Posts Tagged ‘Henry Holland’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

March 1764-



In January 1762 a private society was established at 50 Pall Mall by Messrs. Boothby and James in response to having been blackballed for membership of White’s. This society then split to form the predecessors of both Brooks’s and Boodle’s. The club that was to become Brooks’s was founded in March 1764 by twenty-seven prominent Whig nobles including the Duke of Portland, the Duke of Roxburghe, Lord Crewe and Lord Strathmore. Charles James Fox was elected as a member the following year at the age of sixteen. The club premises at 49 Pall Mall was a former tavern owned by William Almack as was the neighbouring 50 Pall Mall where the society had previously met and so the club become simply known as Almack’s. These fashionable young men, known as Macaronis, would frequent the premises for the purposes of wining, dining and gambling.

In September 1777 William Brooks, a wine merchant and money lender who acted as Master, or manager, for Almack’s, commissioned Henry Holland to design and construct a purpose built clubhouse at a site on neighbouring St James’s Street. Paid for at Brooks’s own expense, the building was completed in October 1778 and all existing members of Almack’s were invited to join. Brooks’s gamble paid off as all existing members swiftly moved into the new building and the club then took on Brooks’s name as its own. Brooks himself however would not live long to enjoy this success, dying in poverty in 1782.

The new clubhouse was built of yellow brick and Portland stone in a Palladian style similar to Holland’s early country houses. The main suite of rooms on the first floor consisted of the Great Subscription Room, Small Drawing Room and the Card Room. The interiors are in neoclassical style, the Great Subscription Room having a segmental barrel vault ceiling. The interior of the building remained fairly unchanged until 1889 when neighbouring 2 Park Place, which had been purchased a few years before, was converted and adapted as part of Brooks’s.

The main historic attraction of Brooks’s was its gaming rooms. At several tables in one, gentlemen would stake fortunes on whist and hazard. Gambling all night was common; all day and all night, not unheard of. When the stakes far exceeded any ordinary expenses, all the club accounts were commonly deducted from winnings, so that no bills were rendered to members. Numerous eccentric bets were and are made in the Brooks’s betting book. One extraordinary entry from 1785 is “Ld. Cholmondeley has given two guineas to Ld. Derby, to receive 500 Gs whenever his lordship fucks a woman in a balloon one thousand yards from the Earth.” (However, there is no further indication that the bet was paid, or even how they would check it if it was claimed.)

Notable Members covered in the Regency Era’s timeframe

  • Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (1717–1797)
  • Edmund Burke (1729–1797)
  • Edward Gibbon (1737–1794)
  • William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1738–1809)
  • Philip Francis (1740–1818)
  • John Ker, 3rd Duke of Roxburghe (1740–1804)
  • John Crewe, 1st Baron Crewe (1742–1829)
  • John FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Upper Ossory (1745–1818)
  • William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire (1748–1811)
  • Dudley Long North (1748–1829)
  • Charles James Fox (1749–1806)
  • William Windham (1750–1810)
  • Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751–1816)
  • Hugh Fortescue, 1st Earl Fortescue (1753–1841)
  • Thomas Grenville (1755–1846)
  • Lord John Townshend (1757–1833)
  • Sir Scrope Bernard-Morland, 4th baronet (1758–1830)
  • William Pitt the Younger (1759–1806)
  • William Wilberforce (1759–1833)
  • Richard ‘Conversation’ Sharp (1759–1835)
  • Sir John Lade (1759–1838)
  • George FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton (1760–1844)
  • Pascoe Grenfell (1761–1838)
  • The Prince of Wales, later George IV (1762–1830)
  • Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763–1827)
  • Prince William, Duke of Clarence, later William IV (1765–1837)
  • William Henry Fremantle (1766–1850)
  • Lord William Russell (1767–1840)
  • Jean-Lambert Tallien (1767–1820)
  • John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor (1768–1821)
  • Francis Burdett (1770–1844)
  • David Ricardo (1772–1823)
  • Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn (1775–1850)
  • Alexander Raphael (1775/6-1850)
  • Richard Temple-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos (1776–1839)
  • Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux (1778–1868)
  • Beau Brummell (1778–1840)
  • John Campbell, 1st Baron Campbell (1779–1861)
  • William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne (1779–1848)
  • Thomas Moore (1779–1852)
  • James Evan Baillie (1781–1863)
  • Edward Ellice, the elder (1781–1863)
  • John Ward, 1st Earl of Dudley (1781–1833)
  • Granville Proby, 3rd Earl of Carysfort (1782–1868)
  • Hugh Fortescue, 2nd Earl Fortescue (1783–1861)
  • Henry Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (1784–1865)
  • Daniel O’Connell (1785–1847)
  • George Parkyns, 2nd Baron Rancliffe (1785–1850)
  • Thomas Francis Kennedy (1788–1879)
  • William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley (1789–1849)
  • George Nugent-Grenville, 2nd Baron Nugent (1789–1850)
  • Robert Rolfe, 1st Baron Cranworth (1790–1868)
  • Charles Compton Cavendish, 1st Baron Chesham (1793–1863)
  • George Glyn, 1st Baron Wolverton (1797–1873)
  • David Salomons (1797–1873)
  • John Townshend, 4th Marquess Townshend (1798–1863)
  • Matthew Talbot Baines (1799–1860)
  • Michael Thomas Bass, Jr. (1799–1884)
  • George Keppel, 6th Earl of Albemarle (1799–1891)
  • Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799–1869)
  • Richard Bethell, 1st Baron Westbury (1800–1873)
  • Robert Vernon, 1st Baron Lyveden (1800–1873)
  • Fox Maule-Ramsay, 11th Earl of Dalhousie (1801–1874)
  • Robert Grosvenor, 1st Baron Ebury (1801–1893)
  • Charles Pelham Villiers (1802–1898)
  • Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley (1802–1869)
  • Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (1803–1873)
  • Edward Horsman (1807–1876)
  • Lionel de Rothschild (1808–1879)

