her writing. She lives in New England and blends humor, comedy into the Regency Mix that hopefully, on some occasions will produce a Belly Laugh or two. 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2014-03-24-12-00.png

And now it should be my pleasure to introduce the next in a series of fine writers whose writing processes should prove to be very interesting. I lined one up, I swear this on a stack of bibles. (though some might question my sincerity with bibles right now) however she dropped out just a day before I posted and I could not find a backup on short notice. What I have found is this is a viral hop and that there are several other streams answering the questions. Enjoy when you find them.

Read Full Post »


A compilation of essays from the English Historical Fiction Authors blog, this book provides a wealth of historical information from Roman Britain to early twentieth century England. Over fifty different authors share hundreds of real life stories and tantalizing tidbits discovered while doing research for their own historical novels.

From Queen Boadicea’s revolt to Tudor ladies-in-waiting, from Regency dining and dress to Victorian crime and technology, immerse yourself in the lore of Great Britain. Read the history behind the fiction and discover the true tales surrounding England’s castles, customs, and kings.

Here is the excerpt written up about yours truly amongst the great authors who are also included in this volume:


Just the articles on the Late Georgian and our beloved Regency Era, you can see my article on The Hole in the Wall is on page 373.


Available in Trade Paperback ($19.95) and as a Digital eBook ($7.99)

You can find the Paperback at Amazon

The Kindle Version

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck 3rd Duke of Portland
14 April 1738 – 30 October 1809


William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck

A tall, dignified and handsome man, Portland was prime minister for two short periods separated by over 20 years, but was not especially successful in either.  The Duke of Portland entered Parliament via the House of Lords, by virtue of his title, in 1761. Chancellor of the University of Oxford. In 1783, he was appointed Prime Minister of the Whig administration by King George III and again from 1807 to 1809. The 24 years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any Prime Minister. He was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield. He held a title of every degree of British nobility—Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron.

Lord Titchfield was the eldest son of William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and Margaret Cavendish-Harley and inherited many lands from his mother and his maternal grandmother. He was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, and was elected to sit in the Parliament for Weobley in 1761 before entering the Lords when he succeeded his father as Duke of Portland the next year. Associated with the aristocratic Whig party of Lord Rockingham, Portland served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household in Rockingham’s first Government (1765–1766) and then as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in Rockingham’s second ministry (April–August 1782); he resigned from Lord Shelburne’s ministry along with other supporters of Charles James Fox following Rockingham’s death.

The Duke of Portland’s first government was concerned with the power of the East India Company.

In April 1783, Portland was brought forward as titular head of a coalition government as Prime Minister, whose real leaders were Charles James Fox and Lord North. He served as First Lord of the Treasury in this ministry until its fall in December of the same year. During his tenure the Treaty of Paris was signed formally ending the American Revolutionary War. In 1783 Charles Fox attempted to persuade Parliament to pass a bill that would replace the company’s directors with a board of commissioners. George III made it known to the House of Lords that he would consider anyone voting with the Bill an enemy. As a result of this interference, Portland’s government resigned.

In 1789, Portland became one of several vice presidents of London’s Foundling Hospital. This charity had become one of the most fashionable of the time, with several notables serving on its board. At its creation, fifty years earlier, Portland’s father, William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, had been one of the founding governors, listed on the charity’s royal charter granted by George II. The hospital’s mission was to care for the abandoned children in London; and it achieved rapid fame through its poignant mission, its art collection donated from supporting artists, and popular benefit concerts put on by George Frideric Handel. In 1793, Portland took over the presidency of the charity from Lord North.

Portland served in the governments of other Whig leaders until his second government, over 20 years later. Along with many such conservative Whigs as Edmund Burke, Portland was deeply uncomfortable with the French Revolution and broke with Fox over this issue, joining Pitt’s government as Home Secretary in 1794. He continued to serve in the cabinet until Pitt’s death in 1806—from 1801 to 1805 as Lord President of the Council and then as a Minister without Portfolio.

