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Posts Tagged ‘Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Clarkson Stanfield-Clarkson Frederick Stanfield
3 December 1793 – 18 May 1867

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William Clarkson Stanfield-Clarkson Frederick Stanfield

William Clarkson Stanfield-Clarkson Frederick Stanfield was born at Sunderland, the son of James Field Stanfield (1749–1824) an Irish-born author, actor and former seaman. Clarkson was named after Thomas Clarkson, the slave trade abolitionist, whom his father knew, and this was the only forename he used, although there is reason to believe Frederick was a second one.

Stanfield probably inherited artistic talent from his mother, who is said to have been an artist but died in 1801. He was briefly apprenticed to a coach decorator in 1806, but left owing to the drunkenness of his master’s wife and joined a South Shields collier to become a sailor. In 1808 he was pressed into the Royal Navy, serving in the guardship HMS Namur at Sheerness. Discharged on health grounds in 1814, he then made a voyage to China in 1815 on the East Indiaman Warley and returned with many sketches.

In August 1816 Stanfield was engaged as a decorator and scene-painter at the Royalty Theatre in Wellclose Square, London. Along with David Roberts he was afterwards employed at the Coburg theatre, Lambeth, and in 1823 he became a resident scene-painter at the Drury Lane theatre, where he rose rapidly to fame through the huge quantity of spectacular scenery which he produced for that house until 1834.

Stanfield abandoned scenery painting after Christmas 1834 — though he made exceptions for two personal friends. He designed scenery for the stage productions of William Charles Macready, and for the amateur theatricals of Charles Dickens.

Stanfield partnered with David Roberts in several large-scale diorama and panorama projects in the 1820s and 1830s. The newest development in these popular entertainments was the “moving diorama” or “moving panorama.” These consisted of huge paintings that unfolded upon rollers like giant scrolls; they were supplemented with sound and lighting effects to create a nineteenth-century anticipation of cinema. Stanfield and Roberts produced eight of these entertainments; in light of their later accomplishments as marine painters, their panoramas of two important naval engagements, the Bombardment of Algiers and The Battle of Navarino, are worth noting.

An 1830 tour through Germany and Italy furnished Stanfield with material for two more moving panoramas, The Military Pass of the Simplon (1830) and Venice and Its Adjacent Islands (1831). Stanfield executed the first in only eleven days; it earned him a fee of £300. The Venetian panorama of the next year was 300 feet long and 20 high; gas lit, it unrolled through 15 or 20 minutes. The show included stage props and even singing gondoliers. After the show closed, portions of the work were re-used in productions of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice and Otway’s Venice Preserved.

The moving panoramas of Stanfield and other artists became highlights of the traditional Christmas pantomimes.

Meanwhile, Stanfield developed his skills as an easel painter, especially of marine subjects; he first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1820 and continued, with only a few early interruptions, to his death. He was also a founder member of the Society of British Artists (from 1824) and its president for 1829, and exhibited there and at the British Institution, where in 1828 his picture Wreckers off Fort Rouge gained a premium of 50 guineas. He was elected Associate Member of the Royal Academy in 1832, and became a full Academician in February 1835. His elevation was in part a result of the interest of William IV who, having admired his St. Michael’s Mount at the Academy in 1831 (now in the National Gallery of Victoria, Australia), commissioned two works from him of the Opening of New London Bridge (1832) and The Entrance to Portsmouth Harbour. Both remain in the Royal Collection.

Until his death he contributed a long series of powerful and highly popular works to the Academy, both of marine subjects and landscapes from his travels at home and in France, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Ireland. Notable works include:

  • The Battle of Trafalgar (1836), executed for the United Service Club
  • the Castle of Ischia (1841), now in Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery
  • Isola Bella (1841), among the results of a visit to Italy in 1839
  • French troops Fording the Magra (1847)
  • HMS The Victory Bearing the Body of Nelson Towed into Gibraltar after the Battle of Trafalgar (1853), painted for Sir Samuel Morton Peto at Somerleyton Hall, Suffolk (which is today open to the public)
  • The Abandoned (1856; untraced since 1930)

He also executed two notable series of Venetian subjects, one for the former dining room at Bowood House, Wiltshire, for the 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne, the other for the Duchess of Sutherland at Trentham Park, Staffordshire. Neither house survives but some of Stanfield’s work for Bowood can still be seen there (the present Bowood House and park, open to the public, is a conversion of the old stable block). He illustrated Heath’s Picturesque Annuals for the years 1832–34, and in 1838 published a collection of lithographic views on the Rhine, Moselle and Meuse; forty subjects from both sides of the English Channel were also steel-engraved under the title of Stanfield’s Coast Scenery (1836). Among literary works for which he provided illustrations were Captain Marryat’s The Pirate and the Three Cutters (1836), Poor Jack (1840) and the lives and works of Lord Byron, George Crabbe, and Samuel Johnson, mainly in editions by John Murray.