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Charles Sloane Cadogan 1st Earl Cadogan
29 September 1728 – 3 April 1807


Charles Sloane Cadogan

Charles Sloane Cadogan 1st Earl Cadogan was a British peer and Whig politician.

Cadogan was the only son of Charles Cadogan, 2nd Baron Cadogan and his wife, Elizabeth, the second daughter of Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. From 1749–54 and again from 1755, Cadogan was a Member of Parliament for Cambridge until he inherited his father’s title in 1776. He was also appointed Keeper of the Privy Purse to Prince Edward in 1756, Surveyor of the King’s Gardens from 1764–69 and Master of the Mint from 1769–84. In 1800, he was elevated in the Peerage as 1st Viscount Chelsea and 1st Earl Cadogan.

In 1777 he leased 100 acres (0.40 km2) of the family estate in Chelsea to architect Henry Holland for building development. Holland built Sloane Square, Sloane Street, Cadogan Place and Hans Place.

On 30 May 1747, Cadogan married the Honourable Frances Bromley, daughter of Henry Bromley, 1st Baron Montfort. They had six children:

  • Hon. Charles Henry Sloane, later styled Viscount Chelsea and later 2nd Earl Cadogan (1749–1832)
  • Rev. Hon. William Bromley, (1751–1797)
  • Hon. Thomas (1752–1782), naval officer lost at sea aboard HMS Glorieux.
  • Hon. George (1754–1780), killed in India while an officer in the HEIC army.
  • Hon. Edward (1758–1779), army officer
  • Hon. Henry William (1761–1774)

Cadogan’s first wife died in 1768, and on 10 May 1777, he married Mary Churchill (daughter of Charles Churchill and Lady Mary Walpole, daughter of Robert Walpole) and they had four children:

  • Hon. Henry (1780–1813), killed at the Battle of Vitoria.
  • Hon. George, later 3rd Earl Cadogan (1783–1864)
  • Lady Emily Mary (died 1839), married Gerald Valerian Wellesley (younger son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington) and was the mother of George Wellesley.
  • Lady Charlotte (1781–1853), married (1) Henry Wellesley, 1st Baron Cowley(div. 1810), (2) Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey.

Cadogan and his second wife divorced in 1796 and on his death at Santon Downham, Suffolk in 1807, his titles passed to his eldest son, Charles, by his first wife.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

John Soane
10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837


John Soane

Soane was born in Goring-on-Thames on 10 September 1753. He was the second surviving son of John Soan and his wife Martha. The ‘e’ was added to the surname by the architect in 1784 on his marriage. His father was a builder or bricklayer, and died when Soane was fourteen in April 1768. He was educated in nearby Reading in a private school run by William Baker. After his father’s death Soane’s family moved to nearby Chertsey to live with Soane’s brother William, 12 years his elder. William was also a bricklayer. His brother introduced Soane to James Peacock, a surveyor who worked with George Dance the Younger. Soane began his training as an architect age 15 under George Dance the Younger and joining the architect at his home and office in the City of London at the corner of Moorfields and Chiswell Street. Dance was a founding member of the Royal Academy and doubtless encouraged Soane to join the schools there on 25 October 1771 as they were free. There he would have attended the architecture lectures delivered by Thomas Sandby and the lectures on perspective delivered by Samuel Wale. Soane would have had access to the library at the Royal Academy.