In 1807 Portland became PM, insisting that he was still a Whig, despite heading a Tory government. In March 1807, after the collapse of the Ministry of all the Talents, Pitt’s supporters returned to power; and Portland was, once again, an acceptable figurehead for a fractious group of ministers that included George Canning, Lord Castlereagh, Lord Hawkesbury, and Spencer Perceval.

Portland’s second government saw the United Kingdom’s complete isolation on the continent but also the beginning of recovery, with the start of the Peninsular War. In late 1809, with Portland’s health poor and the ministry rocked by the scandalous duel between Canning and Castlereagh, Portland resigned, dying shortly thereafter.

By now too old and ill to run the government, he mostly left his Cabinet to do what they wanted. The period was marked by rivalry between two powerful ministers, Castlereagh and Canning, culminating in a duel between the two in 1809 over the running of the Peninsular War.

Portland resigned in 1809, just weeks before his death.

First Ministry


    The Duke of Portland — First Lord of the Treasury

    Lord Stormont — Lord President of the Council

    Lord Carlisle — Lord Privy Seal

    Lord North — Secretary of State for the Home Department

    Charles James Fox — Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

    Lord Keppel — First Lord of the Admiralty

    Lord John Cavendish — Chancellor of the Exchequer

    Lord Townshend — Master-General of the Ordnance

    Lord Northington — Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland

Second Ministry


    The Duke of Portland — First Lord of the Treasury

    Lord Eldon — Lord Chancellor

    Lord Camden — Lord President of the Council

    Lord Westmorland — Lord Privy Seal

    Lord Hawkesbury, after 1808, Lord Liverpool – Secretary of State for the Home Department

    George Canning — Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

    Lord Castlereagh — Secretary of State for War and the Colonies

    Lord Mulgrave — First Lord of the Admiralty

    Spencer Perceval — Chancellor of the Exchequer and of the Duchy of Lancaster

    Lord Chatham — Master-General of the Ordnance

    Lord Bathurst — President of the Board of Trade

Read Full Post »

Be a First Reader
This last month we released Beggars Can’t Be Choosier BeggarsCover-2014-03-23-04-45.jpg which has found critical acclaim.
Regency Assembly Press’s next Regency project will be Caution’s Heir.

In this tale of the Regency, our hero is making ends meet and restoring the family fortunes at the card tables. Never overindulging the matter, but bringing in enough to live on.

His father, is aging and slightly ill staying in the Country. To the tables at the club comes a man who has just inherited all from his brother, a Marquess, including the title.

The new Marquess, not thinking that he would ever be so fortunate, he is ill prepared for this, and has been somewhat of a fool when it comes to wealth. He gambles all his estates, and all within.

Then flees to the former Colonies to reestablish himself and perhaps find a fortune, now that he has lost all. Forgetting that within his home is his only child, a daughter who was making plans to come out for the Season.

And now she, taking all the courage she can muster, arrives at the doorstep of the man who won all from her father.

This tale is in need of those who will be able to cast a critical eye, as RAP has sought you, our readers, input before. Should you be inclined to get an early copy and have a look for errors, omissions and aid in making this a solid read for others to enjoy, your efforts will be greatly appreciated.
I should note that I have found that not everyone who reads my style, hears my writers voice, likes the way I tell a story, while many others ‘get’ me. And they do enjoy my style and voice. Just as there are writers who I don’t like and can’t get past the first five pages of their material. As you read this post you may want to take that into account and look at some of the free samples of my writing that are available, or purchase a book first.
The mission is to check that the story is on the right path with plotting, with character development.
The job is to read the draft and provide criticism (you can be brutal like that character would never do that! or you forgot, they didn’t say things like that until forty years later.) Oops… If you see glaring word misuse Then/Than and can correct it that would be appreciated as well. And to do this in a timely manner.
What you get for this service. A signed copy of the book when released. Your name in the acknowledgements and should we start selling 1000+ copies of each book, real money. Anyone interested, please don’t hesitate to get in touch!


