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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington
1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852

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Arthur Wellesley

A British soldier and statesman, a native of Ireland, from the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy, and one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. He is often referred to as “the Duke of Wellington”, even after his death, when there have been subsequent Dukes of Wellington.

Wellesley was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787. Serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland he was also elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons.

A colonel by 1796, Wellesley saw action in the Netherlands and later in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799, and as a newly appointed major-general won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye in 1803.

Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, and was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. Following Napoleon’s exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which, together with a Prussian army under Blücher, defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Wellesley’s battle record is exemplary, ultimately participating in some 60 battles throughout his military career.

He was twice prime minister under the Tory party and oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829. He was prime minister from 1828–30 and served briefly in 1834. He was unable to prevent the passage of the Reform Act 1832 and continued as one of the leading figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. He remained Commander-in-Chief of the British Army until his death.

Wellington is thus famous for two careers. His command of British forces in the Peninsula and defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo as well as his service as Prime Minister, twice. The second time though was as a caretaker and lasted less than a month. His career as Prime Minister truly ended when he did not read the winds of change and did not go to the funeral of Huskisson. When Wellington attended the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, knowing that this signified the change of the world, he did not follow up with what was the political change. Here, since to do justice to Welling would take talking about all of his career, we will focus on his role as a politician and Prime Minister.

Military Career
Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington (Military Career) was born into a wealthy Anglo-Irish aristocratic family in the Kingdom of Ireland as Hon. Arthur Wesley, the third of five surviving sons (fourth otherwise) to The 1st Earl of Mornington and his wife Anne, the eldest daughter of The 1st Viscount Dungannon. He was most likely born at their townhouse, 24 Upper Merrion Street, Dublin, now The Merrion Hotel. His biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying he was born 1 May 1769, the day he was baptised. His mother, Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. Other places which have been put forward as the location of his birth include Mornington House (the house which used to be next door) – as his father had asserted, the Dublin packet boat and the mansion in the family estate of Athy (consumed in the fires of 1916) – as the Duke apparently put on his 1851 census return.

He spent most of his childhood at his family’s two homes, the first a large house in Dublin and the second, Dangan Castle, 3 miles (5 km) north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthur’s father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his father’s earldom.

He went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr. Whyte’s Academy when in Dublin, and Brown’s School in Chelsea when in London. He then enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784. His loneliness there caused him to hate it, and makes it highly unlikely that he actually said, “The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton”. Moreover, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of family funds due to his father’s death, forced the young Wellesley and his mother to move to Brussels. Until his early twenties, Arthur continued to show little sign of distinction and his mother grew increasingly concerned at his idleness, stating, “I don’t know what I shall do with my awkward son Arthur”.

A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, which was later to prove very useful. Upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement.

Military Career
Despite his new promise he had yet to find a job and his family was still short of money, so upon the advice of his mother, his brother Richard asked his friend The 4th Duke of Rutland (then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland) to consider Arthur for a commission in the army. Soon after, on 7 March 1787 he was gazetted ensign in the 73rd Regiment of Foot. In October, with the assistance of his brother, he was assigned as aide-de-camp, on ten shillings a day (twice his pay as an ensign), to the new Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lord Buckingham. He was also transferred to the new 76th Regiment forming in Ireland and on Christmas Day, 1787, was promoted to lieutenant. During his time in Dublin his duties were mainly social; attending balls, entertaining guests and providing advice to Buckingham. While in Ireland, he overextended himself in borrowing due to his occasional gambling, but in his defence stated that “I have often known what it was to be in want of money, but I have never got helplessly into debt”.

On 23 January 1788, he transferred into the 41st Regiment of Foot, then again on 25 June 1789, still a lieutenant, he transferred to the 12th (Prince of Wales’s) Regiment of (Light) Dragoons and, before the general election of 1789, he went to the “rotten borough” of Trim to speak against the granting of the title “Freeman” of Dublin to the parliamentary leader of the Irish Patriot Party, Henry Grattan. Succeeding, he was later nominated and duly elected as a Member of Parliament for Trim in the Irish House of Commons. Because of the limited suffrage at the time, he sat in a parliament where at least two-thirds of the members owed their election to the landowners of fewer than a hundred boroughs. Wellesley continued to serve at Dublin Castle, voting with the government in the Irish parliament over the next two years. On 30 January 1791 he became a captain and was transferred to the 58th Regiment of Foot.

On 31 October, he transferred to the 18th Light Dragoons and it was during this period that he grew increasingly attracted to Kitty Pakenham, the daughter of Edward Pakenham, 2nd Baron Longford. She was described as being full of ‘gaiety and charm’. In 1793, he sought her hand, but was turned down by her brother Thomas, Earl of Longford, who considered Wellesley to be a young man, in debt, with very poor prospects. An aspiring amateur musician, Wellesley, devastated by the rejection, burnt his violins in anger, and resolved to pursue a military career in earnest. Gaining further promotion (largely by purchasing his rank, which was common in the British Army at the time), he became a major in the 33rd Regiment in 1793. A few months later, in September, his brother lent him more money and with it he purchased a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 33rd.

Netherlands
In 1793, the Duke of York was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of an allied force destined for the invasion of France. In 1794, the 33rd regiment was sent to join the force and Wellesley, having just purchased his majority on 30 April 1793, set sail from Cork for Flanders in June, destined for his first real battle experience. Three months later on 30 September 1793 he purchased the lieutenant colonelcy of his regiment. During the campaign he rose to command a brigade and in September Wellesley’s unit came under fire just east of Breda, just before the Battle of Boxtel. For the latter part of the campaign, during the winter, his unit defended the line of the Waal River, during which time he became ill for a while, owing to the damp environment. Though the campaign was to prove unsuccessful, with the Duke of York’s force returning in 1795, Wellesley was to learn several valuable lessons, including the use of steady fire lines against advancing columns and of the merits of supporting sea-power. He concluded that many of the campaign’s blunders were due to the faults of the leaders and the poor organisation at headquarters. He remarked later of his time in the Netherlands that “At least I learned what not to do, and that is always a valuable lesson”.

Returning to England in March 1795, he was returned as a Member of Parliament for Trim for a second time. He hoped to be given the position of secretary of war in the new Irish government but the new lord-lieutenant, Lord Camden, was only able to offer him the post of Surveyor-General of the Ordnance. Declining the post, he returned to his regiment, now at Southampton preparing to set sail for the West Indies. After seven weeks at sea, a storm forced the fleet back to Poole, England. The 33rd was given time to convalesce and a few months later, Whitehall decided to send the regiment to India. Wellesley was promoted full colonel by seniority on 3 May 1796 and a few weeks later set sail for Calcutta with his regiment.

India
Arriving in Calcutta in February 1797 he spent several months there, before being sent on a brief expedition to the Philippines, where he established a list of new hygiene precautions for his men to deal with the unfamiliar climate. Returning in November to India, he learnt that his elder brother Richard, now known as Lord Mornington, had been appointed as the new Governor-General of India.

In 1798, he changed the spelling of his surname to “Wellesley”; up to this time he was still known as Wesley, which his eldest brother considered the ancient and proper spelling.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
As part of the campaign to extend the rule of the British East India Company, the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War broke out in 1798 against the Sultan of Mysore, Tipu Sultan. Arthur’s brother Richard ordered that an armed force be sent to capture Seringapatam and defeat Tipu. Under the command of General Harris, some 24,000 troops were dispatched to Madras (to join an equal force being sent from Bombay in the west). Arthur and the 33rd sailed to join them in August.

After extensive and careful logistic preparation (which would become one of Wellesley’s main attributes) the 33rd left with the main force in December and travelled across 250 miles (402 km) of jungle from Madras to Mysore. On account of his brother, during the journey, Wellesley was given an additional command, that of chief advisor to the Nizam of Hyderabad’s army (sent to accompany the British force). This position was to cause friction among many of the senior officers (some of whom were senior to Wellesley). Much of this friction was put to rest after the Battle of Mallavelly, some 20 miles (32 km) from Seringapatam, in which Harris’s army attacked a large part of the sultan’s army. During the battle, Wellesley led his men, in a line of battle of two ranks, against the enemy to a gentle ridge and gave the order to fire. After an extensive repetition of volleys, followed by a bayonet charge, the 33rd, in conjunction with the rest of Harris’s force, forced Tipu’s infantry to retreat.

Seringapatam
Immediately after their arrival at Seringapatam on 5 April 1799, the Battle of Seringapatam began and Wellesley was ordered to lead a night attack on the village of Sultanpettah, adjacent to the fortress to clear the way for the artillery. Because of the enemy’s strong defensive preparations, and the darkness, with the resulting confusion, the attack failed with 25 casualties. Wellesley suffered a minor injury to his knee from a spent musket-ball. Although they would re-attack successfully the next day, after time to scout ahead the enemy’s positions, the affair had an impact on Wellesley. He resolved “never to attack an enemy who is preparing and strongly posted, and whose posts have not been reconnoitered by daylight”.

A few weeks later, after extensive artillery bombardment, a breach was opened in the main walls of the fortress of Seringapatam. An attack led byMajor-General Baird secured the fortress. Wellesley secured the rear of the advance, posting guards at the breach and then stationed his regiment at the main palace. After hearing news of the death of the Tipu Sultan, Wellesley was the first at the scene to confirm his death, checking his pulse. Over the coming day, Wellesley grew increasingly concerned over the lack of discipline among his men, who drank and pillaged the fortress and city. To restore order, several soldiers were flogged and four hanged.

After battle and the resulting end of the war, the main force under General Harris left Seringapatam and Wellesley, aged 30, stayed behind to command the area as the new Governor of Seringapatam and Mysore. He was promoted to brigadier-general on 17 July 1801. He took residence within the Sultan’s summer palace and reformed the tax and justice systems in his province to maintain order and prevent bribery. He also hunted down the mercenary ‘King’ Dhoondiah Waugh, who had escaped from prison in Seringapatam during the battle. Wellesley, with command of four regiments, defeated Dhoondiah’s larger rebel force, along with Dhoondiah himself who was killed in the battle. He paid for the future upkeep of Dhoondiah’s orphaned son.

While in India, Wellesley was ill for a considerable time, first with severe diarrhoea from the water and then with fever, followed by a serious skin infection caused by trichophyton. He received good news when in September 1802 he learnt that he had been promoted to the rank of major-general. Wellesley had been gazetted on 29 April 1802, but the news took several months to reach him by sea. He remained at Mysore until November when he was sent to command an army in the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

Second Anglo-Maratha War
When he determined that a long defensive war would ruin his army, Wellesley decided to act boldly to defeat the numerically larger force of the Maratha Empire. With the logistic assembly of his army complete (24,000 men in total) he gave the order to break camp and attack the nearest Maratha fort on 8 August 1803. The fort surrendered on 12 August after an infantry attack had exploited an artillery-made breach in the wall. With the fort now in British control Wellesley was able to extend control southwards to the river Godavari.

Assaye
Splitting his army into two forces, to pursue and locate the main Marathas army, (the second force, commanded by Colonel Stevenson was far smaller) Wellesley was preparing to rejoin his forces on 24 September. His intelligence, however, reported the location of the Marathas’ main army, between two rivers near Assaye. If he waited for the arrival of his second force, the Marathas would be able to mount a retreat, so Wellesley decided to launch an attack immediately.

On 23 September, Wellesley led his forces over a ford in the river Kaitna and the Battle of Assaye commenced. After crossing the ford the infantry was reorganised into several lines and advanced against the Maratha infantry. Wellesley ordered his cavalry to exploit the flank of the Maratha army just near the village. During the battle Wellesley himself came under fire; two of his horses were shot from under him and he had to mount a third. At a crucial moment, Wellesley regrouped his forces and ordered Colonel Maxwell (later killed in the attack) to attack the eastern end of the Maratha position while Wellesley himself directed a renewed infantry attack against the centre.

An officer in the attack wrote of the importance of Wellesley’s personal leadership: “The General was in the thick of the action the whole time … I never saw a man so cool and collected as he was … though I can assure you, ’til our troops got the order to advance the fate of the day seemed doubtful …” With some 6,000 Marathas killed or wounded, the enemy was routed, though Wellesley’s force was in no condition to pursue. British casualties were heavy: the British losses were counted as 409 soldiers being killed out of which 164 were Europeans and the remaining 245 were Indian; a further 1,622 British soldiers were wounded and 26 soldiers were reported missing (the British casualty figures were taken from Wellesley’s own despatch). Wellesley was troubled by the loss of men and remarked that he hoped “I should not like to see again such loss as I sustained on 23 September, even if attended by such gain”. Years later, however, he remarked that Assaye was the best battle he ever fought.

Argaum and Gawilghur
Despite the damage done to the Maratha army, the battle did not end the war. A few months later in November, Wellesley attacked a larger force near Argaum, leading his army to victory again, with an astonishing 5,000 enemy dead at the cost of only 361 British casualties. A further successful attack at the fortress at Gawilghur, combined with the victory of General Lake at Delhi forced the Maratha to sign a peace settlement at Anjangaon (not concluded until a year later) called as the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon.