Dance’s growing family was probably the reason that in 1772 Soane continued his education by joining the household and office of Henry Holland. He recalled later that he was ‘placed in the office of an eminent builder in extensive practice where I had every opportunity of surveying the progress of building in all its different varieties, and of attaining the knowledge of measuring and valuing artificers’ work’. During his studies at the Royal Academy, he was awarded the Academy’s silver medal on 10 December 1772 for a measured drawing of the facade of the Banqueting House, Whitehall, which was followed by the gold medal on 10 December 1776 for his design of a Triumphal Bridge. He received a travelling scholarship in December 1777. In 1777 he exhibited at the Royal Academy a design for a Mausoleum for his friend and fellow student James King, who had drowned in 1776 on a boating trip to Greenwich. Soane, a non-swimmer, was going to be with the party but decided to stay home and work on his design for a Triumphal Bridge. By 1777 Soane was living in his own accommodation in Hamilton Street. In 1778 he published his first book Designs in Architecture. He sought advice from Sir William Chambers on what to study: ‘Always see with your own eyes…[you] must discover their true beauties, and the secrets by which they are produced’. Using his travelling scholarship of £60 per annum for three years, plus an additional £30 travelling expenses for each leg of the journey. Soane set sail on his Grand Tour, his ultimate destination being Rome, at 5:00 a.m. 18 March 1778.

His travelling companion was Robert Furze Brettingham, they travelled via Paris, where they visited Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, they went onto the Palace of Versailles on 29 March. They finally reached Rome on 2 May 1778. Soane wrote home ‘my attention is entirely taken up in the seeing and examining the numerous and inestimable remains of Antiquity…’. Soane’s first dated drawing is 21 May of Sant’Agnese fuori le mura. Soane’s former classmate, the architect Thomas Hardwick returned to Rome in June from Naples. He and Soane would produced a series of measured drawings and ground plans of Roman buildings together. During the summer they visited Hadrian’s Villa and the Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, back in Rome they investigated the Colosseum. In August Soane was working on a design for a British Senate House to be submitted for the 1779 Royal Academy summer exhibition.

In the autumn he met the builder and Bishop of Derry, Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol. The Earl presented copies of I quattro libri dell’architettura and De architectura to Soane. In December the Earl introduced Soane to Thomas Pitt, 1st Baron Camelford this would lead eventually to architectural commissions. The Earl persuaded Soane to accompany him to Naples setting off from Rome on 22 December 1778. On the way they visited Capua and the Palace of Caserta arriving in Naples on 29 December. It was in Naples that Soane met two future clients, John Patteson and Richard Bosanquet. From Naples Soane made several excursions including: Pozzuoli, Cumae, Pompeii where he met yet another future client Philip Yorke. Soane also attended a performance at Teatro di San Carlo and climbed Mount Vesuvius. Visiting Paestum, Soane was deeply impressed by the Greek temples. Next he visited the Certosa di Padula, then on to Eboli and Salerno and its cathedral. Later they visited Benevento and Herculaneum. The Earl and Soane left for Rome on 12 March 1779, travelling via Capua; Gaeta; the Pontine Marshes; Velletri; Alban Hills and Lake Albano; Castel Gandolfo. Back in Rome they visited the Palazzo Barberini, and witnessed the celebrations of Holy Week. Shortly after the Earl and his family departed for home, followed a few weeks later by Thomas Hardwick.

It was now that Soane met Maria Hadfield (they became lifelong friends) and Thomas Banks, Soane was now fairly fluent in the Italian language. Signs of his growing confidence. It was now that a party of British men, Thomas Bowdler, Rowland Burdon, John Patteson, John Stuart and Henry Grewold Lewis, decided to visit Sicily and paid for Soane to accompany them as a draughtsman. The party headed for Naples on 11 April, where on 21 April they caught a Swedish ship to Palermo. Soane visited the Villa Palagonia, which made a deep impact on him. Influenced by the account of the Villa in his copy of Patrick Brydone’s Tour through Sicily and Malta, Soane savoured the ‘Prince of Palagonia’s Monsters… nothing more than the most extravagant caricatures in stone’ but more significantly seems to have been inspired by the Hall of Mirrors to introduce similar effects when he came to design the interiors of his own house in Lincoln’s Inn Fields. Leaving Palermo from where the party split, Stuart and Bowdler going off together. The rest headed for Segesta, Trapani, Selinunte and Agrigento, exposing Soane to Ancient Greek architecture. From Agrigento the party headed for Licata, where they sailed for Malta and Valletta returning on 2 June, to Syracuse, Sicily. Moving on to Catania and Palazzo Biscari then Mount Etna, Taormina, Messina and the Lepari Islands. They were back in Naples by 2 July where Soane purchased books and prints, visiting Sorrento before returning to Rome. Shortly after John Patterson returned to England via Vienna, from where he sent Soane the first six volumes of The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, delivered by Antonio Salieri.

In Rome Soane’s circle now included Henry Tresham, Thomas Jones (artist) and Nathaniel Marchant. Soane continued to study the buildings of Rome, including the Basilica of St. John Lateran. Soane and Rowland Burdon set out in August for Lombardy. Their journey include visits to Ancona, Rimini, Bologna, Parma and its Accademia, Milan, Verona, Vicenza and its buildings by Andrea Palladio, Padua, the Brenta (river) with its villas by Palladio, Venice. Then back to Bologna where Soane copied designs for completing the west front of San Petronio Basilica including ones by Palladio, Vignola and Baldassare Peruzzi. Then to Florence and the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno of which he was later, in January 1780 elected a member; then returned to Rome.