covers-banner-2012-11-4-08-40-2012-12-1-07-54-2013-06-29-06-00-2014-03-23-04-45.jpg     http://www.regencyassemblypress.com/  

Read Full Post »

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Richard Howe 1st Earl Howe
8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799


Richard Howe

Howe was born in London, the second son of Emanuel Scrope Howe, 2nd Viscount Howe, who died as governor of Barbados in March 1735, and of Charlotte, a daughter of Baroness von Kielmansegg, afterwards Countess of Darlington, the half-sister of King George I which does much to explain his early rise in the navy. Richard Howe entered the navy in the Severn, one of the squadron sent into the south seas with George Anson in 1740. The Severn failed to round Cape Horn and returned home. Howe next served in the West Indies aboard Burford and was present when she was severely damaged in the unsuccessful attack on La Guaira on 18 February 1743. He was made acting-lieutenant in the West Indies in the same year, and the rank was confirmed in 1744.

During the Jacobite Rising of 1745, he commanded the sloop Baltimore in the North Sea, and was severely wounded in the head while cooperating with a frigate in an engagement with two French privateers. In 1746, he became post-captain, and commanded Triton in the West Indies. As captain of Cornwall, the flagship of Sir Charles Knowles, he was in the battle with the Spaniards off Havana on 2 October 1748. Between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War, Howe held commands at home and on the west coast of Africa.

In 1755, he went with Edward Boscawen to North America as captain of Dunkirk, and his capture of the French Alcide was the first shot fired in the war. From then until the peace of 1763, he served in the Channel in various more or less futile expeditions against the French coast, gaining a reputation as a firm and skillful officer for his role in the series of naval descents on the French coast including the Raid on Rochefort, Raid on St Malo, Battle of Saint Cast and the Raid on Cherbourg. He was particularly noted for his conduct at Rochefort, where he had taken the Ile d’Aix. On 20 November 1759, he led Hawke’s fleet as captain of Magnanime in the Battle of Quiberon Bay where the British won a decisive victory, forestalling a planned French invasion of Britain.

After the death of his elder brother, killed near Ticonderoga in 1758, he became Viscount Howe in the Peerage of Ireland. In 1762, he was elected M.P. for Dartmouth, and held the seat until he was elevated to the House of Lords as Earl Howe in the Peerage of Great Britain.

During 1763 and 1765, he was a member of the Admiralty board. From 1765 to 1770, he was Treasurer of the Navy. At the end of his tenure, Howe was promoted to Rear Admiral, and made Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet. He was promoted again, in 1775, to Vice Admiral. In 1776 he was appointed to the command of the North American Station.

At the beginning of the American War of Independence, Howe was known to be sympathetic to the colonists. He had known Benjamin Franklin, who was a friend of his sister, a popular lady in London society. Howe had written to Franklin in a peacemaking effort.

Because of his known sentiments, he was selected to command in America. He was joined in a commission with his brother, General Sir William Howe, head of the land forces, to attempt a reconciliation. A committee appointed by the Second Continental Congress conferred with Howe in September 1776, but nothing came of it.

Howe was ordered to institute a naval blockade of the American coastline, but this proved to be ineffectual. Howe claimed to have too few ships to successfully accomplish this, particularly as a number had to be detached to support operations by the British army. As a result large amounts of covert French supplies and munitions were smuggled to America.

By 1778 the blockade was more promising, with many merchant ships being taken. Howe still complained to London that while his ships were able to successfully guard the southern colonies, the blockade of the northern colonies was still ineffective. His requests for more ships were rejected as the Admiralty wanted to keep much of the fleet at home to protect against a Franco-Spanish invasion of the British Isles, should they enter the war.

The strategy of the British in North America was a combination of operations aimed at capturing major cities and a blockade of the coast. In 1776 the British captured New York City with combined operations between the army and the navy.