Stanfield’s art was powerfully influenced by his early practice as a scene-painter. But, though there is always a touch of the spectacular and the scenic in his works, and though their colour is apt to be rather dry and hard, they are large and effective in handling, powerful in their treatment of broad atmospheric effects and telling in composition, and they evince the most complete knowledge of the artistic materials with which their painter deals. John Ruskin considered his treatment of the sea and clouds of a very high order and called him the “leader of our English Realists.” Wishing him to be sometimes “less wonderful and more terrible,” Ruskin also pointed out the superior merits of his sketched work, especially in watercolour, to the often contrived picturesque qualities of many of his exhibited oils and the watercolours on which published engravings were based.

Stanfield was admired not only for his art but his personal simplicity and a modesty. He was born a Catholic and became increasingly devout in middle life, after the loss in 1838 of his eldest son by his second marriage (to Rebecca Adcock) and then, in the 1850s, both the children of his first marriage (to Mary Hutchinson, who had died in childbirth).

His eldest surviving son, George Clarkson Stanfield (1828–78) was also a painter of similar subjects, largely trained by his father. His grandson by his daughter Harriet, Joseph Richard Bagshawe was also a marine painter.

Stanfield died at Hampstead, London, and was buried in Kensal Green Catholic Cemetery.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Petty 2nd Earl of Shelburne, Marquess of Lansdowne
2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805

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William Petty

He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, who was the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry; himself a descendant of King Edward I. William’s brother was The Honourable Thomas Fitzmaurice (1742–1793). Lord Kerry had married Anne Petty, the daughter of Sir William Petty, Surveyor General of Ireland, whose elder son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1688 and (on the elder son’s death) whose younger son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1699 and Earl of Shelburne in 1719. On the younger son’s death the Petty estates passed to the aforementioned John Fitzmaurice, who changed his branch of the family’s surname to “Petty” in place of “Fitzmaurice”, and was created Viscount Fitzmaurice later in 1751 and Earl of Shelburne in 1753 (after which his elder son John was styled Viscount Fitzmaurice). His grandfather Lord Kerry died when he was four, but Fitzmaurice grew up with other people’s grim memories of a “Tyrant” whose family and sevants lived in permanent fear of him.

Fitzmaurice spent his childhood “in the remotest parts of the south of Ireland,” and, according to his own account, when he entered Christ Church, Oxford, in 1755, he had “both everything to learn and everything to unlearn”. From a tutor whom he describes as “narrow-minded” he received advantageous guidance in his studies, but he attributes his improvement in manners and in knowledge of the world chiefly to the fact that, as was his “fate through life”, he fell in “with clever but unpopular connexions”.

Shortly after leaving the university he served in 20th Foot regiment commanded by James Wolfe during the Seven Years’ War. He became friends with one of his fellow officers Charles Grey whose career he later assisted. In 1757 he took part in the amphibious Raid on Rochefort which withdrew without making any serious attempt on the town. The following year he was sent to serve in Germany and distinguished himself at Minden and Kloster-Kampen. For his services he was appointed aide-de-camp to the new King, George III, with the rank of Colonel. This brought protests from several members of the cabinet as it meant he was promoted ahead of much more senior officers. In response to the appointment Duke of Richmond resigned a post in the royal household. Though he had no active military career after this, his early promotion as colonel meant that he would be further promoted through seniority to major-general in 1765, lieutenant-general in 1772 and general in 1783.