Soane continued his study of buildings, including Villa Lante, Palazzo Farnese, Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, the Capitoline Museums and the Villa Albani. That autumn he met Henry Bankes, Soane prepared plans for the Banke’s house Kingston Lacy, but these came to nothing. Early in 1780 Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol wrote to Soane offering him various architectural commissions, Soane decided to return to England and began to organise his return journey. He left Rome on 19 April 1780, travelling with the Reverend George Holgate and his pupil Michael Pepper. They visited the Villa Farnese, then on to Siena. Then Florence where they visited the Palazzo Pitti, Uffizi, Santo Spirito, Florence, Giotto’s Campanile and other sites. Performing at the Teatro della Pergola was Nancy Storace with whom Soane formed a lifelong friendship. Their journey continued on via Bologna, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Mantua where he sketched Palazzo del Te, Parma, Piacenza. Milan where he attended La Scala, the theatre was a growing interest, Lake Como from where they began their crossing of the Alps via the Splügen Pass. They then passed on to Zurich, Reichenau, Switzerland, Wettingen, Schaffhausen, Basel on the way to which the bottom of Soane’s trunk came loose on the coach and spilled the contents behind it, he thus lost many of his books, drawings, drawing instruments, clothes and his gold and silver medals from the Royal Academy (none of which was recovered). He continued his journey on to Freiburg im Breisgau, Cologne, Liège, Leuven and Brussels before embarking for England.

He reached England in June 1780, thanks to his Grand Tour he was £120 in debt. After a brief stop in London, Soane headed for Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol’s estate at Ickworth House in Suffolk, where the Earl was planning to build a new house. But immediately the Earl changed his mind and dispatched Soane to Downhill House, County Londonderry, in Ireland, where Soane arrived on 27 July 1780. The Earl had grandiose plans to rebuild the house, but Soane and the Earl disagreed over the design and parted company, Soane receiving only £30 for his efforts, he left via Belfast sailing to Glasgow. From Glasgow he travelled to Allanbank, Scottish Borders, home of a family by the name of Stuart he’d met in Rome, he prepared plans for a new mansion for the family, but again the commission came to nothing. In early December 1780 Soane took lodgings at 10 Cavendish Street London. To pay his way his friends from the Grand Tour, Thomas Pitt and Philip Yorke gave him commissions for repairs and minor alterations. Anna, Lady Miller considered building a temple in her garden at Batheaston to Soane’s design and he hoped he might receive work from her circle of friends. But again this was not be so. To help him out, George Dance gave Soane a few measuring jobs, including one in May 1781 on his repairs to Newgate Prison of damage caused by the Gordon Riots.

To give Soane some respite, Thomas Pitt invited him to stay in 1781 at his Thamesside villa of Petersham Lodge which Soane was commissioned to redecorate and repair. Also in 1781 Philip Yorke gave Soane commissions, at his home Hamels Park in Hertfordshire, he designed a new entrance gate and lodges, followed by a new dairy and alterations to the house, and in London alterations and redecoration of 63 New Cavendish Street. Increasingly desperate for work Soane entered a competition in March 1782 to design a prison, but failed to win. Soane continued to get other minor design work in 1782.

From the mid-1780s on Soane would receive a steady stream of commissions until his semi-retirement in 1832.

It wasn’t until 1783 that Soane received his first commission for a new country house, Letton Hall, Norfolk, the house was a fairly modest villa but it was a sign that at last Soane’s career was taking off and led to other work in East Anglia; Saxlingham Rectory in 1784 and Shotesham Hall, Shotesham in 1785; Tendring Hall, Suffolk, (1784–86) and the remodelling of Ryston Hall (1787)

At this early stage in his career Soane was dependent on domestic work, including: Piercefield House (1784) now a ruin; the remodelling of Chillington Hall (1785); The Manor, Cricket St Thomas (1786); Bentley Priory (1788); the extension of the Roman Catholic Chapel at New Wardour Castle (1788). An important commission in terms of the client, were alterations to William Pitt the Younger’s house at Holwood House in 1786, Soane had befriended William Pitt’s uncle Thomas on his grand tour; In (1787) Soane remodelled the interior of Fonthill Splendens (later replaced by Fonthill Abbey) for Thomas Beckford, adding a picture gallery lit by two domes and other work.

On 16 October 1788, he succeeded Sir Robert Taylor as architect and surveyor to the Bank of England, he would work at the bank for the next 45 years, resigning in 1833. Given Soane’s youth and relative inexperience, his appointment was down to the influence of William Pitt then the Prime Minister and his friend from the Grand Tour Richard Bosanquet whose brother was Samuel Bosanquet, Director and later Governor of the Bank of England. His salary was set at 5% of the cost of any building works at the Bank, paid every six months. Soane would virtually rebuild the entire bank, and vastly extend it. The five main banking halls were based on the same basic layout, starting with the Bank Stock Office of 1791–96, consists of a rectangular room, the centre with a large lantern light supported by piers and pendentives, then the four corners of the rectangle have low vaulted spaces, and in the centre of each side compartments rising to the height of the arches supporting the central lantern, the room is vaulted in brick and windows are iron framed to ensure the rooms are as fire proof as possible.