Leaving India
Wellesley had grown tired of his time in India, remarking “I have served as long in India as any man ought who can serve anywhere else”. In June 1804 he applied for permission to return home and as a reward for his service in India he was made a Knight of the Bath in September. While in India, Wellesley had amassed a fortune of £42,000 (considerable at the time), consisting mainly of prize money from his campaign. When his brother’s term as Governor-General of India ended in March 1805, the brothers returned together to England on HMS Howe. Arthur, coincidentally, stopped on his voyage at the little island of Saint Helena and stayed in the same building to which Napoleon I would later be exiled.

Back in Britain
Wellesley then served in the abortive Anglo-Russian expedition to north Germany in 1805, taking a brigade to Elbe. Upon this return from the campaign, Wellesley received good news; owing to his new title and status, Kitty Pakenham’s family had consented to his marrying her. Wellesley and Kitty were married in Dublin on 10 April 1806. The marriage would later prove to be unsatisfactory and the two would spend years apart while Wellesley was campaigning. Kitty grew depressed, while Wellesley found solace elsewhere. and He then took a period of extended leave from the army and was elected as a Tory member of the British parliament for Rye in January 1806. A year later, he was elected MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and was then appointed to serve as Chief Secretary for Ireland, under the Duke of Richmond. At the same time, he was made a privy counsellor. While in Ireland, he gave a verbal promise that the remaining Penal Laws would be enforced with great moderation, perhaps an indication of his later willingness to support Catholic Emancipation.

War on Denmark
Wellesley was in Ireland in May 1807 when he heard of the British expedition to Denmark. He decided to go, stepping down from his political appointments and was appointed to command an infantry brigade in the Second Battle of Copenhagen which took place in August. He fought at the Køge, during which the men under his command took 1,500 prisoners, with Wellesley later present during the surrender.

By 30 September, he had returned to England and was raised to the rank of lieutenant general on 25 April 1808. In June 1808 he accepted the command of an expedition of 9,000 men. Preparing to sail for an attack on the Spanish colonies in South America (to assist the Latin American patriot Francisco de Miranda) his force was instead ordered to sail for Portugal, to take part in the Peninsular Campaign and rendezvous with 5,000 troops from Gibraltar.

To the Peninsula
Ready for battle, he left Cork on 12 July 1808 to participate in the war against French forces in the Iberian Peninsula, with his skills as a commander tested and developed. According to the historian Robin Neillands, “Wellesley had by now acquired the experience on which his later successes were founded. He knew about command from the ground up, about the importance of logistics, about campaigning in a hostile environment. He enjoyed political influence and realised the need to maintain support at home. Above all, he had gained a clear idea of how, by setting attainable objectives and relying on his own force and abilities, a campaign could be fought and won.”

The Peninsular War
1808
Wellesley defeated the French at the Battle of Roliça and the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808 but was superseded in command immediately after the latter battle. General Dalrymple then signed the controversial Convention of Sintra, which stipulated that the British Royal Navy transport the French army out of Lisbon with all their loot, and insisted on the association of the only available government minister, Wellesley. Dalrymple and Wellesley were recalled to Britain to face a Court of Enquiry. Wellesley had agreed to sign the preliminary armistice, but had not signed the convention, and was cleared.

Meanwhile, Napoleon himself entered Spain with his veteran troops to put down the revolt; the new commander of the British forces in the Peninsula, Sir John Moore, died during the Battle of Corunna in January 1809.

Although overall the land war with France was not going well from a British perspective, the Peninsula was the one theatre where they, with the Portuguese, had provided strong resistance against France and her allies. This contrasted with the disastrous Walcheren expedition, which was typical of the mismanaged British operations of the time. Wellesley submitted a memorandum to Lord Castlereagh on the defence of Portugal. He stressed its mountainous frontiers and advocated Lisbon as the main base because the Royal Navy could help to defend it. Castlereagh and the cabinet approved the memo, appointed him head of all British forces in Portugal.

1809
Wellesley arrived in Lisbon on 22 April 1809 onboard HMS Surveillante, after narrowly escaping shipwreck. Reinforced, he took to the offensive. In the Second Battle of Porto he crossed the Douro river in a daylight coup de main, and routed Marshal Soult’s French troops in Porto.

With Portugal secured, Wellesley advanced into Spain to unite with General Cuesta’s forces. The combined allied force prepared for an assault on Victor’s I Corps at Talavera, 23 July. Cuesta, however, was reluctant to agree, and was only persuaded to advance on the following day. The delay allowed the French to withdraw, but Cuesta sent his army headlong after Victor, and found himself faced by almost the entire French army in New Castile—Victor had been reinforced by the Toledo and Madrid garrisons. The Spanish retreated precipitously, necessitating the advance of two British divisions to cover their retreat.

The next day, 27 July, at the Battle of Talavera the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times throughout the day by Wellesley, but at a heavy cost to the British force. In the aftermath Marshal Soult’s army was discovered to be advancing south, threatening to cut Wellesley off from Portugal. Wellesley moved east on 3 August to block it, leaving 1,500 wounded in the care of the Spanish, intending to confront Soult before finding out that the French were in fact 30,000 strong. The British commander sent the Light Brigade on a dash to hold the bridge over the Tagus River at Almaraz. With communications and supply from Lisbon secured for now, Wellesley considered joining with Cuesta again but found out that his Spanish ally had abandoned the British wounded to the French and was thoroughly uncooperative, promising and then refusing to supply the British forces, aggravating Wellesley and causing considerable friction between the British and their Spanish allies. The lack of supplies, coupled with the threat of French reinforcement (including the possible inclusion of Napoleon himself) in the spring, led to the British deciding to retreat into Portugal.

1810
In 1810, a newly enlarged French army under Marshal André Masséna invaded Portugal. British opinion both at home and in the army was negative and there were suggestions that they must evacuate Portugal. Instead, Wellington first slowed the French down at Buçaco; he then prevented them from taking the Lisbon Peninsula by the construction of his massive earthworks, the Lines of Torres Vedras, which had been assembled in complete secrecy and had flanks guarded by the Royal Navy. The baffled and starving French invasion forces retreated after six months. Wellington’s pursuit was frustrated by a series of reverses inflicted by Marshal Ney in a much-lauded rear guard campaign.

1811
In 1811, Masséna returned toward Portugal to relieve Almeida; Wellington narrowly checked the French at the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro. Simultaneously, his subordinate, Viscount Beresford, fought Soult’s ‘Army of the South’ to a mutual bloody standstill at the Battle of Albuera in May. Wellington was promoted to full General on 31 July for his services. The French abandoned Almeida, slipping away from British pursuit, but retained the twin Spanish fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the ‘Keys’ guarding the roads through the mountain passes into Portugal. For his actions for the Portuguese cause, Wellesley was conferred the title of Count of Vimeiro, in the Peerage of Portugal.

1812
In 1812, Wellington finally captured Ciudad Rodrigo by a rapid movement as the French went into winter quarters, storming it before they could react. He then moved south quickly, besieged the fortress of Badajoz for a month and captured it during one bloody night. On viewing the aftermath of the Storming of Badajoz, Wellington lost his composure and cried at the sight of the bloody carnage in the breaches.

His army now was a veteran British force reinforced by units of the retrained Portuguese army. Campaigning in Spain, he routed the French at the Battle of Salamanca, taking advantage of a minor French mispositioning. The victory liberated the Spanish capital of Madrid. As reward, he was created “Earl” and then “Marquess of Wellington” and given command of all Allied armies in Spain. Wellington attempted to take the vital fortress of Burgos, which linked Madrid to France. But failure, due in part to a lack of siege guns, forced him into a headlong retreat with the loss of over 2,000 casualties.

The French abandoned Andalusia, and combined the troops of Soult and Marmont. Thus combined, the French outnumbered the British, putting the British forces in a precarious position. Wellington withdrew his army and, joined with the smaller corps commanded by Rowland Hill, began to retreat to Portugal. Marshal Soult declined to attack.

In 1812, Wellesley was granted the titles of Marquis of Torres Vedras and Duke of Vitória, both in Portuguese nobility, by decree of Queen Maria I of Portugal, for his actions in the name of the Portuguese nation.

1813
In 1813, Wellington led a new offensive, this time against the French line of communications. He struck through the hills north of Burgos, the Tras os Montes, and switched his supply line from Portugal to Santander on Spain’s north coast; this led to the French abandoning Madrid and Burgos. Continuing to outflank the French lines, Wellington caught up with and smashed the army of King Joseph Bonaparte in the Battle of Vitoria, for which he was promoted to field marshal on 21 June. He personally led a column against the French centre, while other columns commanded by Sir Thomas Graham, Rowland Hill and the Earl of Dalhousie looped around the French right and left (this battle became the subject of Beethoven’s opus 91, Wellington’s Victory). The British troops broke ranks to loot the abandoned French wagons instead of pursuing the beaten foe. This gross abandonment of discipline caused an enraged Wellington to write in a famous dispatch to Earl Bathurst, “We have in the service the scum of the earth as common soldiers”.

Although later, when his temper had cooled, he extended his comment to praise the men under his command saying that though many of the men were, “the scum of the earth; it is really wonderful that we should have made them to the fine fellows they are”.

After taking the small fortresses of Pamplona, Wellington invested San Sebastián but was frustrated by the obstinate French garrison, losing 693 dead and 316 captured in a failed assault and suspending the siege at the end of July. Soult’s relief attempt was blocked by the Spanish Army of Galicia at San Marcial, allowing the Allies to consolidate their position and tighten the ring around the city, which fell in September after a second spirited defence. Wellington then forced Soult’s demoralised and battered army into a fighting retreat into France, punctuated by battles at the Pyrenees, Bidassoa and Nivelle. Wellington invaded southern France, winning at the Nive and Orthez. Wellington’s final battle against his rival Soult occurred at Toulouse, where the Allied divisions were badly mauled storming the French redoubts, losing some 4,600 men. Despite this momentary victory, news arrived of Napoleon’s defeat and abdication and Soult, seeing no reason to continue the fighting, agreed on a ceasefire with Wellington, allowing Soult to evacuate the city.

Aftermath
Hailed as the conquering hero by the British, Wellington was created “Duke of Wellington”, a title still held by his descendants (as he did not return to England until the Peninsular War was over, he was awarded all his patents of nobility in a unique ceremony lasting a full day). He received some recognition during his lifetime (the title of “Duque de Ciudad Rodrigo”) and the Spanish King Ferdinand VII allowed him to keep part of the works of art from the Royal Collection which he had recovered from the French. His equestrian portrait features prominently in the Monument to the Battle of Vitoria, in present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz.

His popularity in Britain was due to his image and his appearance as well as to his military triumphs. His victory fit well with the passion and intensity of the Romantic movement, with its emphasis on individuality. His personal style had an impact on the fashions on Britain at the time: his tall, lean figure and his plumed black hat and grand yet classic uniform and white trousers became very popular.

In late 1814, the Prime Minister wanted him to take command in Canada and with the assignment of winning the War of 1812 against the United States. Wellington replied that he would go to America, but he believed that he was needed more in Europe. He stated:

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America… You have not been able to carry it into the enemy’s territory, notwithstanding your military success, and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cession of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power… Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any.

The Prime Minister agreed with Wellington and speeded up the negotiations that ended the war with no boundary changes through the Treaty of Ghent.

He was appointed ambassador to France, then took Lord Castlereagh’s place as first plenipotentiary to the Congress of Vienna, where he strongly advocated allowing France to keep its place in the European balance of power. On 2 January 1815 the title of his Knighthood of the Bath was converted to Knight Grand Cross upon the expansion of that order.

Waterloo
On 26 February 1815, Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France. He regained control of the country by May and faced a renewed alliance against him. Wellington left Vienna for what became known as the Waterloo Campaign. He arrived in Belgium to take command of the British-German army and their allied Dutch-Belgians, all stationed alongside the Prussian forces of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.

Napoleon’s strategy was to isolate the Allied and Prussian armies, and annihilate each one separately before the Austrians and Russians arrived. In doing so the vast superiority in numbers of the Coalition would be greatly diminished. He would then seek the possibility of a peace with Austria and Russia.

The French invaded Belgium, with Napoleon mauling the Prussians at Ligny, and Marshal Ney engaging indecisively with Wellington, at the Battle of Quatre Bras. The Prussians retreated 18 miles north to Wavre whilst Wellington’s Anglo-Allied army withdrew 15 miles north to a site he had noted the previous year as favourable for a battle: the north ridge of a shallow valley on the Brussels road, just south of the small town of Waterloo. On 17 June there was torrential rain, which severely hampered movement and had a considerable affect the next day, 18 June, when the Battle of Waterloo was fought. This was the first time Wellington had encountered Napoleon, and he commanded an Anglo-Dutch-German army that consisted of approximately 73,000 troops, 26,000 (36 percent) of whom were British.