On 2 June 1760, while still abroad, Fitzmaurice had been returned to the British House of Commons as member for Wycombe. He was re-elected unopposed at the general election of 1761, and was also elected to the Irish House of Commons for County Kerry. However, on 14 May 1761, before either Parliament met, he succeeded on his father’s death as 2nd Earl of Shelburne in the Peerage of Ireland and 2nd Baron Wycombe in the Peerage of Great Britain. As a result he lost his seat in both Houses of Commons and moved up to the House of Lords, though he would not take his seat in the Irish House of Lords until April 1764. He was succeeded in Wycombe by one of his supporters Colonel Isaac Barré who had a distinguished war record after serving with James Wolfe in Canada.

Shelburne’s new military role close to the King brought him into communication with Lord Bute, who was the King’s closest advisor and a senior minister in the government. In 1761 Shelburne was employed by Bute to negotiate for the support of Henry Fox. Fox held the lucrative but unimportant post of Paymaster of the Forces, but commanded large support in the House of Commons and could boost Bute’s powerbase. Shelburne was opposed to Pitt, who had resigned from the government in 1761. Under instructions from Shelburne, Barré made a violent attack on Pitt in the House of Commons.

During 1762 negotiations for a peace agreement went on in London and Paris. Eventually a deal was agreed but it was heavily criticised for the perceived leniency of its terms as it handed back a number of captured territories to France and Spain. Defending it in the House of Lords, Shelburne observed “the security of the British colonies in North America was the first cause of the war” asserting that security “has been wisely attended to in the negotiations for peace”. Led by Fox, the government was able to push the peace treaty through parliament despite opposition led by Pitt. Shortly afterwards, Bute chose to resign as Prime Minister and retire from politics and was replaced by George Grenville.

Shelburne joined the Grenville ministry in 1763 as First Lord of Trade. By this stage Shelburne had changed his opinion of Pitt and become an admirer of him. After failing to secure Pitt’s inclusion in the Cabinet he resigned office after only a few months. Having moreover on account of his support of Pitt on the question of Wilkes’s expulsion from the House of Commons incurred the displeasure of the King, he retired for a time to his estate.

After Pitt’s return to power in 1766 he became Southern Secretary, but during Pitt’s illness his conciliatory policy towards America was completely thwarted by his colleagues and the King, and in 1768 he was dismissed from office. During the Corsican Crisis, sparked by the French invasion of Corsica, Shelburne was the major voice in the cabinet who favoured assisting the Corsican Republic. Although secret aid was given to the Corsicans it was decided not to intervene military and provoke a war with France, a decision made easier by the departure of the hard-line Shelburne from the cabinet.

In June 1768 the General Court incorporated the district of Shelburne, Massachusetts from the area formerly known as “Deerfield Northeast” and in 1786 the district became a town. The town was named in honour of Lord Shelburne, who, in return sent a church bell, which never reached the town.

Shelburne went into Opposition where he continued to associate with William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. They were both critical of the policies of the North government in the years leading up to the outbreak of the American War of Independence in 1775. As the war progressed Shelburne co-operated with the Rockingham Whigs to attack the government of Lord North. After a British army was compelled to surrender at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, Shelburne joined other leaders of the Opposition to call for a total withdrawal of British troops.

In March 1782 following the down fall of the North Government Shelburne agreed to take office under Lord Rockingham on condition that the King would recognise the United States. Following the sudden and unexpected death of Lord Rockingham on 1 July 1782 Shelburne succeeded him as Prime Minister. Shelburne’s appointment by the King provoked Charles James Fox and his supporters, including Edmund Burke, to resign their posts on 4 July 1782. Burke scathingly compared Shelburne to his predecessor Rockingham. One of the figures brought in as a replacement was the 23-year-old William Pitt, son of Shelburne’s former political ally, who became Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Shelburne’s government continued to negotiate for peace in Paris using Richard Oswald as the chief negotiator. Shelburne entertained a French peace envoy Joseph Matthias Gérard de Rayneval at his country estate in Wiltshire, and they discreetly agreed on a number of points which formed a basis for peace. Shelburne’s own envoys negotiated a separate peace with American commissioners which eventually led to an agreement on American independence and the borders of the newly created United States. Shelburne agreed to generous borders in the Illinois Country, but rejected demands by Benjamin Franklin for the cession of Canada and other territories.

Fox’s departure led to the unexpected creation of a coalition involving Fox and Lord North which dominated the Opposition. In April 1783 the Opposition forced Shelburne’s resignation. The major achievement of Shelburne’s time in office was the agreement of peace terms which formed the basis of the Peace of Paris bringing the American War of Independence to an end.