His work at the bank was:

  • Erection of Barracks for the Bank Guards and rooms for the Governor, officers and servants of the Bank (1790).
  • Between 1789 and February 1791 Soane oversaw acquisition of land northwards along Princes Street.
  • The erection of the outer wall along the newly acquired land (1791).
  • Erection of the Bank Stock Office the first of his major interiors at the bank, with its fire proof brick vault (1791–96).
  • The erection of The Four Percent Office (replacing Robert Taylor’s room) (1793).
  • The erection of the Rotunda (replacing Robert Taylor’s rotunda) (1794).
  • The erection of the Three Percent Consols Transfer Office (1797–99).
  • Acquisition of more land to the north along Bartholomew Lane, Lothbury and Prince’s Street (1792).
  • Erection of outer wall along the north-east corner of the site, including an entrance arch for carriage (1794–98).
  • Erection of houses for the Chief Accountant and his deputy (1797).
  • The erection of the Lothbury Court within the new gate, leading to the inner courtyard used to receive Bullion (1797–1800).
  • Extension of the Bank to the north-west, the exterior wall was extended around the junction of Lothbury and Princes Street, forming the ‘Tivoli Corner’ which is based on the Temple of Vesta, Tivoli that Soane had visited and much admired, halfway down Princes street he created the Doric Vestibule as a minor entrance to the building and within two new courtyards that were surrounded by the rooms he built in 1790 and new rooms including printing offices for banknotes, the £5 Note Office and new offices for the Accountants, the Bullion Office off the Lothbury Court (1800–1808).
  • Rebuilding of the vestibule and entrance from Bartholmew Lane (1814–1818).
  • The rebuilding of Robert Taylor’s 3 Percent Consols Transfer Office and 3 Percent Consols Warrant Office and completion of the exterior wall around the south-east and south-west boundaries including the main-entrance in the centre of Threadneedle Street (1818–1827).

In 1807 Soane designed New Bank Buildings on Princes Street for the Bank, consisting of a terrace of five mercantile residences, which were then leased to prominent city firms.

A growing sign of Soane’s success was an invitation to become a member of the Architects’ Club that was formed on 20 October 1791, practically all the leading practitioners in London were members, and it combined a meeting to discuss professional matters, at 5:00 p.m. on the first Thursday of every month with a dinner. The four founders were Soane’s former teachers George Dance and Henry Holland with, James Wyatt and Samuel Pepys Cockerell. Other original members included: Sir William Chambers, Thomas Sandby, Robert Adam, Matthew Brettingham the Younger, Thomas Hardwick and Robert Mylne. Members who later joined included Sir Robert Smirke and Sir Jeffry Wyattville.

On 20 January 1807 Soane was made clerk of works of Royal Hospital Chelsea, he held the post until his death thirty years later, it paid a salary of £200 per annum. His designs were: built 1810 a new infirmary (destroyed in 1941 during The Blitz), a new stable block and extended his own official residence in 1814; a new bakehouse in 1815; a new gardener’s house 1816, a new guard-house and Secretary’s Office with space for fifty staff 1818; a Smoking Room in 1829 and finally a garden shelter in 1834.

Soane who was a freemason was employed to extend Freemasons’ Hall, London in 1821 by building a new gallery, later in 1826 he prepared various plans for a new hall, but it was only built in 1828–1831, including a council chamber, and smaller room next to it and a staircase leading to a kitchen and scullery in the basement. The building was demolished to make way for the current building.

In October 1791, Soane was appointed Clerk of Works with responsibility for St James’s Palace, Whitehall and The Palace of Westminster. Between 1795 and 1799 Soane was Deputy Surveyor of His Majesty’s Woods and Forest, on a salary of £200 per annum. James Wyatt’s death in 1813 led to Soane together with John Nash and Robert Smirke, being appointed official architect to the Office of Works in 1813, the appointment ended in 1832, at a salary of £500 per annum. As part of this position he was invited to advise the Parliamentary Commissioners on the building of new churches from 1818 onwards. He was required to produce designs for churches to seat 2000 people for £12,000 or less though Soane thought the cost too low, of the three churches he designed for the Commission all were classical in style. The three churches were: St Peter’s Church, Walworth (1823–24) for £18,348; Holy Trinity Church Marylebone (1826–27) for £24,708; St. John’s Bethnal Green (1826–28) for £15,999.

Soane designed several public buildings in London, including: National Debt Redemption Office (1817) demolished 1900; Insolvent Debtors Court (1823) demolished 1861; Privy Council and Board of Trade Offices, Whitehall (1823–24) remodelled by Sir Charles Barry the building now houses the Cabinet Office; in a new departure for Soane he used the Italianate style for The New State Paper Office, (1829–1830) demolished 1868 to make way for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office building.