The Battle

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Wellington at Waterloo by Hillingford

The Battle of Waterloo commenced with a diversionary attack on Hougoumont by a division of French soldiers. After a barrage of 80 cannons the first French infantry attack was launched by Comte D’Erlon’s I Corps. D’Erlon’s troops advanced through the Allied centre, resulting in Allied troops in front of the ridge retreating in disorder through the main position. D’Erlon’s corps stormed the most fortified Allied position, La Haye Sainte, but failed to take it. An Allied division under Thomas Picton met the remainder of D’Erlon’s corps head to head, engaging them in an infantry duel in which Picton fell. During this struggle Lord Uxbridge launched two of his cavalry brigades at the enemy, catching the French infantry off guard, driving them to the bottom of the slope, and capturing two French Imperial Eagles. The charge, however, over-reached itself, and the British cavalry, crushed by fresh French horsemen hurled at them by Napoleon, were driven back, suffering tremendous losses.

A little before 16:00, Marshal Ney noted an apparent exodus from Wellington’s centre. He mistook the movement of casualties to the rear for the beginnings of a retreat, and sought to exploit it. Ney at this time had few infantry reserves left, as most of the infantry had been committed either to the futile Hougoumont attack or to the defence of the French right. Ney therefore tried to break Wellington’s centre with a cavalry charge alone.

At about 16:30, the first Prussian corps arrived. Commanded by Freiherr von Bülow, IV Corps arrived as the French cavalry attack was in full spate. Bülow sent the 15th Brigade to link up with Wellington’s left flank in the Frichermont-La Haie area while the brigade’s horse artillery battery and additional brigade artillery deployed to its left in support. Napoleon sent Lobau’s corps to intercept the rest of Bülow’s IV Corps proceeding to Plancenoit. The 15th Brigade sent Lobau’s corps into retreat to the Plancenoit area. Von Hiller’s 16th Brigade also pushed forward with six battalions against Plancenoit. Napoleon had dispatched all eight battalions of the Young Guard to reinforce Lobau, who was now seriously pressed by the enemy. Napoleon’s Young Guard counter-attacked and, after very hard fighting, secured Plancenoit, but were themselves counter-attacked and driven out. Napoleon then resorted to sending two battalions of the Middle/Old Guard into Plancenoit and after ferocious fighting they recaptured the village.

The French cavalry attacked the British infantry squares many times, each at heavy cost to the French but with few British casualties. Ney himself was displaced from his horse four times. Eventually it became obvious, even to Ney, that cavalry alone were achieving little. Belatedly, he organised a combined-arms attack, using Bachelu’s division and Tissot’s regiment of Foy’s division from Reille’s II Corps plus those French cavalry that remained in a fit state to fight. This assault was directed along much the same route as the previous heavy cavalry attacks.

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The Storming of La Haye Sainte by Knotel

Meanwhile at approximately the same time as Ney’s combined-arms assault on the centre-right of Wellington’s line, Napoleon ordered Ney to capture La Haye Sainte at whatever the cost. Ney accomplished this with what was left of D’Erlon’s corps soon after 18:00. Ney then moved horse artillery up towards Wellington’s centre and began to destroy the infantry squares at short-range with canister. This all but destroyed the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment, and the 30th and 73rd Regiments suffered such heavy losses that they had to combine to form a viable square. Wellington’s centre was now on the verge of collapse and wide open to an attack from the French. Luckily for Wellington, Pirch I’s and Zieten’s corps of the Prussian Army were now at hand. Zieten’s corps permitted the two fresh cavalry brigades of Vivian and Vandeleur on Wellington’s extreme left to be moved and posted behind the depleted centre. Pirch I Corps then proceeded to support Bülow and together they regained possession of Plancenoit, and once more the Charleroi road was swept by Prussian round shot. The value of this reinforcement at this particular moment can hardly be overestimated.

The French army now fiercely attacked the Coalition all along the line with the culminating point being reached when Napoleon sent forward the Imperial Guard at 19:30. The attack of the Imperial Guards was mounted by five battalions of the Middle Guard, and not by the Grenadiers or Chasseurs of the Old Guard. Marching through a hail of canister and skirmisher fire and severely outnumbered, the 3,000 or so Middle Guardsmen advanced to the west of La Haye Sainte and proceeded to separate into three distinct attack forces. One, consisting of two battalions of Grenadiers, defeated the Coalition’s first line and marched on. Chassé’s relatively fresh Dutch division was sent against them and Allied artillery fired into the victorious Grenadiers’ flank. This still could not stop the Guard’s advance, so Chassé ordered his first brigade to charge the outnumbered French, who faltered and broke.

Further to the west, 1,500 British Foot Guards under General Peregrine Maitland were lying down to protect themselves from the French artillery. As two battalions of Chasseurs approached, the second prong of the Imperial Guard’s attack, Maitland’s guardsmen rose and devastated them with point-blank volleys. The Chasseurs deployed to counter-attack, but began to waver. A bayonet charge by the Foot Guards then broke them. The third prong, a fresh Chasseur battalion, now came up in support. The British guardsmen retreated with these Chasseurs in pursuit, but the latter were halted as the 52nd Light Infantry wheeled in line onto their flank and poured a devastating fire into them and then charged. Under this onslaught they too broke.

The last of the Guard retreated headlong. A ripple of panic passed through the French lines as the astounding news spread: “La Garde recule. Sauve qui peut!” (“The Guard retreats. Save yourself if you can!”). Wellington then stood up in Copenhagen’s stirrups, and waved his hat in the air to signal an advance of the Allied line just as the Prussians were overrunning the French positions to the east. What remained of the French army then abandoned the field in disorder. Wellington and Blücher met at the inn of La Belle Alliance, on the north-south road which bisected the battlefield, and it was agreed that the Prussians should pursue the retreating French army back to France. The Treaty of Paris was signed on 20 November 1815.

Political career
Wellington entered politics again, when he was appointed Master-General of the Ordnance in the Tory government of Lord Liverpool on 26 December 1818. He also became Governor of Plymouth on 9 October 1819. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British Army on 22 January 1827 and Constable of the Tower of London on 5 February 1827.

Along with Robert Peel, Wellington became an increasingly influential member of the Tory party, and in 1828 he resigned as Commander-in-Chief and became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Wellington was the first Irish-born person to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Wellington is erroneously reputed to have responded to comments regarding his Irish birth by stating that “being born in a stable does not make one a horse”. This was in fact a quote made about him by Irish Nationalist politician Daniel O’Connell.

During his first seven months as prime minister he chose not to live in the official residence at 10 Downing Street, finding it too small. He moved in only because his own home, Apsley House, required extensive renovations. During this time he was largely instrumental in the foundation of King’s College London. On 20 January 1829 Wellington was appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

As prime minister, Wellington was conservative, fearing the anarchy of the French Revolution would spread to England. The highlight of his term was Catholic Emancipation; the granting of almost full civil rights to Catholics in the United Kingdom. The change was forced by the landslide by-election win of Daniel O’Connell, an Irish Catholic proponent of emancipation, who was elected despite not being legally allowed to sit in Parliament. The Earl of Winchilsea accused the Duke of, “an insidious design for the infringement of our liberties and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State”. Wellington responded by immediately challenging Winchilsea to a duel. On 21 March 1829, Wellington and Winchilsea met on Battersea fields. When it came time to fire, the Duke took aim and Winchilsea kept his arm down. The Duke fired wide to the right. Accounts differ as to whether he missed on purpose; Wellington, noted for his poor aim, claimed he did, other reports more sympathetic to Winchilsea claimed he had aimed to kill. Winchilsea did not fire, a plan he and his second almost certainly decided upon before the duel. Honour was saved and Winchilsea wrote Wellington an apology.

Catholic Emancipation
In the House of Lords, facing stiff opposition, Wellington spoke for Catholic Emancipation, giving one of the best speeches of his career. He was Irish, and later governed the country, so had some understanding of the grievances of the Catholic communities there. The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was passed with a majority of 105. Many Tories voted against the Act, and it passed only with the help of the Whigs. Wellington had threatened to resign as Prime Minister if the King (George IV) did not give his Royal Assent.

The nickname “Iron Duke” originates from this period, when he experienced a high degree of personal and political unpopularity. Its repeated use in Freeman’s Journal throughout June 1830 appears to bear reference to his resolute political will, with taints of disapproval from its Irish editors. His residence at Apsley House was targeted by a mob of demonstrators on 27 April 1831 and again on 12 October, leaving his windows smashed. Iron shutters were installed in June 1832 to prevent further damage by crowds angry over rejection of the Reform Bill, which he strongly opposed.

Wellington’s government fell in 1830. In the summer and autumn of that year, a wave of riots swept the country. The Whigs had been out of power for most years since the 1770s, and saw political reform in response to the unrest as the key to their return. Wellington stuck to the Tory policy of no reform and no expansion of suffrage, and as a result lost a vote of no confidence on 15 November 1830.

The Reform Act
The Whigs introduced the first Reform Bill whilst Wellington and the Tories worked to prevent its passage. The bill passed in the British House of Commons, but was defeated in the House of Lords. An election followed in direct response, and the Whigs were returned with an even larger majority. A second Reform Act was introduced, and defeated in the same way, and another wave of near insurrection swept the country.

During this time, Wellington was greeted by a hostile reaction from the crowds at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The Whig Government fell in 1832 and Wellington was unable to form a Tory Government partly because of a run on the Bank of England. This left King William IV no choice but to restore Earl Grey to the premiership. Eventually the bill passed the House of Lords after the King threatened to fill that House with newly created Whig peers if it were not. Wellington was never reconciled to the change; when Parliament first met after the first election under the widened franchise, Wellington is reported to have said “I never saw so many shocking bad hats in my life”.

Jewish Emancipation
During debate on the Jewish Civil Disabilities Repeal Bill, Wellington, who opposed the Bill, stated in Parliament on 1 August 1833: “… this is a Christian country and a Christian legislature, and that the effect of this measure would be to remove that peculiar character.” And “I see no ground whatever for passing the Bill; and shall, therefore, vote against it.” The Bill was defeated, 104 votes against, and 54 for.

Conservative Government
Wellington was gradually superseded as leader of the Tories by Robert Peel, whilst the party evolved into the Conservatives. When the Tories were returned to power in 1834, Wellington declined to become Prime Minister and Peel was selected instead. However, Peel was in Italy at that time and for three weeks in November and December 1834, Wellington acted as interim leader, taking the responsibilities of Prime Minister and most of the other ministries. In Peel’s first cabinet (1834–1835), Wellington became Foreign Secretary, while in the second (1841–1846) he was a Minister without Portfolio and Leader of the House of Lords. Wellington was also re-appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British Army on 15 August 1842 following the resignation of Lord Hill.

Retirement
Wellington retired from political life in 1846, although he remained Commander-in-Chief, and returned briefly to the spotlight in 1848 when he helped organise a military force to protect London during that year of European revolution.

The Conservative Party had split over the Repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846, with Wellington and most of the former Cabinet still supporting Robert Peel, but most of the MPs led by Lord Derby supporting a protectionist stance. Early in 1852 Wellington, by then very deaf, gave Derby’s first government its nickname by shouting “Who? Who?” as the list of inexperienced Cabinet Ministers was read out in the House of Lords.

He became Chief Ranger and Keeper of Hyde Park and St. James’s Park on 31 August 1850. He was also colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot from 1 February 1806 and colonel of the Grenadier Guards from 22 January 1827.

Death and funeral
Wellington died on 14 September 1852, aged 83, of the after effects of a stroke culminating in a series of epileptic seizures.

Although in life he hated travelling by rail (after witnessing the death of William Huskisson, one of the first railway accident casualties), his body was then taken by train to London, where he was given a state funeral—one of only a handful of British subjects to be honoured in that way (other examples are Lord Nelson and Winston Churchill)—and the last heraldic state funeral to be held in Britain. The funeral took place on 18 November 1852.

At his funeral there was hardly any space to stand because of the number of people attending, and the effusive praise given him in Tennyson’s “Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington” attests to his stature at the time of his death. He was buried in a sarcophagus of luxulyanite in St Paul’s Cathedral next to Lord Nelson.

Wellington’s casket was decorated with banners which were made for his funeral procession. Originally, there was one for Prussia, which was removed during World War I and never reinstated.

Most of the book ‘A Biographical Sketch of the Military and Political Career of the Late Duke of Wellington’ by Weymouth newspaper proprietor Joseph Drew is a detailed contemporary account of his death, lying in state and funeral.

After his death Irish and English newspapers disputed whether Wellington had been born an Irishman or Englishman. During his life he had openly disliked being referred to as an “Irishman”.

Owing to its links with Wellington, as the former commanding officer and colonel of the regiment, the title “33rd (The Duke of Wellington’s) Regiment” was granted to the 33rd Regiment of Foot, on 18 June 1853 (the 38th Anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo) by Queen Victoria.

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Catherine Sarah Dorothea “Kitty” Pakenham, the sister of one of his generals, Edward Pakenham. who died leading such famous units as the 95th Rifles (Sharp!) and 93rd Highlanders at the Battle of New Orleans in the American war of 1812 which was over by the time the battle had been fought in 1815, but because of communications then, they had not gotten the word.