His fall was perhaps hastened by his plans for the reform of the public service. He had also in contemplation a Bill to promote free trade between Britain and the United States.

When Pitt became Prime Minister in 1784, Shelburne, instead of receiving a place in the Cabinet, was created Marquess of Lansdowne. Though giving a general support to the policy of Pitt, he from this time ceased to take an active part in public affairs. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803.

Lord Lansdowne was twice married. First to Lady Sophia Carteret (26 August 1745 – 5 January 1771), daughter of the 1st Earl Granville, through whom he obtained the Lansdowne estates near Bath. They had at least one child:

Secondly to Lady Louisa FitzPatrick (1755 – 7 August 1789), daughter of the 1st Earl of Upper Ossory. They had at least two children:

Lord Shelburne’s Government, July 1782 – April 1783

  • Lord Shelburne – First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Lords
  • Lord Thurlow – Lord Chancellor
  • Lord Camden – Lord President of the Council
  • The Duke of Grafton – Lord Privy Seal
  • Thomas Townshend – Secretary of State for the Home Department and Leader of the House of Commons
  • Lord Grantham – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
  • Lord Keppel – First Lord of the Admiralty
  • Henry Seymour Conway – Commander in Chief of the Forces
  • The Duke of Richmond – Master-General of the Ordnance
  • William Pitt – Chancellor of the Exchequer
  • Lord Ashburton – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Changes

  • January 1783 – Lord Howe succeeds Lord Keppel at the Admiralty.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Thomas Babington Macaulay 1st Baron Macaulay
25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859

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Thomas Babington Macaulay

Macaulay was the eldest child of Zachary Macaulay, a Scottish Highlander, who became a colonial governor and abolitionist and Selena Mills who was a former pupil of Hannah More. Thomas Macaulay was born in Leicestershire, England, where he was noted as a child prodigy. As a toddler, gazing out of the window from his cot at the chimneys of a local factory, he is reputed to have asked his father whether the smoke came from the fires of hell.

He was educated at a private school in Hertfordshire and at Trinity College, Cambridge. Whilst at Cambridge he wrote much poetry and won several prizes, including the Chancellor’s Gold Medal in June 1821. In 1825 he published a prominent essay on Milton in the Edinburgh Review. He studied law and in 1826 he was called to the bar but showed more interest in a political than a legal career.

Macaulay, who never married and had no children, was once rumoured to have fallen for Maria Kinnaird, the wealthy ward of “Conversation” Sharp (who was a hat-maker, banker, merchant, poet, critic and British politician). But in fact, Macaulay’s strongest emotional ties were to his youngest sisters, Hannah and Margaret, who died while he was in India. As Hannah grew older, he formed the same close attachment to Hannah’s daughter Margaret, whom he called “Baba”.

Macaulay retained a passionate interest in classical literature throughout his life, and prided himself on his knowledge of Ancient Greek literature. While in India, he read every ancient Greek and Roman work that was available to him. In his letters, he describes reading the Aeneid whilst on vacation in Malvern in 1851, and being moved to tears by the beauty of Homer’s poetry. He also taught himself German, Dutch, and Spanish, and remained fluent in French.

In 1830 the Marquess of Lansdowne invited Macaulay to become Member of Parliament for the pocket borough of Calne. His maiden speech was in favour of abolishing the civil disabilities of the Jews in the UK.

Macaulay made his name with a series of speeches in favour of parliamentary reform. After the Great Reform Act of 1832 was passed, he became MP for Leeds. In the Reform, Calne’s representation was reduced from two to one; Leeds had never been represented before, but now had two members. Though proud to have helped pass the Reform Bill, Macaulay never ceased to be grateful to his former patron, Lansdowne, who remained a great friend and political ally.

Macaulay was Secretary to the Board of Control under Lord Grey from 1832 until 1833. After the passing of the Government of India Act 1833, he was appointed as the first Law Member of the Governor-General’s Council. He went to India in 1834, and served on the Supreme Council of India between 1834 and 1838.

Later on he introduced English-medium education in India through his famous Minute on Indian Education of February 1835. Macaulay called for an educational system to create a class of anglicised Indians who would serve as cultural intermediaries between the British and the Indians, and brought to an end a lively debate on the appropriate language for education and administration.