His commissions in Ireland included: Dublin, Soane was commissioned by the Bank of Ireland to design a new headquarters for the triangular site on Westmoreland Street now occupied by the Westin Hotel. However, when the Irish Parliament was abolished in 1800, the Bank abandoned the project and instead bought the former Parliament Buildings. In 1808 he started work on the design of the Royal Belfast Academical Institution, for which he refused to charge. Building work began on 3 July 1810 and was completed in 1814. The remodelling of the interior has left little of Soane’s work.

Country homes for the landed gentry included: new rooms and remodelling of Wimpole Hall and garden buildings, (1790–94) for his friend Philip Yorke that he met on his Grand Tour; remodelling of Baronscourt, County Tyrone, Ireland (1791);Tyringham Hall (1792–1820); the remodelling of Aynhoe Park (1798); In 1804 Soane remodelled Ramsey Abbey none of his work there now survives; the remodelling of the south front of Port Eliot and new interiors (1804–06); the Gothic Library at Stowe House (1805–06); Moggerhanger House (1791–1809); for Marden Hill, Hertfordshire, Soane designed a new porch and entrance hall (1818); remodelling of Wotton House after damage by fire (1820); a terrace of six houses above shops in Regent Street London, (1820–21) demolished; Pell Wall Hall (1822). Among Soane’s most notable works are the dining rooms of both numbers 10 and 11 Downing Street (1824–26) for the Prime Minister and Chancellor of Britain.

In 1811, Soane was appointed as architect for Dulwich Picture Gallery, the first purpose-built public art gallery in Britain, to house the Dulwich collection, which had been held by art dealers Sir Francis Bourgeois and his partner Noel Desenfans. Bourgeois’s will stipulated that the Gallery should be designed by his friend John Soane to house the collection. Uniquely the building also incorporates a mausoleum containing the bodies of Francis Bourgeois, and Mr and Mrs Desenfans. The Dulwich Picture Gallery was completed in 1817. The five main galleries are lit by elongated roof lanterns, thus freeing the walls from reflections and maximising the wall area for paintings, and it has influenced the design of art galleries ever since.

As an official architect of the Office of Works Soane was asked to design the New Law Courts at Westminster Hall, he began surveying the building on 12 July 1820. Soane was to extend the law courts along the west front of Westminster Hall providing accommodation for five courts: The Court of Exchequer, Chancery, Equity, King’s Bench and Common Pleas. The foundations were laid in October 1822 and the shell of the building completed by February 1824. Then Henry Bankes launched an attack on the design of the building, as a consequence Soane had to demolish the facade and set the building lines back several feet and redesign the building in a gothic style instead of the original classical design, Soane rarely designed gothic buildings. The building opened on 21 January 1825, and remained in use until the Royal Courts of Justice opened in 1882, after this the building was demolished in 1883 and the site left as lawn. All the court rooms displayed Soane’s typically complex lighting arrangements, being top lit by roof lanterns often concealed from direct view.

In 1822 as an official architect of the Office of Works, Soane was asked to make alteration to the House of Lords at the Palace of Westminster. He added a curving gothic arcade with an entrance leading to a coutyard, a new Royal Gallery, main staircase and Ante-Room, all the interiors were in a grand neo-classical style, completed by January 1824. Later four new committee rooms, a new library for the House of Lords and for the House of Commons alterations to the Speaker of the House of Commons house, and new library, committee rooms, clerks’ rooms and stores, all would be destroyed in the fire of 1834.

One of Soane’s largest designs was for a new Royal Palace in London, a series of designs were produced c.1820-1830. The design was unusual in that the building was triangular, there were grand porticoes at each corner and in the middle of each side of the building, the centre of the building consisted of a low dome, with ranges of rooms leading to the entrances in each side of the building, creating three internal courtyards. As far as is known it is not related to an official commission and was merely a design exercise by Soane, indeed the various drawings he produced date over several years, he first produced a design for a Royal Palace while in Rome in 1779.

The Royal Academy was at the very centre of Soane’s architectural career, in the sixty four years from 1772 to 1836 there were only five years, 1778 and 1788–91 in which he did not exhibit any designs there. Soane had received part of his architectural education at the Academy and it had paid for his Grand Tour. On 2 November 1795 Soane was elected an Associate Royal Academician and on 10 February 1802 Soane was elected a full Royal Academician, his diploma work being a drawing of his design for a new House of Lords. There were only ever a maximum of forty Royal Academicians at any one time. Under the rules of the Academy Soane automatically became for one year a member of the Council of the Academy, this consisted of the President and eight other Academicians.