Wellesley and Kitty might have been hot and heavy at first, but he was turned away when he did not have any prospects and she found another to love. Who, when he found that Wellesley was still interested bowed out. When Kitty and Wellesley did marry, their marriage was not one of love on his side. Though, Kitty did love the Duke. She died in 1831

First Ministry

01/22/1828 11/16/1830

Office                                                                    Name                                                        Term

First Lord of the Treasury

Leader of the House of Lords         The Duke of Wellington        January 1828 – November 1830

Lord Chancellor        The Lord Lyndhust         January 1828 – November 1830

Lord President of the Council        The Earl Bathurst         January 1828 – November 1830

Lord Privy Seal        The Lord Ellenborough         January 1828 – June 1829

        The Earl of Rosslyn          June1829 – November 1830

Chancellor of the Exchequer         Henry Goulburn         January 1828 – November 1830

Home Secretary

Leader of the House of Commons        Robert Peel                            January 1828 – November 1830

Foreign Secretary        The Earl of Dudley                           January 1828 – June 1828

        The Earl of Aberdeen                     June 1828 – November 1830

Secretary of State for War and the Colonies        William Huskisson                             January 1828 – May 1828

        Sir George Murray                          May 1828 – November 18

First Lord of the Admiralty        The Viscount Melville                   September 1828 – November 1830

Master-General of the Ordnance        Marquess of Anglesey                        January 1828 – April 1828

        The Viscount Beresford                 April 1828 – November 1830

President of the Board of Trade         Charles Grant January                     1828 – June 1828

        William Vesey-Fitzgerald                    June 1828 – February 1830

        John Charles Herries           February 1830 – November 1830

President of the Board of Control        Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn           January 1828 – July 1828

        The Viscount Melville               July 1828 – September 1828

        The Lord Ellenborough         September 1828 – November 1830

Master of the Mint         John Charles Herries                 January 1828 – November 1830

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster         The Earl of Aberdeen                    January 1828 – June 1828

        Charles Arbuthnot                      June 1828 – November 1830

First Commissioner of Woods and Forests        Charles Arbuthnot                     February 1828 – June 1828

        Viscount Lowther                         June 1828 – November 1830

Paymaster of the Forces        William Vesey-Fitzgerald               January 1828 – July 1828

        John Calcraft                           July 1828 – November 1830

Secretary at War         Viscount Palmerston                      January 1828 – May 1828

        Sir Henry Hardinge                    May 1828 – July 1830

        Lord Francis Leveson-Gower           July 1830 – November 1830

Second Ministry

11/14/1834 12/10/1834

Office                                                            Name                                                 Date
Prime Minister
Secretary of State for the Home Department
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
Leader of the House of Lords            The Duke of Wellington         17 November 1834 – 9 December 1834
Chancellor of the Exchequer                    The Lord Denman         15 November 1834-9 December
Lord Chancellor                      The Lord Lyndhurst          21 November 1834-9 December
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury                The Duke of Wellington
                                           The Earl of Rosslyn
                                                        The Lord Ellenborough         21 November 1834-9 December
                                                 Lord Maryborough
                                                       Sir John Beckett
                                                    Joseph Planta

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington (Military Career)
1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852

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Arthur Wellesley

Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington (Military Career) was born into a wealthy Anglo-Irish aristocratic family in the Kingdom of Ireland as Hon. Arthur Wesley, the third of five surviving sons (fourth otherwise) to The 1st Earl of Mornington and his wife Anne, the eldest daughter of The 1st Viscount Dungannon. He was most likely born at their townhouse, 24 Upper Merrion Street, Dublin, now The Merrion Hotel. His biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying he was born 1 May 1769, the day he was baptised. His mother, Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. Other places which have been put forward as the location of his birth include Mornington House (the house which used to be next door) – as his father had asserted, the Dublin packet boat and the mansion in the family estate of Athy (consumed in the fires of 1916) – as the Duke apparently put on his 1851 census return.

He spent most of his childhood at his family’s two homes, the first a large house in Dublin and the second, Dangan Castle, 3 miles (5 km) north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthur’s father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his father’s earldom.

He went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr. Whyte’s Academy when in Dublin, and Brown’s School in Chelsea when in London. He then enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784. His loneliness there caused him to hate it, and makes it highly unlikely that he actually said, “The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton”. Moreover, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of family funds due to his father’s death, forced the young Wellesley and his mother to move to Brussels. Until his early twenties, Arthur continued to show little sign of distinction and his mother grew increasingly concerned at his idleness, stating, “I don’t know what I shall do with my awkward son Arthur”.

A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, which was later to prove very useful. Upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement.

Military Career
Despite his new promise he had yet to find a job and his family was still short of money, so upon the advice of his mother, his brother Richard asked his friend The 4th Duke of Rutland (then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland) to consider Arthur for a commission in the army. Soon after, on 7 March 1787 he was gazetted ensign in the 73rd Regiment of Foot. In October, with the assistance of his brother, he was assigned as aide-de-camp, on ten shillings a day (twice his pay as an ensign), to the new Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lord Buckingham. He was also transferred to the new 76th Regiment forming in Ireland and on Christmas Day, 1787, was promoted to lieutenant. During his time in Dublin his duties were mainly social; attending balls, entertaining guests and providing advice to Buckingham. While in Ireland, he overextended himself in borrowing due to his occasional gambling, but in his defence stated that “I have often known what it was to be in want of money, but I have never got helplessly into debt”.

On 23 January 1788, he transferred into the 41st Regiment of Foot, then again on 25 June 1789, still a lieutenant, he transferred to the 12th (Prince of Wales’s) Regiment of (Light) Dragoons and, before the general election of 1789, he went to the “rotten borough” of Trim to speak against the granting of the title “Freeman” of Dublin to the parliamentary leader of the Irish Patriot Party, Henry Grattan. Succeeding, he was later nominated and duly elected as a Member of Parliament for Trim in the Irish House of Commons. Because of the limited suffrage at the time, he sat in a parliament where at least two-thirds of the members owed their election to the landowners of fewer than a hundred boroughs. Wellesley continued to serve at Dublin Castle, voting with the government in the Irish parliament over the next two years. On 30 January 1791 he became a captain and was transferred to the 58th Regiment of Foot.

On 31 October, he transferred to the 18th Light Dragoons and it was during this period that he grew increasingly attracted to Kitty Pakenham, the daughter of Edward Pakenham, 2nd Baron Longford. She was described as being full of ‘gaiety and charm’. In 1793, he sought her hand, but was turned down by her brother Thomas, Earl of Longford, who considered Wellesley to be a young man, in debt, with very poor prospects. An aspiring amateur musician, Wellesley, devastated by the rejection, burnt his violins in anger, and resolved to pursue a military career in earnest. Gaining further promotion (largely by purchasing his rank, which was common in the British Army at the time), he became a major in the 33rd Regiment in 1793. A few months later, in September, his brother lent him more money and with it he purchased a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 33rd.

Netherlands
In 1793, the Duke of York was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of an allied force destined for the invasion of France. In 1794, the 33rd regiment was sent to join the force and Wellesley, having just purchased his majority on 30 April 1793, set sail from Cork for Flanders in June, destined for his first real battle experience. Three months later on 30 September 1793 he purchased the lieutenant colonelcy of his regiment. During the campaign he rose to command a brigade and in September Wellesley’s unit came under fire just east of Breda, just before the Battle of Boxtel. For the latter part of the campaign, during the winter, his unit defended the line of the Waal River, during which time he became ill for a while, owing to the damp environment. Though the campaign was to prove unsuccessful, with the Duke of York’s force returning in 1795, Wellesley was to learn several valuable lessons, including the use of steady fire lines against advancing columns and of the merits of supporting sea-power. He concluded that many of the campaign’s blunders were due to the faults of the leaders and the poor organisation at headquarters. He remarked later of his time in the Netherlands that “At least I learned what not to do, and that is always a valuable lesson”.

Returning to England in March 1795, he was returned as a Member of Parliament for Trim for a second time. He hoped to be given the position of secretary of war in the new Irish government but the new lord-lieutenant, Lord Camden, was only able to offer him the post of Surveyor-General of the Ordnance. Declining the post, he returned to his regiment, now at Southampton preparing to set sail for the West Indies. After seven weeks at sea, a storm forced the fleet back to Poole, England. The 33rd was given time to convalesce and a few months later, Whitehall decided to send the regiment to India. Wellesley was promoted full colonel by seniority on 3 May 1796 and a few weeks later set sail for Calcutta with his regiment.

India
Arriving in Calcutta in February 1797 he spent several months there, before being sent on a brief expedition to the Philippines, where he established a list of new hygiene precautions for his men to deal with the unfamiliar climate. Returning in November to India, he learnt that his elder brother Richard, now known as Lord Mornington, had been appointed as the new Governor-General of India.

In 1798, he changed the spelling of his surname to “Wellesley”; up to this time he was still known as Wesley, which his eldest brother considered the ancient and proper spelling.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
As part of the campaign to extend the rule of the British East India Company, the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War broke out in 1798 against the Sultan of Mysore, Tipu Sultan. Arthur’s brother Richard ordered that an armed force be sent to capture Seringapatam and defeat Tipu. Under the command of General Harris, some 24,000 troops were dispatched to Madras (to join an equal force being sent from Bombay in the west). Arthur and the 33rd sailed to join them in August.

After extensive and careful logistic preparation (which would become one of Wellesley’s main attributes) the 33rd left with the main force in December and travelled across 250 miles (402 km) of jungle from Madras to Mysore. On account of his brother, during the journey, Wellesley was given an additional command, that of chief advisor to the Nizam of Hyderabad’s army (sent to accompany the British force). This position was to cause friction among many of the senior officers (some of whom were senior to Wellesley). Much of this friction was put to rest after the Battle of Mallavelly, some 20 miles (32 km) from Seringapatam, in which Harris’s army attacked a large part of the sultan’s army. During the battle, Wellesley led his men, in a line of battle of two ranks, against the enemy to a gentle ridge and gave the order to fire. After an extensive repetition of volleys, followed by a bayonet charge, the 33rd, in conjunction with the rest of Harris’s force, forced Tipu’s infantry to retreat.

Seringapatam
Immediately after their arrival at Seringapatam on 5 April 1799, the Battle of Seringapatam began and Wellesley was ordered to lead a night attack on the village of Sultanpettah, adjacent to the fortress to clear the way for the artillery. Because of the enemy’s strong defensive preparations, and the darkness, with the resulting confusion, the attack failed with 25 casualties. Wellesley suffered a minor injury to his knee from a spent musket-ball. Although they would re-attack successfully the next day, after time to scout ahead the enemy’s positions, the affair had an impact on Wellesley. He resolved “never to attack an enemy who is preparing and strongly posted, and whose posts have not been reconnoitered by daylight”.

A few weeks later, after extensive artillery bombardment, a breach was opened in the main walls of the fortress of Seringapatam. An attack led byMajor-General Baird secured the fortress. Wellesley secured the rear of the advance, posting guards at the breach and then stationed his regiment at the main palace. After hearing news of the death of the Tipu Sultan, Wellesley was the first at the scene to confirm his death, checking his pulse. Over the coming day, Wellesley grew increasingly concerned over the lack of discipline among his men, who drank and pillaged the fortress and city. To restore order, several soldiers were flogged and four hanged.

After battle and the resulting end of the war, the main force under General Harris left Seringapatam and Wellesley, aged 30, stayed behind to command the area as the new Governor of Seringapatam and Mysore. He was promoted to brigadier-general on 17 July 1801. He took residence within the Sultan’s summer palace and reformed the tax and justice systems in his province to maintain order and prevent bribery. He also hunted down the mercenary ‘King’ Dhoondiah Waugh, who had escaped from prison in Seringapatam during the battle. Wellesley, with command of four regiments, defeated Dhoondiah’s larger rebel force, along with Dhoondiah himself who was killed in the battle. He paid for the future upkeep of Dhoondiah’s orphaned son.

While in India, Wellesley was ill for a considerable time, first with severe diarrhoea from the water and then with fever, followed by a serious skin infection caused by trichophyton. He received good news when in September 1802 he learnt that he had been promoted to the rank of major-general. Wellesley had been gazetted on 29 April 1802, but the news took several months to reach him by sea. He remained at Mysore until November when he was sent to command an army in the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

Second Anglo-Maratha War
When he determined that a long defensive war would ruin his army, Wellesley decided to act boldly to defeat the numerically larger force of the Maratha Empire. With the logistic assembly of his army complete (24,000 men in total) he gave the order to break camp and attack the nearest Maratha fort on 8 August 1803. The fort surrendered on 12 August after an infantry attack had exploited an artillery-made breach in the wall. With the fort now in British control Wellesley was able to extend control southwards to the river Godavari.