Macaulay thereby succeeded in implementing ideas previously put forward by Lord William Bentinck, the governor-general from 1829, who, inspired by utilitarian ideas and calling for “useful learning,” had favoured the replacement of Persian with English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers.

Macaulay convinced the Governor-General to adopt English as the medium of instruction in secondary education, from the sixth year of schooling onwards, rather than the Sanskrit or Persian then used in the institutions supported by the East India Company. Macaulay’s argued that Sanskrit and Arabic were wholly inadequate for students studying history, science and technology. Referring to the orientalists, he observed, “I have never found one amongst them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia”. He argued, “We have to educate a people who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother-tongue. We must teach them some foreign language.” The solution was to teach English. His final years in India were devoted to the creation of a Penal Code, as the leading member of the Law Commission.

In the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny of 1857, Macaulay’s criminal law proposal was enacted. The Indian Penal Code in 1860 was followed by the Criminal Procedure Code in 1872 and the Civil Procedure Code in 1909. The Indian Penal Code inspired counterparts in most other British colonies, and to date many of these laws are still in effect in places as far apart as Pakistan, Singapore, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, as well as in India itself.

In Indian culture, the term “Macaulay’s Children” is sometimes used to refer to people born of Indian ancestry who adopt Western culture as a lifestyle, or display attitudes influenced by colonisers (“Macaulayism”) – expressions used disparagingly, and with the implication of disloyalty to one’s country and one’s heritage.

Macaulay’s Minute formed the basis for the reforms introduced in the English Education Act of 1835. In 1836, a school named La Martinière, founded by Major General Claude Martin, had one of its houses named after him.

In independent India, Macaulay’s idea of the civilising mission has been used by Dalitists, in particular by neoliberalist Chandra Bhan Prasad, as a “creative appropriation for self-empowerment”, based on the view that Dalit folk are empowered by Macaulay’s deprecation of Hindu civilisation and an English education.

Returning to Britain in 1838, he became MP for Edinburgh. He was made Secretary at War in 1839 by Lord Melbourne and was sworn of the Privy Council the same year. In 1841 Macaulay addressed the issue of copyright law. Macaulay’s position, slightly modified, became the basis of copyright law in the English-speaking world for many decades. Macaulay argued that copyright is a monopoly and as such has generally negative effects on society. After the fall of Melbourne’s government in 1841 Macaulay devoted more time to literary work, and returned to office as Paymaster-General in 1846 in Lord John Russell’s administration.

In the election of 1847 he lost his seat in Edinburgh. He attributed the loss to the anger of religious zealots over his speech in favour of expanding the annual government grant to Maynooth College in Ireland, which trained young men for the Catholic priesthood; some observers also attributed his loss to his neglect of local issues. In 1849 he was elected Rector of the University of Glasgow, a position with no administrative duties, often awarded by the students to men of political or literary fame. He also received the freedom of the city.

In 1852, the voters of Edinburgh offered to re-elect him to Parliament. He accepted on the express condition that he need not campaign and would not pledge himself to a position on any political issue. Remarkably, he was elected on those terms. He seldom attended the House due to ill health. His weakness after suffering a heart attack caused him to postpone for several months making his speech of thanks to the Edinburgh voters. He resigned his seat in January 1856. In 1857 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Macaulay, of Rothley in the County of Leicester, but seldom attended the House of Lords.

Macaulay sat on the committee to decide on the historical subjects to be painted in the new Palace of Westminster. The need to collect reliable portraits of notable figures from history for this project led to the foundation of the National Portrait Gallery, which was formally established on 2 December 1856. Macaulay was amongst its founding trustees and is honoured with one of only three busts above the main entrance.

During his later years his health made work increasingly difficult for him. He died of a heart attack on 28 December 1859, aged 59, leaving his major work, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second incomplete. On 9 January 1860 he was buried in Westminster Abbey, in Poets’ Corner, near a statue of Addison. As he had no children, his peerage became extinct on his death.

Macaulay’s nephew, Sir George Trevelyan, Bt, wrote a best-selling “Life and Letters” of his famous uncle, which is still the best complete life of Macaulay. His great-nephew was the Cambridge historian G. M. Trevelyan.

Macaulay likely had an eidetic memory.