After Thomas Sandby died in 1798, George Dance, Soane’s old teacher was appointed professor of architecture at the Academy, but during his tenure of the post failed to deliver a single lecture. Naturally this caused dissatisfaction, and Soane began to manoeuver to obtain the post for himself. Eventual Soane succeeded in ousting Dance and became professor on 28 March 1806. Soane did not deliver his first lecture until 27 March 1809 and did not begin to deliver the full series of twelve lectures until January 1810. All went well until he reached his fourth lecture on 29 January 1810, in it he criticised several recent buildings in London, including George Dance’s Royal College of Surgeons of England and his former pupil Robert Smirke’s Covent Garden Theatre. Naturally Royal Academicians Robert Smirke (painter) father of the architect and his friend Joseph Farington led a campaign against Soane, as a consequence the Royal Academy introduced a rule forbidding criticism of a living British artist in any lectures delivered there. Soane attempted to resist what he saw as interference and it was only under threat of dismissal that he finally amended his lecture and recommenced on 12 February 1813 the delivery of the first six lectures. The rift that all this caused between Soane and George Dance would only be healed in 1815 after the death of Mrs Soane.

The twelve lectures, they were treated as two separate courses of six lectures, were all extensively illustrated with over one thousand drawings and building plans in total. The lectures were:

  • Lecture I – traced ‘architecture from its most early periods’ and covered the origin of civil, military and naval architecture.
  • Lecture II – outlined the Classical architecture of the ancient world continuing on from the first lecture.
  • Lecture III – an analysis of the five Classical orders, their application and the use of Caryatids.
  • Lecture IV – use of the classical orders structurally and decoratively and for commemorative monuments.
  • Lecture V – the history of architecture from Constantine the Great and the Decline of the Roman Empire to the rise of Renaissance architecture, followed by a survey of British architecture from Inigo Jones to William Chambers (architect).
  • Lecture VI – covered arches, bridges the theory and symbolism of architectural ornament.
  • Lecture VII – appropriate character in architecture and the correct use of decoration.
  • Lecture VIII – the distribution and planning of rooms and staircases.
  • Lecture IX – the design of windows, doors, pilasters, roofs and chimney-shafts.
  • Lecture X – landscape architecture and garden buildings.
  • Lecture XI – a discussion of the architecture and planning of London contrasting it with Paris.
  • Lecture XII – a discussion of construction methods and standards.

Soane over the course of his career built up an extensive library of 7,783 volumes, this is still housed in the library he designed in his home now museum of 13 Lincoln’s Inn Fields. The library covers a wide range of subjects: Greek and Roman classics, poetry, painting, sculpture, history, music, drama, philosophy, grammars, topographical works, encyclopaedia’s, runs of journals and contemporary novels.

Naturally architectural books account for a large part of the library, and was very important when he came to write his lectures for the Royal Academy. The main architectural books include: several editions of Vitruvius’s De architectura, including Latin, English, French and Italian editions, including the commentary on the work by Daniele Barbaro. Julien-David Le Roy’s Les Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce, Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums, in its French translation bought in 1806 just before Soane was appointed to the professorship. Marc-Antoine Laugier’s Essai sur l’Architecture. Jacques-François Blondel’s nine volumes of Cours d’architecture ou traité de la décoration, distribution et constructions des bâtiments contenant les leçons données en 1750, et les années suivantes. Six works by Quatremère de Quincy, including the Dictionnaire historique de l’Architecture. These are some of the major thinkers who influenced Soane and his own writings.

Soane also acquired several illuminated manuscripts: a 13th-century English Vulgate Bible; a 15th-century Flemish copy of Josephus’s works; four book of hours, two Flemish of the 15th century and early 16th century, Dutch of the late 15th century and French 15th century; a French missal dated 1482; Le Livre des Cordonniers de Caen, French 15th century; Marino Grimani’s commentary of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans the work of Giulio Clovio.

Other manuscripts include: Francesco di Giorgio’s mid-16th century Treatise of Architecture; Nicholas Stone’s two account books covering 1631–42, and his son also Nicholas Stone Sketch Book (France & Italy) 1648 and Henry Stone’s sketch book 1638; Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne’s The Second Epistle; James Gibbs’s A few short cursory remarks on buildings in Rome; Joshua Reynolds’s two sketches books from Rome; Torquato Tasso’s early manuscript of Gerusalemme Liberata.

Incunable in the library include: Cristoforo Landino’s Commentario sopra la Comedia di Dante, 1481; S. Brant Stultifera Navis 1488; Boethius’s De Philosophico Consolatu, 1501. Other early printed books include: J.W. von Cube, Ortus Saniatis 1517 and Portiforium seu Breviarum ad Sarisbursis ecclesiae usum 1555; William Shakespeare’s Comedies, Histories and Tragedies 1623 First Folio.

In 1792, Soane bought a house at 12 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London. Later purchasing 13 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, he used the house as his home and library, but also entertained potential clients in the drawing room. The houses along with 14 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, is now Sir John Soane’s Museum and is open to the public for free.

