Posts Tagged ‘William Vane 1st Duke of Cleveland’

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Harry Powlett 4th Duke of Cleveland
19 April 1803 – 21 August 1891


Harry Powlett

Harry Powlett 4th Duke of Cleveland was the third son of William Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland, by Lady Catherine Margaret Powlett, daughter of Admiral Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton. Henry Vane, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, and William Vane, 3rd Duke of Cleveland, were his elder brothers. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford.

Vane entered the foreign service and held posts in Paris and Stockholm before entering the House of Commons in 1841 as a member for South Durham. He would represent Durham until 1859, when he switched to Hastings, which he represented until his accession to the dukedom on the death of his brother on 6 September 1864. Later the same year, on 18 November, he adopted by Royal Licence the surname of Powlett in lieu of that of Vane, in accordance with the will of his maternal grandmother (wife and Duchess to the 6th Duke of Bolton). He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1865. During the crisis which led to the collapse of Lord Russell’s government in 1866 over the question of parliamentary reform, he was considered a possible compromise Prime Minister in a Whig-Conservative anti-reform coalition government, but such plans came to nothing.

In 1854 Cleveland married Lady Catherine Lucy Wilhelmina Stanhope (1819-1901), a historian known as the Duchess of Cleveland, the daughter of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope and widow of Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, by whom she was the mother of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The marriage was without progeny.

Although Cleveland had no legitimate progeny, he produced an illegitimate daughter by his mistress Mary Ann Raby. The daughter was called Charlotte (Lottie) Raby (1841-1919) and took the surname Raby so her parentage was not discovered.

Cleveland died in August 1891, aged 88, at his London townhouse Cleveland House, 16 St James’s Square, Westminster, London. Thereupon the line of succession to his peerages became unclear. In 1891 the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords declared the title of Duke of Cleveland extinct but declared Henry de Vere Vane to be the rightful heir of the title Baron Barnard and to the estates of Raby Castle and Barnard Castle, which latter had been purchased in 1626 by the Vane family.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Vane 3rd Duke of Cleveland
3 April 1792 – 6 September 1864

William Vane 3rd Duke of Cleveland styled The Hon. William Vane from 1792 to 1813, The Hon. William Powlett from 1813 to 1827 and Lord William Powlett from 1827 to 1864, was a British politician.

Vane was the son of William Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland and his first wife, Katherine, the second daughter and coheiress of Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton. He was Member of Parliament for Winchelsea from 1812 to 1815, for County Durham from 1815 to 1831, for St Ives from 1846 to 1852, and for Ludlow from 1852 to 1857. On 3 July 1815, he married Lady Grace Caroline Lowther (1792–1883), the fifth daughter of William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale.

After inheriting the estate of his maternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Bolton in 1809, he changed his surname to Powlett, under the terms of her will, by Royal Licence in 1813. On inheriting the dukedom of Cleveland from his childless brother Henry in 1864, he resumed the surname of Vane. Also dying childless a few months later, his titles passed to his younger brother, Harry, who took the name of Powlett shortly after. Late in life, he lived at Harewood House, at Cheapside, in Berkshire.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Harry Powlett 6th Duke of Bolton
6 November 1720 – 25 December 1794


Harry Powlett

Admiral Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton was the second son of Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton and Catherine Parry. Educated at Winchester (1728–1729), he joined the Royal Navy, becoming a lieutenant aboard Shrewsbury on 4 March 1740. He was promoted to captain of the Port Mahon on 15 July 1740, and was moved to Oxford in July 1741. While commanding Oxford, he took part in the Battle of Toulon, and later gave damaging evidence against Richard Lestock.

He was moved to Sandwich in March 1745, and shortly thereafter to Ruby. Ruby, with Defiance and Salisbury, was dispatched from Plymouth to the fleet off Brest on 11 April 1746. Before finding the fleet under Admiral William Martin on 22 May, he was able to capture the French frigate Embuscade. He was given command of Exeter in November 1746 and was sent to the East Indies to serve under Rear-Admiral Thomas Griffin and Admiral Edward Boscawen. He was employed by Boscawen at the Siege of Pondicherry to take soundings off Pondicherry, in order to arrange the dispositions of the naval blockade of the town.

