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Posts Tagged ‘Thomas Pelham-Clinton 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd
1761–1821

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Charles Gregan Craufurd

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd was the second son of Sir Alexander Crauford, 1st Baronet (see Crauford baronets), and the elder brother of Robert Craufurd. Born in Golden Square, London he was educated at Eton.

Charles Craufurd entered the 1st Dragoon Guards as a Cornet on 15 December 1778. Promoted a Lieutenant in 1781, he was raised to the rank of Captain in the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen’s Bays) in 1785. He became the equerry and intimate friend of the Duke of York. He studied in Germany for some time, and, with his brother Robert’s assistance, translated Tielke’s book on the Seven Years’ War (The Remarkable Events of the War between Prussia, Austria and Russia from 1756 to 1763). As aide-de-camp he accompanied the duke of York to the French War on the Netherlands in May 1793 attached to the Austrian HQ’s Commander-in-Chief. He was at once sent as commissioner to the Austrian headquarters, with which he was present at Neerwinden, Caesar’s Camp, Famars, Landrecies, etc.

Promoted to major in May 1793, and lieutenant-colonel in February 1794, he returned to the British Army in the latter year to become Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General. On one occasion distinguished himself at the head of a charge of two squadrons, capturing three guns and taking 1,000 prisoners.(See the Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies) When the British army left the continent Craufurd was again attached to the Austrian Army, and was present at the actions on the Lahn, the combat of Neumarket, and the Amberg. At the last battle a severe wound rendered him incapable of further service, and cut short a promising career. He was invalided out to England. There he did all he could to advance his brother, Robert’s career. Promoted Colonel on 26 January 1797, he was already in charge of a brigade-major. On 23 September 1803 he was promoted to Major-General.

On 7 February 1800 he was married Anna Mary, widow of Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle. The 4th Duke was a minor. His brother Robert got married on the same day. Charles Craufurd was already an MP when appointed Colonel of 2nd Dragoon Guards. He was made a Lieutenant-General in 1810. He succeeded his brother Robert as Member of Parliament (MP) for East Retford (1806–1812). He died in 1821, and made GCB on 27 May 1820. Charles Craufurd was a Tory in politics, friend of Lord Londonderry.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
16 April 1720 – 22 February 1794

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Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton

Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne was born in London, the second son of the 7th Earl of Lincoln.

Henry’s father died in 1728, and his brother, the 8th Earl of Lincoln, died in 1730, making Henry the 9th Earl of Lincoln. As he was still a minor, his guardian was his uncle, the 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle was childless, and soon regarded Lord Lincoln as his heir. Newcastle, and his brother Henry Pelham, were the two most powerful men in England, and both would serve as Prime Minister. Newcastle controlled political patronage of Parliament and the Crown, and so Lord Lincoln was showered with sinecure posts which brought him a large income. Chief among these sinecures was the lifetime appointment as Controller of Customs for the port of London.

After graduating from university, Lord Lincoln was sent abroad to complete his education. At Turin, Italy, where he was studying fencing, he was joined by his schoolfriend, Horace Walpole. Walpole was in love with Lord Lincoln, and Walpole biographer Timothy Mowl believes the two men were lovers. Lord Lincoln was exceedingly good-looking, and would later have the reputation as the most handsome man in England. While still on his Grand Tour, Walpole and Lord Lincoln quarreled and separated. He returned to England.

On 16 October 1744, Lord Lincoln married his cousin Catherine Pelham, the daughter of his uncle Henry Pelham, who was at that time prime minister. An agreement was signed whereby Lord Lincoln became the heir of both his uncles, Henry Pelham and the Duke. Through his uncles, Lord Lincoln was also given a place at court, being made a gentleman of the King’s Bedchamber. In 1752, he was made a Knight of the Garter.

In 1756, his uncle, who was already Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, requested from King George II to also be created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne with a special remainder to his nephew, Lord Lincoln. George II granted the request, and when the Duke died in 1768, Lord Lincoln became the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne.

The new duke steered clear of most politics, except in two instances. He had considerable influence because of the parliamentary seats he controlled. He used his influence to promote the career of his cousin Sir Henry Clinton, a career army officer. The Duke lobbied successfully for Sir Henry to be appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in America during the American Revolution. The Duke’s son, Thomas, was the aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton. In 1768, the Duke was appointed to the Privy Council.

In December 1783, the Duke was asked by King George III to support the new ministry of William Pitt the Younger, who was facing difficulty in mustering support in parliament for his premiership. Henry ordered the six MPs under his control to support Pitt, helping Pitt gain enough votes in parliament to form a ministry.

The Duke died in 1794 in Westminster.