As a young man he composed the ballads Ivry and The Armada, which he later included as part of Lays of Ancient Rome, a series of very popular poems about heroic episodes in Roman history which he composed in India and published in 1842. The most famous of them, Horatius, concerns the heroism of Horatius Cocles. It contains the oft-quoted lines:
Then out spake brave Horatius,
The Captain of the Gate:
“To every man upon this earth
Death cometh soon or late.
And how can man die better
Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers,
And the temples of his gods?”

His essays, originally published in the Edinburgh Review, were collected as Critical and Historical Essays in 1843.

During the 1840s, Macaulay began work on his most famous work, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, publishing the first two volumes in 1848. At first, he had planned to bring his history down to the reign of George III. After publication of his first two volumes, his hope was to complete his work with the death of Queen Anne in 1714.

The third and fourth volumes, bringing the history to the Peace of Ryswick, were published in 1855. At his death in 1859 he was working on the fifth volume. This, bringing the History down to the death of William III, was prepared for publication by his sister, Lady Trevelyan, after his death.

Macaulay’s political writings are famous for their ringing prose and for their confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive model of British history, according to which the country threw off superstition, autocracy and confusion to create a balanced constitution and a forward-looking culture combined with freedom of belief and expression. This model of human progress has been called the Whig interpretation of history. This philosophy appears most clearly in the essays Macaulay wrote for the Edinburgh Review and other publications, which were collected in book form and a steady best-seller throughout the 19th century. But it is also reflected in History; the most stirring passages in the work are those that describe the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688.

Macaulay’s approach has been criticised by later historians for its one-sidedness and its complacency. Karl Marx referred to him as a ‘systematic falsifier of history’. His tendency to see history as a drama led him to treat figures whose views he opposed as if they were villains, while characters he approved of were presented as heroes. Macaulay goes to considerable length, for example, to absolve his main hero William III of any responsibility for the Glencoe massacre. Winston Churchill devoted a four volume biography of the Duke of Marlborough to rebutting Macaulay’s slights of his ancestor, expressing hope ‘to fasten the label “Liar” to his genteel coat-tails.’ On the other hand, this outlook, together with his obvious love of his subject matter and of English civilisation, helps to place the reader within the age being described in a personal way that no cold neutrality could, and Macaulay’s History is generally recognised as one of the masterpieces of historical writing and a magisterial literary triumph only comparable as such to Gibbon and Michelet.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne
July 2 1780-January 31 1863

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Son of the 1st Marquess who was also a Prime Minister, he was also the grandson of the 1st Earl of Upper Ossory. Henry was educated at the Westminster School, the University of Edinburgh and Trinity College, Cambridge. He entered the the House of Commons in 1802 for the pocket borough of Calne. In February of 1806 he became Chancellor of the Exchequer for Lord Grenville. He was then member for the University of Cambridge. In 1807 he lost his seat and his office. In 1809 he became Marquess and was now in the House of Lords. He was considered a Whig leader.

He was very involved in the question of Roman Catholic emancipation, which he championed. He also sympathized with the abolition of the slave trade, and with popular education. In 1818 he also became the 4th Earl of Kerry. In 1827 under Canning he became Home Secretary until 1828.

Under Earl Grey and under Lord Melbourne he was Lord President of the Council from 1830 to 1841, except while Robert Peel was Prime Minister. He was back again under Lord John Russell and later declined himself the post of Prime Minister but served in the cabinets of Lord Aberdeen and Lord Palmerstron. In 1857 he refused a Dukedom and died in 1863. He was one of the most powerful Whig statesmen of his time and Queen Victoria frequently consulted him. He was the first president of the London Statistical Society.

He married Louisa, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Ilchester in 1808. She died in 1851, and their eldest son, died before he. So Henry, their oldest surviving son became the 4th Marquess.