Upon returning to England in April 1750, Captain Powlett charged Griffin with misconduct for failing to engage eight French ships at Cuddalore, a decision which had been generally unpopular among Griffin’s captains. Griffin was, indeed, found guilty of negligence, and suspended from his rank for a time. He, in turn, court-martialed Powlett on charges including cowardice, which Powlett attempted to escape by going on half-pay. Meanwhile, he entered the House of Commons in 1751 as Member of Parliament for Christchurch. On 7 May 1752, he married Mary Nunn (died 1764), by whom he had one daughter:

  • Lady Maria Henrietta Powlett (died 30 March 1779), married John Montagu, 5th Earl of Sandwich

Despite Powlett’s evasions, he was court-martialled on 1 September 1752, but Griffin’s charges failed for want of evidence, and he was acquitted. The incident proved somewhat sensational, and concluded in a duel between the two officers in 1756 on Blackheath. He was appointed to command Somerset in January 1753.

Both Powlett’s rapid rise to a captaincy and his willingness to engage in courts martial of his superiors were a result of his patronage connections. His father’s support of Walpole had made him a Lord of the Admiralty in 1733, a post which he retained until 1742. Even after leaving the Admiralty, the Bolton political connections remained sufficiently strong to ensure his continued promotion. However, he had apparently already become a figure of satire: he is believed to have inspired the character of “Captain Whiffle” in The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748).

In 1754, he became known as Lord Harry Powlett on his father’s succession to the Dukedom, and replaced his elder brother Charles in the family constituency of Lymington. Appointed to command Barfleur on 4 February 1755, he petitioned the Duke of Newcastle, then Prime Minister, for promotion to flag rank, on the strength of his family’s support of the government. However, a damaging accident to his reputation occurred soon after, while acting with Admiral Hawke’s fleet off France. Sent on 22 August 1755 to chase a sail to the south-east, he became detached from the fleet. While waiting at the rendezvous on 25 August, the ship’s carpenter reported Barfleur’s sternpost to be dangerously loose, and Powlett returned to Spithead for repairs. In October, he was court-martialled for separating from the fleet and returning to port without justification. He was admonished on the first charge and acquitted on the second, the carpenter being dismissed as incompetent; but it was popularly felt that the carpenter had been scapegoated, and Powlett hereafter received the sobriquet of Captain Stern-post.

Notwithstanding this incident, the Bolton influence proved irresistible, and he was promoted Rear Admiral on 4 June 1756 and Vice-Admiral of the White on 14 February 1758. Feeling ran strongly against him, despite his promotions, and he never again received a naval command, even at the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War. Supposedly, Boscawen requested Powlett’s appointment as his second-in-command in 1756, but it was refused by George II, who shared in the general low opinion of Powlett. In 1761, he again changed constituencies, and was returned as MP for Winchester.

His wife died in 1764, and on 8 April 1765, he married Katherine Lowther (died 21 March 1809), daughter of Robert Lowther, by whom he had two daughters:

A lukewarm supporter of the government, he was intermittently at odds with George Grenville. However, upon succeeding to the dukedom in July 1765 by his brother’s suicide, he threw off his political connections and became a supporter of the crown alone. Bolton was sworn of the Privy Council on 10 December 1766. He was given the sinecure post of Vice-Admiral of Dorset and Hampshire (held by several Dukes of Bolton) in 1767, and promoted Admiral of the Blue on 18 October 1770 and Admiral of the White on 31 March 1775.

In 1778, he went into opposition with the government over its handling of the American Revolution, and joined Vice-Admiral Bristol in opposing the court-martial of Admiral Keppel. His political activity diminished after 1780, although in 1782 he was appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight and Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire. He died at Hackwood Park at Winslade in Hampshire on 25 December 1794, and his dukedom became extinct. His distant cousin George Paulet succeeded to the Marquessate of Winchester and other titles, while Bolton Hall, Bolton Castle, Hackwood Park and most of his estates devolved upon his brother’s natural daughter Jean Browne-Powlett, wife of Thomas Orde, who adopted the additional surname of Powlett.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Vane 2nd Duke of Cleveland
6 August 1788 – 18 January 1864


Henry Vane

Henry Vane 2nd Duke of Cleveland was a British peer, politician and army officer.

Born The Honourable Henry Vane, he was the eldest son of William Vane, Viscount Barnard and his first wife, Katherine, the second daughter of Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton. In 1792, his father inherited the earldom of Darlington from his father, whereupon Vane became Viscount Barnard.

In 1812, Barnard became Member of Parliament for County Durham, a seat he held until 1815. He was then MP for Winchelsea from 1816–18, Tregony from 1818–26, Totnes from 1826–30, Saltash from 1830–31 and finally for South Shropshire from 1832–42. In 1827, Barnard’s father was promoted in the Peerage as Marquess of Cleveland in 1827 and further as Duke of Cleveland in 1833, whereupon Barnard became Earl of Darlington after the first promotion.