Assaye
Splitting his army into two forces, to pursue and locate the main Marathas army, (the second force, commanded by Colonel Stevenson was far smaller) Wellesley was preparing to rejoin his forces on 24 September. His intelligence, however, reported the location of the Marathas’ main army, between two rivers near Assaye. If he waited for the arrival of his second force, the Marathas would be able to mount a retreat, so Wellesley decided to launch an attack immediately.

On 23 September, Wellesley led his forces over a ford in the river Kaitna and the Battle of Assaye commenced. After crossing the ford the infantry was reorganised into several lines and advanced against the Maratha infantry. Wellesley ordered his cavalry to exploit the flank of the Maratha army just near the village. During the battle Wellesley himself came under fire; two of his horses were shot from under him and he had to mount a third. At a crucial moment, Wellesley regrouped his forces and ordered Colonel Maxwell (later killed in the attack) to attack the eastern end of the Maratha position while Wellesley himself directed a renewed infantry attack against the centre.

An officer in the attack wrote of the importance of Wellesley’s personal leadership: “The General was in the thick of the action the whole time … I never saw a man so cool and collected as he was … though I can assure you, ’til our troops got the order to advance the fate of the day seemed doubtful …” With some 6,000 Marathas killed or wounded, the enemy was routed, though Wellesley’s force was in no condition to pursue. British casualties were heavy: the British losses were counted as 409 soldiers being killed out of which 164 were Europeans and the remaining 245 were Indian; a further 1,622 British soldiers were wounded and 26 soldiers were reported missing (the British casualty figures were taken from Wellesley’s own despatch). Wellesley was troubled by the loss of men and remarked that he hoped “I should not like to see again such loss as I sustained on 23 September, even if attended by such gain”. Years later, however, he remarked that Assaye was the best battle he ever fought.

Argaum and Gawilghur
Despite the damage done to the Maratha army, the battle did not end the war. A few months later in November, Wellesley attacked a larger force near Argaum, leading his army to victory again, with an astonishing 5,000 enemy dead at the cost of only 361 British casualties. A further successful attack at the fortress at Gawilghur, combined with the victory of General Lake at Delhi forced the Maratha to sign a peace settlement at Anjangaon (not concluded until a year later) called as the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon.

Leaving India
Wellesley had grown tired of his time in India, remarking “I have served as long in India as any man ought who can serve anywhere else”. In June 1804 he applied for permission to return home and as a reward for his service in India he was made a Knight of the Bath in September. While in India, Wellesley had amassed a fortune of £42,000 (considerable at the time), consisting mainly of prize money from his campaign. When his brother’s term as Governor-General of India ended in March 1805, the brothers returned together to England on HMS Howe. Arthur, coincidentally, stopped on his voyage at the little island of Saint Helena and stayed in the same building to which Napoleon I would later be exiled.

Back in Britain
Wellesley then served in the abortive Anglo-Russian expedition to north Germany in 1805, taking a brigade to Elbe. Upon this return from the campaign, Wellesley received good news; owing to his new title and status, Kitty Pakenham’s family had consented to his marrying her. Wellesley and Kitty were married in Dublin on 10 April 1806. The marriage would later prove to be unsatisfactory and the two would spend years apart while Wellesley was campaigning. Kitty grew depressed, while Wellesley found solace elsewhere. and He then took a period of extended leave from the army and was elected as a Tory member of the British parliament for Rye in January 1806. A year later, he was elected MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and was then appointed to serve as Chief Secretary for Ireland, under the Duke of Richmond. At the same time, he was made a privy counsellor. While in Ireland, he gave a verbal promise that the remaining Penal Laws would be enforced with great moderation, perhaps an indication of his later willingness to support Catholic Emancipation.

War on Denmark
Wellesley was in Ireland in May 1807 when he heard of the British expedition to Denmark. He decided to go, stepping down from his political appointments and was appointed to command an infantry brigade in the Second Battle of Copenhagen which took place in August. He fought at the Køge, during which the men under his command took 1,500 prisoners, with Wellesley later present during the surrender.

By 30 September, he had returned to England and was raised to the rank of lieutenant general on 25 April 1808. In June 1808 he accepted the command of an expedition of 9,000 men. Preparing to sail for an attack on the Spanish colonies in South America (to assist the Latin American patriot Francisco de Miranda) his force was instead ordered to sail for Portugal, to take part in the Peninsular Campaign and rendezvous with 5,000 troops from Gibraltar.

To the Peninsula
Ready for battle, he left Cork on 12 July 1808 to participate in the war against French forces in the Iberian Peninsula, with his skills as a commander tested and developed. According to the historian Robin Neillands, “Wellesley had by now acquired the experience on which his later successes were founded. He knew about command from the ground up, about the importance of logistics, about campaigning in a hostile environment. He enjoyed political influence and realised the need to maintain support at home. Above all, he had gained a clear idea of how, by setting attainable objectives and relying on his own force and abilities, a campaign could be fought and won.”

The Peninsular War
1808
Wellesley defeated the French at the Battle of Roliça and the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808 but was superseded in command immediately after the latter battle. General Dalrymple then signed the controversial Convention of Sintra, which stipulated that the British Royal Navy transport the French army out of Lisbon with all their loot, and insisted on the association of the only available government minister, Wellesley. Dalrymple and Wellesley were recalled to Britain to face a Court of Enquiry. Wellesley had agreed to sign the preliminary armistice, but had not signed the convention, and was cleared.

Meanwhile, Napoleon himself entered Spain with his veteran troops to put down the revolt; the new commander of the British forces in the Peninsula, Sir John Moore, died during the Battle of Corunna in January 1809.

Although overall the land war with France was not going well from a British perspective, the Peninsula was the one theatre where they, with the Portuguese, had provided strong resistance against France and her allies. This contrasted with the disastrous Walcheren expedition, which was typical of the mismanaged British operations of the time. Wellesley submitted a memorandum to Lord Castlereagh on the defence of Portugal. He stressed its mountainous frontiers and advocated Lisbon as the main base because the Royal Navy could help to defend it. Castlereagh and the cabinet approved the memo, appointed him head of all British forces in Portugal.

1809
Wellesley arrived in Lisbon on 22 April 1809 onboard HMS Surveillante, after narrowly escaping shipwreck. Reinforced, he took to the offensive. In the Second Battle of Porto he crossed the Douro river in a daylight coup de main, and routed Marshal Soult’s French troops in Porto.

With Portugal secured, Wellesley advanced into Spain to unite with General Cuesta’s forces. The combined allied force prepared for an assault on Victor’s I Corps at Talavera, 23 July. Cuesta, however, was reluctant to agree, and was only persuaded to advance on the following day. The delay allowed the French to withdraw, but Cuesta sent his army headlong after Victor, and found himself faced by almost the entire French army in New Castile—Victor had been reinforced by the Toledo and Madrid garrisons. The Spanish retreated precipitously, necessitating the advance of two British divisions to cover their retreat.

The next day, 27 July, at the Battle of Talavera the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times throughout the day by Wellesley, but at a heavy cost to the British force. In the aftermath Marshal Soult’s army was discovered to be advancing south, threatening to cut Wellesley off from Portugal. Wellesley moved east on 3 August to block it, leaving 1,500 wounded in the care of the Spanish, intending to confront Soult before finding out that the French were in fact 30,000 strong. The British commander sent the Light Brigade on a dash to hold the bridge over the Tagus River at Almaraz. With communications and supply from Lisbon secured for now, Wellesley considered joining with Cuesta again but found out that his Spanish ally had abandoned the British wounded to the French and was thoroughly uncooperative, promising and then refusing to supply the British forces, aggravating Wellesley and causing considerable friction between the British and their Spanish allies. The lack of supplies, coupled with the threat of French reinforcement (including the possible inclusion of Napoleon himself) in the spring, led to the British deciding to retreat into Portugal.

1810
In 1810, a newly enlarged French army under Marshal André Masséna invaded Portugal. British opinion both at home and in the army was negative and there were suggestions that they must evacuate Portugal. Instead, Wellington first slowed the French down at Buçaco; he then prevented them from taking the Lisbon Peninsula by the construction of his massive earthworks, the Lines of Torres Vedras, which had been assembled in complete secrecy and had flanks guarded by the Royal Navy. The baffled and starving French invasion forces retreated after six months. Wellington’s pursuit was frustrated by a series of reverses inflicted by Marshal Ney in a much-lauded rear guard campaign.

1811
In 1811, Masséna returned toward Portugal to relieve Almeida; Wellington narrowly checked the French at the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro. Simultaneously, his subordinate, Viscount Beresford, fought Soult’s ‘Army of the South’ to a mutual bloody standstill at the Battle of Albuera in May. Wellington was promoted to full General on 31 July for his services. The French abandoned Almeida, slipping away from British pursuit, but retained the twin Spanish fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the ‘Keys’ guarding the roads through the mountain passes into Portugal. For his actions for the Portuguese cause, Wellesley was conferred the title of Count of Vimeiro, in the Peerage of Portugal.

1812
In 1812, Wellington finally captured Ciudad Rodrigo by a rapid movement as the French went into winter quarters, storming it before they could react. He then moved south quickly, besieged the fortress of Badajoz for a month and captured it during one bloody night. On viewing the aftermath of the Storming of Badajoz, Wellington lost his composure and cried at the sight of the bloody carnage in the breaches.

His army now was a veteran British force reinforced by units of the retrained Portuguese army. Campaigning in Spain, he routed the French at the Battle of Salamanca, taking advantage of a minor French mispositioning. The victory liberated the Spanish capital of Madrid. As reward, he was created “Earl” and then “Marquess of Wellington” and given command of all Allied armies in Spain. Wellington attempted to take the vital fortress of Burgos, which linked Madrid to France. But failure, due in part to a lack of siege guns, forced him into a headlong retreat with the loss of over 2,000 casualties.

The French abandoned Andalusia, and combined the troops of Soult and Marmont. Thus combined, the French outnumbered the British, putting the British forces in a precarious position. Wellington withdrew his army and, joined with the smaller corps commanded by Rowland Hill, began to retreat to Portugal. Marshal Soult declined to attack.

In 1812, Wellesley was granted the titles of Marquis of Torres Vedras and Duke of Vitória, both in Portuguese nobility, by decree of Queen Maria I of Portugal, for his actions in the name of the Portuguese nation.

1813
In 1813, Wellington led a new offensive, this time against the French line of communications. He struck through the hills north of Burgos, the Tras os Montes, and switched his supply line from Portugal to Santander on Spain’s north coast; this led to the French abandoning Madrid and Burgos. Continuing to outflank the French lines, Wellington caught up with and smashed the army of King Joseph Bonaparte in the Battle of Vitoria, for which he was promoted to field marshal on 21 June. He personally led a column against the French centre, while other columns commanded by Sir Thomas Graham, Rowland Hill and the Earl of Dalhousie looped around the French right and left (this battle became the subject of Beethoven’s opus 91, Wellington’s Victory). The British troops broke ranks to loot the abandoned French wagons instead of pursuing the beaten foe. This gross abandonment of discipline caused an enraged Wellington to write in a famous dispatch to Earl Bathurst, “We have in the service the scum of the earth as common soldiers”.

Although later, when his temper had cooled, he extended his comment to praise the men under his command saying that though many of the men were, “the scum of the earth; it is really wonderful that we should have made them to the fine fellows they are”.

After taking the small fortresses of Pamplona, Wellington invested San Sebastián but was frustrated by the obstinate French garrison, losing 693 dead and 316 captured in a failed assault and suspending the siege at the end of July. Soult’s relief attempt was blocked by the Spanish Army of Galicia at San Marcial, allowing the Allies to consolidate their position and tighten the ring around the city, which fell in September after a second spirited defence. Wellington then forced Soult’s demoralised and battered army into a fighting retreat into France, punctuated by battles at the Pyrenees, Bidassoa and Nivelle. Wellington invaded southern France, winning at the Nive and Orthez. Wellington’s final battle against his rival Soult occurred at Toulouse, where the Allied divisions were badly mauled storming the French redoubts, losing some 4,600 men. Despite this momentary victory, news arrived of Napoleon’s defeat and abdication and Soult, seeing no reason to continue the fighting, agreed on a ceasefire with Wellington, allowing Soult to evacuate the city.

Aftermath
Hailed as the conquering hero by the British, Wellington was created “Duke of Wellington”, a title still held by his descendants (as he did not return to England until the Peninsular War was over, he was awarded all his patents of nobility in a unique ceremony lasting a full day). He received some recognition during his lifetime (the title of “Duque de Ciudad Rodrigo”) and the Spanish King Ferdinand VII allowed him to keep part of the works of art from the Royal Collection which he had recovered from the French. His equestrian portrait features prominently in the Monument to the Battle of Vitoria, in present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz.

His popularity in Britain was due to his image and his appearance as well as to his military triumphs. His victory fit well with the passion and intensity of the Romantic movement, with its emphasis on individuality. His personal style had an impact on the fashions on Britain at the time: his tall, lean figure and his plumed black hat and grand yet classic uniform and white trousers became very popular.