The Duke is mainly known today as the creator of Clumber Park, his country seat in Nottinghamshire, and the dog breed the Clumber Spaniel, named after the estate. Clumber Park was begun in 1768 on the large estate the Duke had inherited from his uncle. Four thousand acres (16 square kilometers) of barren heath were landscaped into one of the most beautiful private parks in England, complete with a large man-made lake.

Before his wife’s death at the age of 33, the Duke had four sons with her:

  • George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton
  • Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, who married Lady Frances Seymour-Conway on 21 May 1775 and had issue.
  • Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, who married Lady Anna Maria Stanhope on 2 May 1782 and had issue.
  • Lord John Pelham-Clinton

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
31 January 1785 – 12 January 1851

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Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton

Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne was the eldest son of Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, and his wife Lady Anna Maria (née Stanhope), and was educated at Eton College. His father died when he was ten years old. In 1803, encouraged by the Peace of Amiens which provided a break in hostilities with France, his mother and stepfather took him on a European Tour. Unfortunately, war broke out once again, and the young duke was detained at Tours in 1803, where he remained until 1806.

On his return to England in 1807, he entered on life with many personal advantages, and with a considerable fortune. He married at Lambeth, 18 July 1807, a great heiress, Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Miller Mundy of Shipley, Derbyshire. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1809 to 1839 and was also Steward of Sherwood Forest and of Folewood Park. In 1812 he was made a Knight of the Garter.

On 22 March 1821, Newcastle published a pamphlet in the form of a letter to Lord Liverpool, protesting against a Bill for Catholic Emancipation. Newcastle argued that if his government supported Emancipation they would be doing the country an injustice for two main reasons. Firstly, the attention of the nation was preoccupied with domestic problems and little interested in the question, so to pass Emancipation now would be a betrayal. Secondly, the government could not be neutral on this question because if the Bill passed Parliament, the King would have to refuse Royal Assent as it would be in breach of his promise, made in the Coronation Oath, to uphold the Protestant constitution. If the King were to do this without the advice of his ministers then it would be unconstitutional since the King could only act on the advice of his ministers. Thereby the government should adopt a position on the question, and this position should of necessity be opposed to Emancipation.

He did not hold any national office but he was extremely active in politics. From about 1826 he became one of the leaders of the so-called “Ultra-Tory” faction, staunchly supporting the traditional establishment of Church, Country and State. He rejected the label of Tory, however.

On 13 March 1827, Newcastle told Lord Colchester that he wanted to form a group to support the King in forming a government opposed to Emancipation with the aid of Lords Mansfield, Salisbury and Falmouth, and that he could win the support of about 60 peers. On 24 March Newcastle had an audience with the King, George IV, on the question of Emancipation. However early in the conversation the King interrupted Newcastle, “it was only occasionally that I could edge in my remarks & opinions”. Newcastle said himself and other peers wishes for an administration “formed on anti Rom. Cath. principles & that if it would be H.M.’s pleasure to form such an administration it would be certain of support & success”. The King, however, said a Prime Minister could not be appointed until it was certain that Lord Liverpool would not recover from his stroke.

Nerwcastle responded by saying this delay could only help the pro-Emancipation politicians and that himself and other peers would help the King in his choice if he would choose Protestants, “not doubtful Protestants but such as are staunch and unequivocal in their opinions”. The King replied: “That you may safely rely upon”. When Newcastle was going to suggest Lord Eldon as Prime Minister, the King stopped him by saying Eldon was persona non grata and suggested Wellington instead. Newcastle was opposed to this choice and wanted the King to make a stronger declaration in favour of a government opposed to Emancipation. The King was annoyed at this and asked, “What more can I do?” Newcastle said nothing could be better than his declaration and that if he had the permission to make the King’s declaration publicly known. The King would not allow this, however.

Newcastle wrote to Lord Colchester on 15 January 1828, that he wanted “a sound, plain-dealing Protestant administration, devoid of all quackery and mysterious nonsense”. The Duke of Wellington sought Newcastle’s support for his new government, and when he learnt that it did not possess Newcastle’s confidence (and not receiving a reply to his first letter) he wrote again to him on 31 January, saying: “Nothing can be more unpleasant to me than that the friendly Relations between your Grace and the Govt. should be suspended”. Newcastle finally replied on 4 February, saying his government did not possess his confidence.

On 18 September 1828, Newcastle condemned the government for “neutrality, conciliation, and modern liberality”. Wellington “may be the victim of a monstrous error” but he had supported relieving the Dissenters and his first parliamentary session was “by far the most disastrous of any in the memory of man”. Newcastle advised that those opposed to Emancipation “must unite in Protestant associations from one end of the country to the other, and as Parliament is not sitting, they should address their Protestant King”. Failure to do this might provoke punishment from God.