Previous Notables (Click to see the Blog):

George III George IV Georgiana Cavendish
William IV Lady Hester Stanhope Lady Caroline Lamb
Princess Charlotte Queen Charlotte Charles James Fox
Queen Adelaide Dorothea Jordan Jane Austen
Maria Fitzherbert Lord Byron John Keats
Princess Caroline Percy Bysshe Shelley Cassandra Austen
Edmund Kean Thomas Clarkson Sir John Moore
John Burgoyne William Wilberforce Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Sarah Siddons Josiah Wedgwood Emma Hamilton
Hannah More John Phillip Kemble John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent
Ann Hatton Stephen Kemble Mary Robinson
Harriet Mellon Zachary Macaulay George Elphinstone
Thomas Babington George Romney Mary Moser
Ozias Humphry William Hayley Daniel Mendoza
Edward Pellew Angelica Kauffman Sir William Hamilton
David Garrick Pownoll Bastard Pellew Charles Arbuthnot
William Upcott William Huskisson Dominic Serres
Sir George Barlow Scrope Davies Charles Francis Greville
George Stubbs Fanny Kemble Thomas Warton
William Mason Thomas Troubridge Charles Stanhope
Robert Fulke Greville Gentleman John Jackson Ann Radcliffe
Edward ‘Golden Ball’ Hughes John Opie Adam Walker
John Ireland Henry Pierrepoint Robert Stephenson
Mary Shelley Sir Joshua Reynolds Francis Place
Richard Harding Evans Lord Thomas Foley Francis Burdett
John Gale Jones George Parker Bidder Sir George Warren
Edward Eliot William Beechey Eva Marie Veigel
Hugh Percy-Northumberland Charles Philip Yorke Lord Palmerston
Samuel Romilly John Petty 2nd Marquess Lansdowne Henry Herbert Southey
Stapleton Cotton Colin Macaulay Amelia Opie
Sir James Hall Henry Thomas Colebrooke Maria Foote
Sir David Baird Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville Dr. Robert Gooch
William Baillie James Northcote Horatio Nelson
Henry Fuseli Home Riggs Popham John Playfair


There will be many other notables coming, a full and changing list can be found here on the blog as I keep adding to it. The list so far is:

  • Adam Ferguson of Raith
  • Nevil Maskelyne
  • Dugald Stewart
  • James Playfair
  • William Playfair
  • William Henry Playfair
  • William Ludlam
  • James Hutton
  • Astley Cooper
  • John Boydell
  • Benjamin Tucker
  • Sir Robert Calder
  • Viscount Robert Castlereagh
  • George Rose
  • George Canning
  • Henry Blackwood
  • John Pasco
  • Eliab Harvey
  • Alexander Ball
  • Captain Thomas Foley
  • William Beatty
  • Sir Sidney Smith
  • Geroge Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer
  • John Thomas Duckworth
  • Admiral Adam Duncan
  • Edward Berry
  • Robert Linzee
  • David Dundas
  • Sir Hyde Parker
  • Sir Thomas Hardy
  • Charles Stuart (British Army Officer)
  • Skeffington Lutwidge
  • Mark Robinson
  • William Locker
  • Sir Peter Parker
  • William Parker
  • Major General John Dalling
  • William Cornwallis
  • William Hotham
  • Captain William Baillie (Engraver)
  • William Baillie (artist)
  • Benjamin Travers
  • Sir Ralph Abercromby
  • Sir Hector Munro
  • James Kenney
  • Elizabeth Inchbald
  • George Colman the Younger
  • Thomas Morton
  • John Liston
  • Tyrone Power
  • Colonel William Berkeley
  • Barry Proctor
  • William Henry West Betty
  • Sir George Colebrooke
  • Joseph John Gurney
  • James Hutton
  • Robert Emmet
  • William Taylor of Norwich
  • Sir William Knighton
  • John Romilly
  • Sir John Herschel
  • John Horne Tooke
  • James Mill
  • Edward Hall Alderson
  • Henry Perronet Briggs
  • Robert Owen
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • Joseph Hume
  • Sir Walter Scott
  • Charles Lamb
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Thomas Cochrane
  • James Paull
  • Claire Clairmont
  • William Lovett
  • Sir John Vaughan
  • Fanny Imlay
  • William Godwin
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • General Sir Robert Arbuthnot
  • Harriet Fane Arbuthnot
  • Joseph Antonio Emidy
  • James Edwards (Bookseller)
  • William Gifford
  • John Wolcot (Peter Pindar)
  • Sir Joseph Banks
  • Richard Porson
  • Edward Gibbon
  • James Smithson
  • William Cowper
  • Richard Cumberland
  • Richard Cosway
  • Jacob Phillipp Hackert
  • John Thomas Serres
  • Wellington (the Military man)
  • William Vincent
  • Cuthbert Collingwood
  • Admiral Sir Graham Moore
  • Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
  • Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke
  • Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville
  • William Howe
  • Richard Howe
  • Viscount Samuel Hood
  • Thomas Hope
  • Baroness de Calabrella
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay
  • Harriet Martineau
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Sir Edward Michael Pakenham
  • Admiral Israel Pellew
  • General Banastre Tarleton
  • Henry Paget
  • Francis Leggatt Chantrey
  • Sir Charles Grey
  • Thomas Picton
  • John Constable
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • George Cruikshank
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • James Gillray
  • George Stubbs
  • Joseph Priestley
  • Horace Walpole
  • John Thomas ‘Antiquity’ Smith
  • Thomas Coutts
  • Angela Burdett-Coutts
  • Sir Anthony Carlisle
  • Thomas Rowlandson
  • William Blake
  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel
  • Sir Marc Brunel
  • Marquis of Stafford Granville Leveson-Gower
  • Marquis of Stafford George Leveson-Gower
  • George Stephenson
  • Nicholas Wood
  • Edward Pease
  • Thomas Telford
  • Joseph Locke
  • Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy
  • Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
  • John Nash
  • Matthew Gregory Lewis
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Robert Southey
  • Thomas Hope
  • Henry Holland
  • Sir Walter Scott
  • Lord Elgin
  • Henry Moyes
  • Jeffery Wyatville
  • Hester Thrale
  • William Windham
  • Madame de Stael
  • Joseph Black
  • John Walker
  • James Boswell
  • Edward John Eliot
  • Edward James Eliot
  • Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough
  • George Combe
  • William Harrison Ainsworth
  • Sir Harry Smith
  • Thomas Cochrane
  • Warren Hastings
  • Edmund Burke
  • William Petty
  • Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk
  • Juana Maria de Los Dolores de Leon (Lady Smith)
  • Lord Barrymore, Richard Barry (1769-1794)
  • Lord Bedford, Francis Russell (1765-1802)
  • Mr. G. Dawson Damer (1788-1856)
  • Colonel George Hanger (c.1751-1824)
  • Lord Hertford, Francis Seymour-Ingram (1743-1822)
  • Lord Yarmouth, Francis Charles Seymour-Ingram (1777-1842)
  • Earl of Jersey, George Bussey Villiers (1735-1805)
  • Sir John , John Lade (1759-1838)
  • Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1785 as Duc d’ Orleans (1747-1793)
  • Louis Philippe, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1793 as Duc d’ Orleans (1773-1850)
  • Captain John (Jack) Willett Payne (1752-1803)
  • Lord Sefton, William Philip Molyneux (1772-1838)
  • Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour (1759-1801)
  • Sir Lumley St. George Skeffington Baronet (1771 – 1850)
  • Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1766-1835)
  • Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1792-1853)
  • Hon. Frederick Gerald aka “Poodle” Byng

The Dukes

  •         Duke of Richmond, Charles Lennox 3rd Duke
  •         Duke of Richmond, Charles Lennox 4th Duke (1764-1819)
  •         Duke of Richmond, Charles Gordon Lennox 5th Duke (1791-1860)
  •         Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish (1748-1811)
  •         Duke of Norfolk, Charles Howard (1746-1815)
  •         Duke of Norfolk, Bernard Edward Howard (1765-1842)
  •         Duke of Norfolk, Henry Charles Howard (1791-1856)
  •         Duke of Somerset, Edward St. Maur (1775-1855)
  •         Duke of Somerset, Edward Adolphus Seymour (1804-1885)
  •         Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell (1766-1839)
  •         Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas (1724-1810)
  •         Duke of Rutland, John Henry Manners(1778-1857)
  •         Duke of York , Frederick Augustus Hanover (1763-1827)
  •         Duke of St. Albans,William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 9th Duke
  •         Duke of Grafton, Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke 1735-1811
  •         Duke of Grafton, George FitzRoy, 4th Duke 1760-1844
  •         Duke of Grafton, Henry FitzRoy, 5th Duke 1790-1863

The Dandy Club

  •         Beau Brummell
  •         William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
  •         Henry Mildmay

Patronesses of Almacks

  •         Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper
  •         Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
  •         Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
  •         Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton
  •         Mrs. Drummond Burrell
  •         Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian Ambassador
  •         Countess Esterhazy, wife of the Austrian Ambassador

If there are any requests for personalities to be added to the list, just let us know in the comments section

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