In late 1814, the Prime Minister wanted him to take command in Canada and with the assignment of winning the War of 1812 against the United States. Wellington replied that he would go to America, but he believed that he was needed more in Europe. He stated:

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America… You have not been able to carry it into the enemy’s territory, notwithstanding your military success, and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cession of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power… Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any.

The Prime Minister agreed with Wellington and speeded up the negotiations that ended the war with no boundary changes through the Treaty of Ghent.

He was appointed ambassador to France, then took Lord Castlereagh’s place as first plenipotentiary to the Congress of Vienna, where he strongly advocated allowing France to keep its place in the European balance of power. On 2 January 1815 the title of his Knighthood of the Bath was converted to Knight Grand Cross upon the expansion of that order.

Waterloo
On 26 February 1815, Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France. He regained control of the country by May and faced a renewed alliance against him. Wellington left Vienna for what became known as the Waterloo Campaign. He arrived in Belgium to take command of the British-German army and their allied Dutch-Belgians, all stationed alongside the Prussian forces of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.

Napoleon’s strategy was to isolate the Allied and Prussian armies, and annihilate each one separately before the Austrians and Russians arrived. In doing so the vast superiority in numbers of the Coalition would be greatly diminished. He would then seek the possibility of a peace with Austria and Russia.

The French invaded Belgium, with Napoleon mauling the Prussians at Ligny, and Marshal Ney engaging indecisively with Wellington, at the Battle of Quatre Bras. The Prussians retreated 18 miles north to Wavre whilst Wellington’s Anglo-Allied army withdrew 15 miles north to a site he had noted the previous year as favourable for a battle: the north ridge of a shallow valley on the Brussels road, just south of the small town of Waterloo. On 17 June there was torrential rain, which severely hampered movement and had a considerable affect the next day, 18 June, when the Battle of Waterloo was fought. This was the first time Wellington had encountered Napoleon, and he commanded an Anglo-Dutch-German army that consisted of approximately 73,000 troops, 26,000 (36 percent) of whom were British.

The Battle

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Wellington at Waterloo by Hillingford

The Battle of Waterloo commenced with a diversionary attack on Hougoumont by a division of French soldiers. After a barrage of 80 cannons the first French infantry attack was launched by Comte D’Erlon’s I Corps. D’Erlon’s troops advanced through the Allied centre, resulting in Allied troops in front of the ridge retreating in disorder through the main position. D’Erlon’s corps stormed the most fortified Allied position, La Haye Sainte, but failed to take it. An Allied division under Thomas Picton met the remainder of D’Erlon’s corps head to head, engaging them in an infantry duel in which Picton fell. During this struggle Lord Uxbridge launched two of his cavalry brigades at the enemy, catching the French infantry off guard, driving them to the bottom of the slope, and capturing two French Imperial Eagles. The charge, however, over-reached itself, and the British cavalry, crushed by fresh French horsemen hurled at them by Napoleon, were driven back, suffering tremendous losses.

A little before 16:00, Marshal Ney noted an apparent exodus from Wellington’s centre. He mistook the movement of casualties to the rear for the beginnings of a retreat, and sought to exploit it. Ney at this time had few infantry reserves left, as most of the infantry had been committed either to the futile Hougoumont attack or to the defence of the French right. Ney therefore tried to break Wellington’s centre with a cavalry charge alone.

At about 16:30, the first Prussian corps arrived. Commanded by Freiherr von Bülow, IV Corps arrived as the French cavalry attack was in full spate. Bülow sent the 15th Brigade to link up with Wellington’s left flank in the Frichermont-La Haie area while the brigade’s horse artillery battery and additional brigade artillery deployed to its left in support. Napoleon sent Lobau’s corps to intercept the rest of Bülow’s IV Corps proceeding to Plancenoit. The 15th Brigade sent Lobau’s corps into retreat to the Plancenoit area. Von Hiller’s 16th Brigade also pushed forward with six battalions against Plancenoit. Napoleon had dispatched all eight battalions of the Young Guard to reinforce Lobau, who was now seriously pressed by the enemy. Napoleon’s Young Guard counter-attacked and, after very hard fighting, secured Plancenoit, but were themselves counter-attacked and driven out. Napoleon then resorted to sending two battalions of the Middle/Old Guard into Plancenoit and after ferocious fighting they recaptured the village.

The French cavalry attacked the British infantry squares many times, each at heavy cost to the French but with few British casualties. Ney himself was displaced from his horse four times. Eventually it became obvious, even to Ney, that cavalry alone were achieving little. Belatedly, he organised a combined-arms attack, using Bachelu’s division and Tissot’s regiment of Foy’s division from Reille’s II Corps plus those French cavalry that remained in a fit state to fight. This assault was directed along much the same route as the previous heavy cavalry attacks.

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The Storming of La Haye Sainte by Knotel

Meanwhile at approximately the same time as Ney’s combined-arms assault on the centre-right of Wellington’s line, Napoleon ordered Ney to capture La Haye Sainte at whatever the cost. Ney accomplished this with what was left of D’Erlon’s corps soon after 18:00. Ney then moved horse artillery up towards Wellington’s centre and began to destroy the infantry squares at short-range with canister. This all but destroyed the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment, and the 30th and 73rd Regiments suffered such heavy losses that they had to combine to form a viable square. Wellington’s centre was now on the verge of collapse and wide open to an attack from the French. Luckily for Wellington, Pirch I’s and Zieten’s corps of the Prussian Army were now at hand. Zieten’s corps permitted the two fresh cavalry brigades of Vivian and Vandeleur on Wellington’s extreme left to be moved and posted behind the depleted centre. Pirch I Corps then proceeded to support Bülow and together they regained possession of Plancenoit, and once more the Charleroi road was swept by Prussian round shot. The value of this reinforcement at this particular moment can hardly be overestimated.

The French army now fiercely attacked the Coalition all along the line with the culminating point being reached when Napoleon sent forward the Imperial Guard at 19:30. The attack of the Imperial Guards was mounted by five battalions of the Middle Guard, and not by the Grenadiers or Chasseurs of the Old Guard. Marching through a hail of canister and skirmisher fire and severely outnumbered, the 3,000 or so Middle Guardsmen advanced to the west of La Haye Sainte and proceeded to separate into three distinct attack forces. One, consisting of two battalions of Grenadiers, defeated the Coalition’s first line and marched on. Chassé’s relatively fresh Dutch division was sent against them and Allied artillery fired into the victorious Grenadiers’ flank. This still could not stop the Guard’s advance, so Chassé ordered his first brigade to charge the outnumbered French, who faltered and broke.

Further to the west, 1,500 British Foot Guards under General Peregrine Maitland were lying down to protect themselves from the French artillery. As two battalions of Chasseurs approached, the second prong of the Imperial Guard’s attack, Maitland’s guardsmen rose and devastated them with point-blank volleys. The Chasseurs deployed to counter-attack, but began to waver. A bayonet charge by the Foot Guards then broke them. The third prong, a fresh Chasseur battalion, now came up in support. The British guardsmen retreated with these Chasseurs in pursuit, but the latter were halted as the 52nd Light Infantry wheeled in line onto their flank and poured a devastating fire into them and then charged. Under this onslaught they too broke.

The last of the Guard retreated headlong. A ripple of panic passed through the French lines as the astounding news spread: “La Garde recule. Sauve qui peut!” (“The Guard retreats. Save yourself if you can!”). Wellington then stood up in Copenhagen’s stirrups, and waved his hat in the air to signal an advance of the Allied line just as the Prussians were overrunning the French positions to the east. What remained of the French army then abandoned the field in disorder. Wellington and Blücher met at the inn of La Belle Alliance, on the north-south road which bisected the battlefield, and it was agreed that the Prussians should pursue the retreating French army back to France. The Treaty of Paris was signed on 20 November 1815.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Hussey Vivian 1st Baron Vivian
28 July 1775 – 20 August 1842

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Hussey Vivian

Educated at Truro Grammar School, then at Harrow and Exeter College, Oxford, Vivian entered the army in 1793, and less than a year later became a captain in the 28th Foot. Under Lord Moira he served in the campaign of 1794 in Flanders and the Netherlands. At the end of the expedition, the 28th bore a distinguished part in Lord Cathcart’s action of Geldermalsen. In 1798 Vivian was transferred to the 7th Light Dragoons (later Hussars), and in Sir Ralph Abercromby’s division was present in the Helder campaign in Holland at the battles of Bergen and Alkmaar (19 September to 6 October 1799).

In 1800 he received his majority, and in 1804 he became Lieutenant Colonel of the 7th. In command of this regiment he sailed to join Lieutenant-General Sir David Baird at Corunna in 1808, and took part in Lord Henry Paget’s cavalry fights at Sahagún and Benavente. During the retreat of Lieut-General Sir John Moore’s army the 7th were constantly employed with the rearguard. Vivian was present at the Battle of Corunna, and returned with the remainder of the army to England. It was not until September 1813 that the 7th returned to the Peninsula. On 24 November, Vivian (now colonel and aide-de-camp to the Prince Regent) was appointed to command a light cavalry brigade (13th and 14th Light Dragoons) under Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill in Wellington’s army. With this corps he served at the Battle of the Nive (9–13 December).

In January 1814, Vivian transferred to lead a light cavalry brigade in William Carr Beresford’s corps. The 1,000-strong unit included the 18th Hussars and the 1st King’s German Legion Hussars. Vivian took a marked part in the action of Gave de Pau and the Battle of Orthez. On 8 April, Vivian fought a brilliant action at Croix d’Orade on the Ers River, where he was very severely wounded. In this clash, the 18th Hussars seized a key bridge intact, helping Wellington to isolate the French defenders of Toulouse. At the beginning of 1815 he was made KCB; he had been a Major General for several months.

In April 1815, Sir Hussey Vivian was appointed to command the 6th Brigade of Henry Paget, the Earl of Uxbridge’s Cavalry Division. Vivian’s brigade included the 10th and 18th Hussars and the 1st Hussars KGL. At the Battle of Waterloo the 6th Brigade was posted on the Duke of Wellington’s left flank. In the late afternoon, Vivian’s regiments, with those of Vandeleur’s 4th Brigade, were moved to support the hard-pressed center of the line. After the repulse of Napoleon’s Imperial Guard, Vivian’s hussars made the final charge of the day between Hougomont and La Haye Sainte, sweeping everything before them. This service was rewarded by the thanks of both houses of Parliament, the KCH, and the orders of Maria Theresa and St. Vladimir from the emperors of Austria and Russia.

Vivian sat in the House of Commons as member for Truro from 1821 to 1831; he was then made commander of the forces in Ireland, and given the GCH. He was also appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland in 1831. In 1835 he became Master-General of the Ordnance, and was appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. In 1837 he received the GCB, and in 1841, being then M.P. for East Cornwall, was created Baron Vivian in the English peerage. A year later he died at Baden-Baden. He was twice married (first in 1804), and the title descended in the direct line.

His natural son, Sir Robert John Hussey Vivian (1802–1887), was a famous soldier in India, who in 1857 was made K.C.B. and in 1871 G.C.B., having previously attained the rank of general.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Home Riggs Popham
October 12 1762-September 2 1820

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He was the son of a diplomat, Joseph Popham who was the consul in Morocco and the fifteenth child of his mother. He was educated at Westminster School and admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1776. He entered the Navy in 1778 and served under Admiral George Rodney during the American War of Independence. Promoted to lieutenant in 1783 and surveyed the coast of Africa.

Between 1787 and 1793 he was engaged in commercial ventures in the Eastern Sea, even owning his own ship at the time. He took surveys and worked for the British East India Company. In 1793 his ship was seized for contraband and because it had goods that the Company had a monopoly on. It took till 1805 that he was cleared but he had great losses. Those India had known what the cargo was.

Though a naval officer, while the dispute continued, he served in the army under the Duke of York in Flanders as ‘superintendent of Inland Navigation’ The duke saw that he was promoted commander in 94 and post captain in 95. He now served for years with the troops of Great Britain and her allies in a naval capacity. In the Red Sea he transported Indian troops to expel the French from Egypt.

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Lord St. Vincent and his secretary Benjamin Tucker did not like Popham and so did not want to employ him yet Popham would not be quiet and proved that he was maligned by his enemies. Popham had drafted a plan that became the Sea Fencibles in 1798, and then Popham led an attack on the sluice gates as Ostend. The army did blow up the locks and gates but had to surrender.

In 1805 Popham was commissioned to study plans for risings in the Spanish Colonies. He persuaded the support of a rising in Buenos Aires. With Sir David Baird he had captured the Cape of Good Hope and then led an attempt to take Buenos Aires. The Spanish Colonists did not want British rule and the soldiers were taken prisoner. Popham was recalled and censured in court martial, but the city of London honored him so the sentence did little harm. In 1806 he was made groom to the bedchamber of the Duke of Gloucester and in 1807 he was made Captain of the fleet of the second Copenhagen expedition. In 1809 he was placed in command of the Venerable and remained in command until the end of the war.