Newcastle led a crowd to Windsor to petition the King against Emancipation. One contemporary Canningite called it “radical all over”.

When in October 1829, Newcastle was criticised for evicting tenants who had voted against his candidates, he famously wrote: “Is it presumed then that I am not to do what I will with my own?”. He repeated this in the Lords on 3 December 1830. In response to further evictions, The Times rebuked Newcastle for acting like the recently deposed Charles X of France in abusing his power and claimed that his actions were the best argument in favour of reform.

He was a vehement opponent of electoral reform. This stance led to attacks on his property during the Reform Bill Riots of 1831. Nottingham Castle was burnt to the ground and his residences at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire and Portman Square, London also had to be fortified against the mob.

In 1839, Newcastle objected to the appointment to the magistracy of two gentlemen nominated by the government, but of whose political and religious principles he disapproved (being Dissenters). He wrote a very offensive letter to Lord Chancellor Cottenham, and on his refusing to withdraw it he received a letter on 4 May from Russell informing him, that the Queen had no further occasion for his services as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire.

Charles Greville wrote in his diary on 2 May:
I met the Duke of Wellington at the Ancient Concert, and asked him the reason, which he told me in these words: “Oh, there never was such a fool, as he is; the Government have done quite right, quite right, they could not do otherwise”.

He died at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, 12 January 1851, and was buried in All Saints’ Church, West Markham on 21 January.

Pelham-Clinton married Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Edward Miller Mundy, in 1807. They had eight sons and six daughters:

  • Lady Anna Maria Pelham-Clinton (1808–1822)
  • Lady Georgiana Pelham-Clinton (1810–1874)
  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1811–1864)
  • Lady Charlotte Pelham-Clinton (1812–1886)
  • Lord Charles Pelham Pelham-Clinton (1813–1894), married Elizabeth Grant in 1848 and had issue
  • Lord Thomas Charles Pelham-Clinton (1813–1882), married Marianne Gritton in 1843, separated in 1865
  • Lord William Pelham-Clinton (1815–1850), died unmarried
  • Lt. Lord Edward Pelham-Clinton (1816–1842), died of illness aboard HMS Harlequin during the First Opium War
  • Lord John Pelham-Clinton (1817)
  • Lady Caroline Augusta Pelham-Clinton (1818–1898), married Sir Cornwallis Ricketts, 2nd Baronet in 1852 and had issue
  • Lady Henrietta Pelham-Clinton (1819–1890), married Admiral Edwin Clayton D’Eyncourt in 1859 and had issue
  • Lord Robert Renebald Pelham-Clinton (1820–1867), died unmarried
  • a stillborn daughter (1822), twin to
  • Lord George Pelham Clinton (1822), died 13 days after birth

The Duchess of Newcastle-under-Lyne died in 1822 in childbirth. Pelham-Clinton never remarried and died in January 1851, aged 65. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry, who was a prominent politician.

The papers of the 4th Duke, including his very detailed personal diaries for the period 1822–1851, are now held by Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham.

  • Letter of the Duke of Newcastle to Lord Kenyon on the Catholic Emancipation Question (1828).
  • An Address to all classes and conditions of Englishmen (1832).
  • Thoughts in times past tested by subsequent events (1837).

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Thomas Pelham-Clinton 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
1 July 1752 – 17 May 1795

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Thomas Pelham-Clinton

Thomas Pelham-Clinton 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne was the third but eldest surviving son of Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, and his wife Lady Catherine Pelham, daughter of Henry Pelham. His two elder brothers and his younger brother all predeceased their father. After his education he embarked on a military career. In April 1774, he accompanied General Henry Lloyd, General Henry Clinton and Major Thomas Carleton as “English observers” of the Second Russo-Turkish War on the Danube (Speelman, 2002). He served in America during the American War of Independence as Aide-de-Camp to his relative, General Sir Henry Clinton, and was later Aide-de-Camp to the King. He achieved the rank of Major-General in 1787.

Pelham-Clinton also sat as Member of Parliament for Westminster from 1774 to 1780 and for East Retford from 1781 to 1794 and was Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1794 to 1795. In February 1794 he succeeded his father in the dukedom.

Pelham-Clinton married Lady Anna Maria Stanhope, daughter of William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington, in 1782. They had two sons and two daughters. He died, at his country seat at Sunninghill in Berkshire, in May 1795, aged 42, from the effects of an emetic which he had taken for whooping cough, having held the dukedom for only a year. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry. The Duchess of Newcastle upon Tyne later married General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd and died in 1834.

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