In 1815, Darlington had joined the British Army, eventually rising through the ranks as a lieutenant-colonel in the 75th Regiment of Foot in 1824, major-general in 1851, lieutenant-general in 1857 and finally a general in 1863. In 1842, he inherited his father’s titles and was also appointed a Knight of the Garter that year.

On 18 November 1809, Cleveland had married Lady Sophia Poulett (1785–1859), the eldest daughter of John Poulett, 4th Earl Poulett. He died childless in 1864 and his titles passed to his brother, William.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Richard Arden 3rd Baron Alvanley
8 December 1792 – 24 June 1857

Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Pepper Arden, 3rd Baron Alvanley was a British Army officer and peer.

He was the son of Richard Pepper Arden, 1st Baron Alvanley and Anne Dorothea (née Wilbraham-Bootle). As a young man, he was one of a circle of friends surrounding William Wilberforce.

On 19 March 1811, he purchased a cornetcy in the 15th Hussars. Promoted lieutenant on 3 October 1811, he served with the regiment in the Peninsular War from February 1813 to April 1814. Arden fought at the battles of Morales, Vittoria, Orthez and Toulouse and received the service medal for the latter three.

Arden was gazetted a captain in the 2nd Garrison Battalion on 26 April 1815, being unable to afford a captaincy in a cavalry regiment. Placed on half-pay, he later exchanged into the 32nd Regiment of Foot on 8 July 1819. He purchased a commission as major in the 84th Regiment of Foot on 4 October 1822, and an unattached lieutenant-colonelcy on 30 October 1823. On 1 June 1829, he exchanged from half-pay into the Coldstream Guards as a Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel. However, he sold out and retired from the army on 4 June 1829.

He married Lady Arabella Vane, youngest daughter of the 1st Duke of Cleveland, on 24 April 1831. On 16 November 1849 he succeeded to the title of Lord Alvanley on the death of his brother William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley. With no son to inherit the title, the Barony of Alvanley became extinct when he died.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Vane 1st Duke of Cleveland
27 July 1766 – 29 January 1842


William Vane

Styled Viscount Barnard from birth, he was the son of Henry Vane, 2nd Earl of Darlington, son of Henry Vane, 1st Earl of Darlington and Lady Grace FitzRoy, daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, son of King Charles II by his mistress Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland. (Vane is thus a Great Grandson of Charles II)

His mother was Margaret Lowther, daughter of Robert Lowther, Governor of Barbados, and sister of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale. He was baptised at the Chapel Royal at St James’s Palace (with the names William Harry which he later changed to William Henry). He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford.

Barnard was Whig Member of Parliament for Totnes from 1788 to 1790 and for Winchelsea from 1790 to 1792. The latter year he succeeded his father in the earldom and took his seat in the House of Lords. He also succeeded his father as Lord Lieutenant of County Durham, a post he held until his death. In 1810 he successfully laid claim to the Pulteney Estate in Bath after the Countess of Bath died intestate in 1808. In 1827 he was created Marquess of Cleveland, a revival of the Cleveland title held by his ancestors. He was Bearer of the Third Sword at King William IV’s coronation on 8 September 1831. In 1833 he was made Baron Raby, of Raby Castle in the County Palatine of Durham, and Duke of Cleveland. He was even further honoured when he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1839.

Cleveland married his cousin, Lady Catherine Powlett (1766–1807), daughter of Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton, on 17 September 1787. They had eight children:

  • Henry, Earl of Darlington, later 2nd Duke of Cleveland (1788–1864).
  • Lady Louisa Catherine Barbara Vane (1791–1821), married Major Francis Forester and had issue.
  • Lord William Vane, later 3rd Duke of Cleveland (1792–1864).
  • Lady Caroline Vane (born and died 1795).
  • Lady Augusta Henrietta Vane (1796–1874), married Mark Milbank and had issue, including Sir Frederick Milbank, 1st Baronet.
  • Lady Arabella Vane (1801–1864), married Richard Arden, 3rd Baron Alvanley.
  • Lord Harry Vane, later 4th Duke of Cleveland (1803–1891).
  • Lady Laura Vane (1807–11 November 1882), married Lieutenant-Colonel William Henry Meyrick and had issue.

After his first wife’s death in London in June 1807, Cleveland married as his second wife, Elizabeth Russell (c. 1777–1861), daughter of Robert Russell, on 27 July 1813. There were no children from this marriage. Cleveland died at St James’s Square, Westminster, London, in January 1842, aged 75, and was buried at Staindrop, County Durham. His eldest son Henry succeeded in the dukedom. Who was followed by his two younger brothers as he had no sons, and they did not either, the title beaching extinct. The Duchess of Cleveland died in January 1861.

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