In 1777 Admiral Howe provided support to his brother’s operation to capture Philadelphia, ferrying General Howe’s army to a landing point from which they successfully marched and took the city. General Howe spent much of the remainder of the year concentrating on capturing the forts that controlled entry to the Delaware River without which ships could not reach Philadelphia.

News of the capture of a separate British army under John Burgoyne at Saratoga threw British plans into disarray. Howe spent the winter in Newport, Rhode Island.

The appointment of a new peace commission in 1778 offended the admiral deeply, and he resigned his command. His resignation was reluctantly accepted by Lord Sandwich, then First Sea Lord, but before it could take effect France declared war, and a powerful French squadron was sent to America under the Comte d’Estaing. Greatly outnumbered and forced to take a defensive stance, Howe nevertheless baffled the French admiral at Sandy Hook, and defeated d’Estaing’s attempt to take Newport, Rhode Island by a fine combination of caution and calculated daring. On Admiral John Byron’s arrival from England with reinforcements, Howe left his station in September 1778.

Declining to serve afterwards, he cited distrust of Lord North and a lack of support during his command in America. He was further embittered by the replacement of himself and his brother as peace commissioners, as well as by attacks in the press against him by ministerial writers including the prominent American Loyalist Joseph Galloway. An enquiry in Parliament demanded by the Howe brothers to justify their conduct in America was held during 1779 but ended inconclusively. Howe spent much of the next three years with the opposition attacking the government’s alleged mismanagement of the war at sea.

As Howe had joined the opposition in Parliament to North’s government, it was clear that until it was replaced he would be unable to secure a fresh naval command. Despite the setback at Saratoga, and the entry of France, Spain and the Dutch Republic into the war, North’s government continued to gain strength until October 1781 when a British army under Lord Cornwallis was forced to surrender to a combined Franco-American force at Yorktown. Although the government was able to continue for several more months its effective power had been sapped.

In March 1782 the House of Commons passed a motion ending offensive actions against the American rebels, although the war around the rest of the globe continued with the same intensity. North’s government then fell to be replaced by a weak coalition of Whigs led by the Marquess of Rockingham.

Not until the fall of Lord North’s government in March 1782 did Howe once again accept a command – this time the Channel Fleet. Despite the suspension of hostilities in America, the war continued and the Royal Navy was severely stretched in having to deal with the French, Spanish and Dutch fleets. Howe received instructions from Augustus Keppel, the new First Lord of the Admiralty to proceed to Portsmouth and take command of the Channel Fleet.

Howe’s task was complex. He had to protect inbound trade convoys from the Americas, keep track of the Franco-Spanish fleet, while also keeping an eye on the Dutch fleet at port in the Texel but reportedly ready to sail. He also had to keep in mind the need to attempt a relief of Gibraltar which had been under siege for several years and would be forced to surrender if it wasn’t resupplied soon. Howe had to accomplish these tasks with significantly fewer ships than his combined opponents. Keppel observed the Royal Navy’s best hope was to quickly shift their limited forces from one area of danger to another.

In May Howe took a number of ships to the Dutch coast to scout out Dutch preparations. If the Dutch made a sortie into the North Sea they would be able to threaten Britain’s vital Baltic convoys, including precious naval stores which were needed for continuing the war. This in turn might lead the Dutch to launch attacks on the East coast of England. As the Dutch fleet appeared unlikely to immediately put to sea, Howe returned to Britain leaving a squadron of nine ships to keep a watch on the Texel. The French and Spanish fleets had sailed from Brest and Cadiz and combined in the Western Approaches, where they managed to capture some merchant ships. Howe put to sea to try and monitor them, and received information that a major trade convoy was incoming from the West Indies.

Howe had only 25 ships-of-the-line against 36 enemy ships under Admiral Córdoba and was separated by them from the convoy he was ordered to protect. He sent a message for the convoy to put into safety in ports in Ireland. Howe then took his fleet through a dangerous route, around the north side of the Isles of Scilly. This allowed him to get between the inbound convoy and the Franco-Spanish fleet as well as allowing him to gain the weather gauge which would be a major advantage in any battle.