He served in parliament from 1804-1806 for Yarmouth and for Shaftesbury from 1806 to 1807. Then last for Ipswich from 1807 to 1812. In 1814 he was promoted to Read Admiral and made KCB. He died in 1820. He was one of he most scientific seamen of his time. He did good survey work and authorred he code of signal flags that the admiralty used from 1803.

Previous Notables (Click to see the Blog):

George III George IV Georgiana Cavendish
William IV Lady Hester Stanhope Lady Caroline Lamb
Princess Charlotte Queen Charlotte Charles James Fox
Queen Adelaide Dorothea Jordan Jane Austen
Maria Fitzherbert Lord Byron John Keats
Princess Caroline Percy Bysshe Shelley Cassandra Austen
Edmund Kean Thomas Clarkson Sir John Moore
John Burgoyne William Wilberforce Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Sarah Siddons Josiah Wedgwood Emma Hamilton
Hannah More John Phillip Kemble John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent
Ann Hatton Stephen Kemble Mary Robinson
Harriet Mellon Zachary Macaulay George Elphinstone
Thomas Babington George Romney Mary Moser
Ozias Humphry William Hayley Daniel Mendoza
Edward Pellew Angelica Kauffman Sir William Hamilton
David Garrick Pownoll Bastard Pellew Charles Arbuthnot
William Upcott William Huskisson Dominic Serres
Sir George Barlow Scrope Davies Charles Francis Greville
George Stubbs Fanny Kemble Thomas Warton
William Mason Thomas Troubridge Charles Stanhope
Robert Fulke Greville Gentleman John Jackson Ann Radcliffe
Edward ‘Golden Ball’ Hughes John Opie Adam Walker
John Ireland Henry Pierrepoint Robert Stephenson
Mary Shelley Sir Joshua Reynolds Francis Place
Richard Harding Evans Lord Thomas Foley Francis Burdett
John Gale Jones George Parker Bidder Sir George Warren
Edward Eliot William Beechey Eva Marie Veigel
Hugh Percy-Northumberland Charles Philip Yorke Lord Palmerston
Samuel Romilly John Petty 2nd Marquess Lansdowne Henry Herbert Southey
Stapleton Cotton Colin Macaulay Amelia Opie
Sir James Hall Henry Thomas Colebrooke Maria Foote
Sir David Baird Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville Dr. Robert Gooch
William Baillie James Northcote Horatio Nelson
Henry Fuseli


There will be many other notables coming, a full and changing list can be found here on the blog as I keep adding to it. The list so far is:

  • Astley Cooper
  • John Boydell
  • Benjamin Tucker
  • Sir Robert Calder
  • Viscount Robert Castlereagh
  • George Rose
  • George Canning
  • Henry Blackwood
  • John Pasco
  • Eliab Harvey
  • Alexander Ball
  • Captain Thomas Foley
  • William Beatty
  • Sir Sidney Smith
  • Geroge Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer
  • John Thomas Duckworth
  • Admiral Adam Duncan
  • Edward Berry
  • Robert Linzee
  • David Dundas
  • Sir Hyde Parker
  • Sir Thomas Hardy
  • Charles Stuart (British Army Officer)
  • Skeffington Lutwidge
  • Mark Robinson
  • William Locker
  • Sir Peter Parker
  • William Parker
  • Major General John Dalling
  • William Cornwallis
  • William Hotham
  • Captain William Baillie (Engraver)
  • William Baillie (artist)
  • Benjamin Travers
  • Sir Ralph Abercromby
  • Sir Hector Munro
  • James Kenney
  • Elizabeth Inchbald
  • George Colman the Younger
  • Thomas Morton
  • John Liston
  • Tyrone Power
  • Colonel William Berkeley
  • Barry Proctor
  • William Henry West Betty
  • Sir George Colebrooke
  • Joseph John Gurney
  • John Playfair
  • James Hutton
  • Robert Emmet
  • William Taylor of Norwich
  • Sir William Knighton
  • John Romilly
  • Sir John Herschel
  • John Horne Tooke
  • James Mill
  • Edward Hall Alderson
  • Henry Perronet Briggs
  • Robert Owen
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • Joseph Hume
  • Sir Walter Scott
  • Charles Lamb
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Thomas Cochrane
  • James Paull
  • Claire Clairmont
  • William Lovett
  • Sir John Vaughan
  • Fanny Imlay
  • William Godwin
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • General Sir Robert Arbuthnot
  • Harriet Fane Arbuthnot
  • Joseph Antonio Emidy
  • James Edwards (Bookseller)
  • William Gifford
  • John Wolcot (Peter Pindar)
  • Sir Joseph Banks
  • Richard Porson
  • Edward Gibbon
  • James Smithson
  • William Cowper
  • Richard Cumberland
  • Richard Cosway
  • Jacob Phillipp Hackert
  • John Thomas Serres
  • Wellington (the Military man)
  • William Vincent
  • Cuthbert Collingwood
  • Admiral Sir Graham Moore
  • Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
  • Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke
  • Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville
  • William Howe
  • Richard Howe
  • Viscount Samuel Hood
  • Thomas Hope
  • Baroness de Calabrella
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay
  • Harriet Martineau
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Sir Edward Michael Pakenham
  • Admiral Israel Pellew
  • General Banastre Tarleton
  • Henry Paget
  • Francis Leggatt Chantrey
  • Sir Charles Grey
  • Thomas Picton
  • John Constable
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • George Cruikshank
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • James Gillray
  • George Stubbs
  • Joseph Priestley
  • Horace Walpole
  • John Thomas ‘Antiquity’ Smith
  • Thomas Coutts
  • Angela Burdett-Coutts
  • Sir Anthony Carlisle
  • Thomas Rowlandson
  • William Blake
  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel
  • Sir Marc Brunel
  • Marquis of Stafford Granville Leveson-Gower
  • Marquis of Stafford George Leveson-Gower
  • George Stephenson
  • Nicholas Wood
  • Edward Pease
  • Thomas Telford
  • Joseph Locke
  • Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy
  • Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
  • John Nash
  • Matthew Gregory Lewis
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Robert Southey
  • Thomas Hope
  • Henry Holland
  • Sir Walter Scott
  • Lord Elgin
  • Henry Moyes
  • Jeffery Wyatville
  • Hester Thrale
  • William Windham
  • Madame de Stael
  • Joseph Black
  • John Walker
  • James Boswell
  • Edward John Eliot
  • Edward James Eliot
  • Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough
  • George Combe
  • William Harrison Ainsworth
  • Sir Harry Smith
  • Thomas Cochrane
  • Warren Hastings
  • Edmund Burke
  • William Petty
  • Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
  • Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk
  • Juana Maria de Los Dolores de Leon (Lady Smith)
  • Lord Barrymore, Richard Barry (1769-1794)
  • Lord Bedford, Francis Russell (1765-1802)
  • Mr. G. Dawson Damer (1788-1856)
  • Colonel George Hanger (c.1751-1824)
  • Lord Hertford, Francis Seymour-Ingram (1743-1822)
  • Lord Yarmouth, Francis Charles Seymour-Ingram (1777-1842)
  • Earl of Jersey, George Bussey Villiers (1735-1805)
  • Sir John , John Lade (1759-1838)
  • Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1785 as Duc d’ Orleans (1747-1793)
  • Louis Philippe, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1793 as Duc d’ Orleans (1773-1850)
  • Captain John (Jack) Willett Payne (1752-1803)
  • Lord Sefton, William Philip Molyneux (1772-1838)
  • Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour (1759-1801)
  • Sir Lumley St. George Skeffington Baronet (1771 – 1850)
  • Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1766-1835)
  • Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1792-1853)
  • Hon. Frederick Gerald aka “Poodle” Byng

The Dukes

  •         Duke of Richmond, Charles Lennox 3rd Duke
  •         Duke of Richmond, Charles Lennox 4th Duke (1764-1819)
  •         Duke of Richmond, Charles Gordon Lennox 5th Duke (1791-1860)
  •         Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish (1748-1811)
  •         Duke of Norfolk, Charles Howard (1746-1815)
  •         Duke of Norfolk, Bernard Edward Howard (1765-1842)
  •         Duke of Norfolk, Henry Charles Howard (1791-1856)
  •         Duke of Somerset, Edward St. Maur (1775-1855)
  •         Duke of Somerset, Edward Adolphus Seymour (1804-1885)
  •         Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell (1766-1839)
  •         Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas (1724-1810)
  •         Duke of Rutland, John Henry Manners(1778-1857)
  •         Duke of York , Frederick Augustus Hanover (1763-1827)
  •         Duke of St. Albans,William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 9th Duke
  •         Duke of Grafton, Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke 1735-1811
  •         Duke of Grafton, George FitzRoy, 4th Duke 1760-1844
  •         Duke of Grafton, Henry FitzRoy, 5th Duke 1790-1863

The Dandy Club

  •         Beau Brummell
  •         William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
  •         Henry Mildmay

Patronesses of Almacks

  •         Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper
  •         Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
  •         Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
  •         Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton
  •         Mrs. Drummond Burrell
  •         Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian Ambassador
  •         Countess Esterhazy, wife of the Austrian Ambassador

If there are any requests for personalities to be added to the list, just let us know in the comments section

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Colonel William Baillie
Died November 13th 1782

Baillie entered the service of the East India Company on October 18, 1759 as a lieutenant in the Infantry at Madras. He was brevet Captain on September 5th 1765, Captain on April 2nd 1764, Major April 12th 1772 and then Lieutenant Colonel December 29th, 1775.

He was noted for his service under Colonel Joseph Smith in the operations against Hyder Ali in 1767 and 1768. He commanded at Pondicherry during the action against the French in 1779 and in 1780 was noted for his work in Northern Circars with 2 companies of European infantry, two batteries of artillery and five battalions of native infantry.

In 1780 when Hyder Ali swooped down on the Carnatic he was ordered to unite his force with the army collecting at Madras, first under Lord Macleod and then Sir Hector Munro. Baillie defeated Hyder’s son, Tipu Sultan on his way. When fourteen miles from the main force, Baillie’s losses forced him to halt his march. Munro (DWW-in typical british officer fashion) sent only a small force to help Baillie and here on September 10th 1780 all of Hyder Ali’s host (DWW-initially 100,000) came at them. The Camp followers (DWW-they were a large part of an army on the march then) stampeded through the camp causing confusion, and the natives could not be rallied.

Baillie did his best to rally after many charges, but soon all the officers were either dead or wounded and only 16 soldiers in the square remained unhurt. Now all who remained alive were carried off to Seringapatam, including Captain David Baird. Colonel Baillie’s courage was noted by friend and foe during the action and subsequent captivity. The captivity was to last for four years. Baillie died whilst still a prisoner.

Previous Notables (Click to see the Blog):

George III George IV Georgiana Cavendish
William IV Lady Hester Stanhope Lady Caroline Lamb
Princess Charlotte Queen Charlotte Charles James Fox
Queen Adelaide Dorothea Jordan Jane Austen
Maria Fitzherbert Lord Byron John Keats
Princess Caroline Percy Bysshe Shelley Cassandra Austen
Edmund Kean Thomas Clarkson Sir John Moore
John Burgoyne William Wilberforce Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Sarah Siddons Josiah Wedgwood Emma Hamilton
Hannah More John Phillip Kemble John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent
Ann Hatton Stephen Kemble Mary Robinson
Harriet Mellon Zachary Macaulay George Elphinstone
Thomas Babington George Romney Mary Moser
Ozias Humphry William Hayley Daniel Mendoza
Edward Pellew Angelica Kauffman Sir William Hamilton
David Garrick Pownoll Bastard Pellew Charles Arbuthnot
William Upcott William Huskisson Dominic Serres
Sir George Barlow Scrope Davies Charles Francis Greville
George Stubbs Fanny Kemble Thomas Warton
William Mason Thomas Troubridge Charles Stanhope
Robert Fulke Greville Gentleman John Jackson Ann Radcliffe
Edward ‘Golden Ball’ Hughes John Opie Adam Walker
John Ireland Henry Pierrepoint Robert Stephenson
Mary Shelley Sir Joshua Reynolds Francis Place
Richard Harding Evans Lord Thomas Foley Francis Burdett
John Gale Jones George Parker Bidder Sir George Warren
Edward Eliot William Beechey Eva Marie Veigel
Hugh Percy-Northumberland Charles Philip Yorke Lord Palmerston
Samuel Romilly John Petty 2nd Marquess Lansdowne Henry Herbert Southey
Stapleton Cotton Colin Macaulay Amelia Opie
Sir James Hall Henry Thomas Colebrooke Maria Foote
Sir David Baird Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville Dr. Robert Gooch

There will be many other notables coming, a full and changing list can be found here on the blog as I keep adding to it. The list so far is:

Astley Cooper
Captain William Baillie (Engraver)
William Baillie (artist)
Benjamin Travers
Home Popham
Sir Ralph Abercromby
Sir Hector Munro
James Kenney
Elizabeth Inchbald
George Colman the Younger
Thomas Morton
John Liston
Tyrone Power
Colonel William Berkeley
Barry Proctor
William Henry West Betty
Sir George Colebrooke
Joseph John Gurney
John Playfair
James Hutton
Robert Emmet
William Taylor of Norwich
Sir William Knighton
John Romilly
Sir John Herschel
John Horne Tooke
James Mill
Edward Hall Alderson
Henry Perronet Briggs
Robert Owen
Jeremy Bentham
Joseph Hume
Sir Walter Scott
Charles Lamb
John Stuart Mill
Thomas Cochrane
James Paull
Claire Clairmont
William Lovett
Sir John Vaughan
Fanny Imlay
William Godwin
Mary Wollstonecraft
General Sir Robert Arbuthnot
Harriet Fane Arbuthnot
Joseph Antonio Emidy
James Edwards (Bookseller)
William Gifford
John Wolcot (Peter Pindar)
Sir Joseph Banks
Richard Porson
Edward Gibbon
James Smithson
William Cowper
Richard Cumberland
Richard Cosway
Jacob Phillipp Hackert
John Thomas Serres
Wellington (the Military man)
Horatio Nelson
William Vincent
Cuthbert Collingwood
Admiral Sir Graham Moore
Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville
Howe
Viscount Hood
Thomas Hope
Baroness de Calabrella
Thomas Babington Macaulay
Harriet Martineau
Napoleon Bonaparte
Packenham
Admiral Israel Pellew
General Banastre Tarleton
Henry Paget
Francis Leggatt Chantrey
Sir Charles Grey
Thomas Picton
Constable
Thomas Lawrence
James Northcote
Cruikshank
Thomas Gainsborough
James Gillray
George Stubbs
Joseph Priestley
William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 9th Duke of St. Albans
Horace Walpole
John Thomas ‘Antiquity’ Smith
Thomas Coutts
Angela Burdett-Coutts
Sir Anthony Carlisle
Rowlandson
William Blake
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Sir Marc Brunel
Marquis of Stafford Granville Leveson-Gower
Marquis of Stafford George Leveson-Gower
George Stephenson
Nicholas Wood
Edward Pease
Thomas Telford
Joseph Locke
Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy
Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
John Nash
Matthew Gregory Lewis
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Robert Southey
Thomas Hope
Henry Holland
Sir Walter Scott
Lord Elgin
Henry Moyes
Jeffery Wyatville
Hester Thrale
William Windham
Madame de Stael
Joseph Black
John Walker
James Boswell
Edward John Eliot
Edward James Eliot
Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough
George Combe
William Harrison Ainsworth
Sir Harry Smith
Thomas Cochrane
Warren Hastings
Edmund Burke
William Petty
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond
Juana Maria de Los Dolores de Leon (Lady Smith)
Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell (1766-1839)
Lord Barrymore, Richard Barry (1769-1794)
Lord Bedford, Francis Russell (1765-1802)
Mr. G. Dawson Damer (1788-1856)
Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish (1748-1811)
Colonel George Hanger (c.1751-1824)
Lord Hertford, Francis Seymour-Ingram (1743-1822)
Lord Yarmouth, Francis Charles Seymour-Ingram (1777-1842)
Earl of Jersey, George Bussey Villiers (1735-1805)
Sir John , John Lade (1759-1838)
Duke of Norfolk, Charles Howard (1746-1815)
Duke of York , Frederick Augustus Hanover (1763-1827)
Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1785 as Duc d’ Orleans (1747-1793)
Louis Philippe, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1793 as Duc d’ Orleans (1773-1850)
Captain John (Jack) Willett Payne (1752-1803)
Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas (1724-1810)
Duke of Rutland, John Henry Manners(1778-1857)
Lord Sefton, William Philip Molyneux (1772-1838)
Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour (1759-1801)
Sir Lumley St. George Skeffington Baronet (1771 – 1850)
Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1766-1835)
Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1792-1853)
Hon. Frederick Gerald aka “Poodle” Byng

The Dandy Club
Beau Brummell
William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
Henry Mildmay

Patronesses of Almacks
Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper
Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton
Mrs. Drummond Burrell
Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian Ambassador
        Countess Esterhazy, wife of the Austrian Ambassador

If there are any requests for personalities to be added tot he list, just let us know in the comments section

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Sir David Baird, Baronet

December 6 1757 to August 18 1829

PastedGraphic-2013-01-28-08-48.jpg

Sir David was born at Newbyth House in Scotland, into a merchant family. He entered the British Army in 1772 and was sent to India in 1779 with the 73rd Highlanders as a Captain. He was instantly attached to the force commanded by Sir Hector Munro. That force went to assist Colonel William Baillie who was being threatened by Hyder Ali. In that action the whole force was destroyed and Baird was severely wounded and captured. He remained a prisoner for over four years and the bullet that had wounded him not removed until his release.

Baird was promoted to Major in 1787, and purchased his lieutenant-colonelcy in 1790, then returned to India in 1791. He held a brigade command in the war against Tippoo Sultan and served under Lord Cornwallis in the Seringapatam operations in 1792. He captured Pondicherry and was promoted to colonel in 1795. He was appointed to senior brigade command in the war against Tippoo in 1799. Here he led the storming party at Seringapatam and took the stronghold that he had been a prisoner at.

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The command of a large contingent was now given to Colonel Arthur Wellesley (DWW-Nepotism has something to do with that) Baird felt he had been treated with injustice and disrespect. (DWW-Highly likely, Wellesley would not appreciate a man from money and not from the aristocracy, especially one who had an equal or greater career than he had.) Later Baird received the thanks of Parliament and the East India Company, and a pension was offered to him, which he declined hoping to be given the Order of the Bath. Baird commanded the army that was sent to expel the French from Egypt, Wellesley appointed second in command, but ill health kept the Iron Duke (DWW-Wellesley later was known by this) from going. (DWW–Seems there is a rivalry between the two.) Baird was successful in Egypt and returned to India in 1802.

Once again Baird and Wellington were trading plum appointments, and Baird was out of sorts that Wellington received one. In 1804 he was knighted and in 1805-1806 after the victory of Trafalgar commanded he expedition to seize the Cape of Good Hope. After the success here, Commodore Sir Home Popham convinced Baird to lend troops against Buenos Aires, which failed. He was recalled to England in 1807. But then he was employed in the campaign against Copenhagen where he was wounded.

He was not placed as second in command to Sir John Moore. He succeeded to command at Corunna when Moore died but shortly after his arm was shattered. Command passed to another. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath and a baronet for his services, but this was effectively the end of his military career. He was made governor of Kinsale and appointed commander-in-chief in Ireland in 1820.

He marred in 1810, in his fifties, but did not have any children and so his title passed to his nephew.

Previous Notables (Click to see the Blog):

George III George IV Georgiana Cavendish
William IV Lady Hester Stanhope Lady Caroline Lamb
Princess Charlotte Queen Charlotte Charles James Fox
Queen Adelaide Dorothea Jordan Jane Austen
Maria Fitzherbert Lord Byron John Keats
Princess Caroline Percy Bysshe Shelley Cassandra Austen
Edmund Kean Thomas Clarkson Sir John Moore
John Burgoyne William Wilberforce Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Sarah Siddons Josiah Wedgwood Emma Hamilton
Hannah More John Phillip Kemble John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent
Ann Hatton Stephen Kemble Mary Robinson
Harriet Mellon Zachary Macaulay George Elphinstone
Thomas Babington George Romney Mary Moser
Ozias Humphry William Hayley Daniel Mendoza
Edward Pellew Angelica Kauffman Sir William Hamilton
David Garrick Pownoll Bastard Pellew Charles Arbuthnot
William Upcott William Huskisson Dominic Serres
Sir George Barlow Scrope Davies Charles Francis Greville
George Stubbs Fanny Kemble Thomas Warton
William Mason Thomas Troubridge Charles Stanhope
Robert Fulke Greville Gentleman John Jackson Ann Radcliffe
Edward ‘Golden Ball’ Hughes John Opie Adam Walker
John Ireland Henry Pierrepoint Robert Stephenson
Mary Shelley Sir Joshua Reynolds Francis Place
Richard Harding Evans Lord Thomas Foley Francis Burdett
John Gale Jones George Parker Bidder Sir George Warren
Edward Eliot William Beechey Eva Marie Veigel
Hugh Percy-Northumberland Charles Philip Yorke Lord Palmerston
Samuel Romilly John Petty 2nd Marquess Lansdowne Henry Herbert Southey
Stapleton Cotton Colin Macaulay Amelia Opie
Sir James Hall Henry Thomas Colebrooke Maria Foote


There will be many other notables coming, a full and changing list can be found here on the blog as I keep adding to it. The list so far is:

Home Popham

Colonel William Baillie
Sir Ralph Abercromby
Sir Hector Munro

James Kenney

Elizabeth Inchbald

George Colman the Younger

Thomas Morton

John Liston

Tyrone Power

Colonel William Berkeley

Barry Proctor

William Henry West Betty

Sir George Colebrooke

Joseph John Gurney

John Playfair

James Hutton

Robert Emmet

William Taylor of Norwich

Sir William Knighton

Dr. Robert Gooch

John Romilly

Sir John Herschel

John Horne Tooke

James Mill

Edward Hall Alderson

Henry Perronet Briggs

Robert Owen

Jeremy Bentham

Joseph Hume

Sir Walter Scott

Charles Lamb

John Stuart Mill

Thomas Cochrane

James Paull

Claire Clairmont

William Lovett

Sir John Vaughan

Fanny Imlay

William Godwin

Mary Wollstonecraft

General Sir Robert Arbuthnot

Harriet Fane Arbuthnot

Joseph Antonio Emidy
James Edwards (Bookseller)
William Gifford
John Wolcot (Peter Pindar)
Sir Joseph Banks
Richard Porson
Edward Gibbon
James Smithson
William Cowper
Richard Cumberland
Richard Cosway
Jacob Phillipp Hackert
John Thomas Serres
Wellington (the Military man)
Horatio Nelson
William Vincent
Cuthbert Collingwood
Admiral Sir Graham Moore
Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville
Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville, 1st Lord of the Admiralty
Howe
Viscount Hood
Thomas Hope
Baroness de Calabrella
Thomas Babington Macaulay
Harriet Martineau
Napoleon Bonaparte
Packenham
Admiral Israel Pellew
General Banastre Tarleton
Henry Paget
Francis Leggatt Chantrey
Sir Charles Grey
Thomas Picton
Constable
Thomas Lawrence
James Northcote
Cruikshank
Thomas Gainsborough
James Gillray
George Stubbs
Joseph Priestley
William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 9th Duke of St. Albans
Horace Walpole
John Thomas ‘Antiquity’ Smith
Thomas Coutts
Angela Burdett-Coutts
Sir Anthony Carlisle
Rowlandson
William Blake
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Sir Marc Brunel
Marquis of Stafford Granville Leveson-Gower
Marquis of Stafford George Leveson-Gower
George Stephenson
Nicholas Wood
Edward Pease
Thomas Telford
Joseph Locke
Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy
Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
John Nash
Matthew Gregory Lewis
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Robert Southey
Thomas Hope
Henry Holland
Sir Walter Scott
Lord Elgin
Henry Moyes
Jeffery Wyatville
Hester Thrale
William Windham
Madame de Stael
Joseph Black
John Walker
James Boswell
Edward John Eliot
Edward James Eliot
Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough
George Combe
William Harrison Ainsworth
Sir Harry Smith
Thomas Cochrane
Warren Hastings
Edmund Burke
William Petty
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond
Juana Maria de Los Dolores de Leon (Lady Smith)
Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell (1766-1839)
Lord Barrymore, Richard Barry (1769-1794)
Lord Bedford, Francis Russell (1765-1802)
Mr. G. Dawson Damer (1788-1856)
Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish (1748-1811)
Colonel George Hanger (c.1751-1824)
Lord Hertford, Francis Seymour-Ingram (1743-1822)
Lord Yarmouth, Francis Charles Seymour-Ingram (1777-1842)
Earl of Jersey, George Bussey Villiers (1735-1805)
Sir John , John Lade (1759-1838)
Duke of Norfolk, Charles Howard (1746-1815)
Duke of York , Frederick Augustus Hanover (1763-1827)
Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1785 as Duc d’ Orleans (1747-1793)
Louis Philippe, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1793 as Duc d’ Orleans (1773-1850)
Captain John (Jack) Willett Payne (1752-1803)
Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas (1724-1810)
Duke of Rutland, John Henry Manners(1778-1857)
Lord Sefton, William Philip Molyneux (1772-1838)
Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour (1759-1801)
Sir Lumley St. George Skeffington Baronet (1771 – 1850)
Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1766-1835)
Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1792-1853)
Hon. Frederick Gerald aka “Poodle” Byng

The Dandy Club
        Beau Brummell
        William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
        Henry Mildmay

Patronesses of Almacks
        Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper
        Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
        Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
        Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton
        Mrs. Drummond Burrell
        Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian Ambassador
        Countess Esterhazy, wife of the Austrian Ambassador

If there are any requests for personalities to be added tot he list, just let us know in the comments section

Read Full Post »