The next morning the Franco-Spanish fleet had disappeared. After waiting a while Howe decided to go in pursuit of them, later receiving news that the West Indian convoy had safely reached harbour in the English Channel. The Franco-Spanish fleet had been blown southwards by a strong gale.

The British had feared that Córdoba’s combined fleet would be joined by the Dutch fleet to give the Allies overwhelming superiority in the English Channel. However the Dutch were almost completely inactive and chose not to put to sea. Howe was then able to focus on the last major task of 1782, the relief of Gibraltar.

That autumn, he carried out the relief of Gibraltar — a difficult operation, 46 French and Spanish ships-of-the-line against only 33 of his own. The exhausted state of the fleet made it impossible for Howe to outfit his ships properly or supply them with good crews, and Howe’s progress to Gibraltar was hampered by the need to escort a large convoy carrying stores.

Still, Howe handled his makeshift fleet brilliantly and took advantage of an awkward and unenterprising enemy. Howe successfully relieved Gibraltar and fought an indecisive action at the Battle of Cape Spartel after which he was able to bring his fleet safely back to Britain, bringing an effective end to the year’s campaign.

Negotiations between the various war participants had been taking place through 1782 and they were able to reach a settlement. The Peace of Paris brought an end to the conflict.

From 1783 until 1788, he served as First Lord of the Admiralty during the Younger Pitt’s first ministry. The task was often difficult, for he had to agree to extreme budgetary constraints and disappoint the hopes of many officers who were left unemployed by the peace. Nonetheless, during his time in office a number of new ships were built as part of a naval arms race with France and Spain. During his time at the Admiralty, Howe oversaw a number of innovations to signaling.

Howe felt constantly undermined by Charles Middleton, the Comptroller of the Navy. Pitt often completely bypassed Howe on naval decisions and went directly to Middleton. By 1788 Howe grew tired of this and he resigned his post as First Lord despite efforts to persuade him to stay. To show their goodwill and approval of him, the government awarded Howe an Earldom.

In 1790 a dispute by Britain and Spain over the Nootka Sound on the Pacific coast of North America threatened to spark a war between the two countries. Lord Howe, as one of the most senior and experienced officers still serving, was offered command of the Channel Fleet which he accepted. Howe was appointed to the position in May 1790 and took up his post in Portsmouth in July 1790. Consisting of 35 ships-of-the-line the Channel Fleet put to sea and cruised for around a month to the west of Ushant before returning to port. The Crisis was then settled peacefully by diplomats and Howe was able to return to his retirement on land.

On the outbreak of the War of the First Coalition against France in 1793, he was again given command of the Channel fleet again. The following year would be the greatest of his career, including the victory of the “Glorious First of June”.

Although now nearly seventy years old, Howe displayed a tactical originality uncommon in such a veteran. Howe’s active service ended after the campaign, but he continued to hold nominal command of the Channel Fleet by the king’s decree. In 1797, he was called on to pacify Spithead mutineers, and his powerful influence upon the sailors who revered him was conspicuously shown.

In June 1797, he was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter. Howe was buried in his family vault at St. Andrew’s Church, Langar, in Nottinghamshire.

Lord Howe was married on 10 March 1758 to Mary Hartop, the daughter of Colonel Chiverton Hartop of Welby in Leicestershire, and had three daughters. His Irish title descended to his brother, General William Howe, who died childless in 1814. The earldom and the viscountcy of the United Kingdom, being limited to male heirs, became extinct. The barony passed to his daughter, Sophia Charlotte, who married the Hon. Penn Assheton Curzon. Their son, Richard Curzon-Howe, succeeded his paternal grandfather as Viscount Curzon in 1820 and was created Earl Howe in 1821; he was succeeded by his son, George.

Read Full Post »

« Newer Posts - Older Posts »