Between 1794 and 1824 Soane remodelled and extended the house into two neighbouring properties — partly to experiment with architectural ideas, and partly to house his growing collection of antiquities and architectural salvage. As his practice prospered, Soane was able to collect objects worthy of the British Museum, including the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I.

After the Seti sarcophagus arrived at his house in March 1825, Soane held a three-day party, to which 890 people were invited, the basement where the sarcophagus was housed was lit by over one hundred lamps and candelabra, refreshments were laid on and the exterior of the house was hung with lamps. Among the guests were the then Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool and his wife, Robert Peel, Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, J.M.W. Turner, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Charles Long, 1st Baron Farnborough, Benjamin Haydon as well as many foreign dignitaries.

He also bought Greek and Roman bronzes, cinerary urns, fragments of Roman mosaics, Greek vases many displayed above the bookcases in the library, Greek and Roman busts, heads from statues and fragments of sculpture and architectural decoration, examples of Roman glass. Medieval objects include: architectural fragments, tiles and stained glass. Soane acquired 18th century Chinese ceramics as well as Peruvian pottery. Soane also purchased four Indian ivory chairs and a table.

Francis Leggatt Chantrey carved a white marble bust of Soane. Soane also acquired Sir Richard Westmacott’s plaster model for Nymph unclasping her Zone and the plaster model of John Flaxman’s memorial sculpture of William Pitt the Younger.

Of ancient sculptures a miniature copy of the famous sculpture of Diana of Ephesus is one of the most important in the collection. After the death of his teacher Henry Holland, Soane bought part of his collection of ancient marble fragments of architectural decoration. He also acquired Plastercasts of famous antique sculptures include.

Soane’s paintings include: four works by Canaletto and paintings by Hogarth: the eight canvases of the A Rake’s Progress the four canvases of the Humours of an Election. Soane acquired three works by his friend J. M. W. Turner. Thomas Lawrence painted a three quarter length portrait of Soane, that hangs over the Dining Room fireplace. Soane acquired 15 drawings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Soane’s friend John Flaxman, sketched Soane’s wife, this is framed and displayed in the museum.

There are over 30,000 architectural drawings in the collection. Of Soane’s drawings of his own designs (many are by his assistants and pupils, most notably Joseph Gandy), there are 601 covering the Bank of England, 6,266 of his other works and 1,080 prepared for the Royal Academy lectures. There are an additional 423 Soane drawings in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Other architects with drawings in the collection are by Christopher Wren, there are 8,856 drawings by Robert Adam and James Adam, John Thorpes book of architecture, George Dance the Elder’s 293 and George Dance the younger’s 1,303, housed in a specially designed cabinet, Sir William Chambers, James Playfair, Matthew Brettingham, Thomas Sandby, etc. There are a large number of Italian drawings. Of the 252 architectural models in the collection 118 are of Soane’s own buildings.

In 1833, he obtained an Act of Parliament, sponsored by Joseph Hume to bequeath the house and collection to the British Nation to be made into a museum of architecture, now the Sir John Soane’s Museum. George Soane, realising that if the museum was set up he would lose his inheritance, persuaded William Cobbett to try and stop the bill, but failed.

Awards, official posts and recognition:

  • On 10 December 1772 Soane was awarded the Royal Academy’s Silver Medal.
  • On 10 December 1776 Soane was awarded the Royal Academy’s Gold Medal.
  • On 10 December 1777 Soane was awarded the Royal Academy’s travelling scholarship.
  • On 16 October 1788 Soane was made architect to the Bank of England
  • On 2 November 1795 Soane was elected an Associate Royal Academician.
  • On 21 May 1796 Soane was elected to the Society of Antiquaries of London.
  • In May 1800 Soane was one of the 280 proprietors of the Royal Institution.
  • On 10 February 1802 Soane was elected an Royal Academician of the Royal Academy.
  • On 28 March 1806, Soane was made Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy, a post which he held until his death.
  • In 1810 Soane was made a Justice of the Peace for the county of Middlesex.
  • On 15 November 1821 Soane was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
  • On 21 September 1831, Soane received a knighthood from King William IV.
  • On 20 June 1835 Soane was presented by Sir Jeffry Wyattville with a Gold Medal, from the ‘Architects of England’, modelled by Francis Leggatt Chantrey it showed the likeness of Soane on one side and the north-west corner of the Bank of England on the other.

On 24 June 1781 Soane leased rooms on the first floor of 53 Margaret Street, Westminster, for £40 per annum. It was here he would live for the first few years of his married life and where all his children would be born. In July 1783 he bought a grey mare that he stabled nearby. On 10 January 1784 Soane took a Miss Elizabeth Smith to the theatre, then on 7 February she took tea with Soane and friends, and they began attending plays and concerts together regularly. She was the niece and ward of a London builder George Wyatt, whom Soane would have known as he rebuilt Newgate Prison. They married on 21 August 1784 at Christ Church, Southwark. He always called his wife Eliza, and she would become his confidante.

Their first child John was born on 29 April 1786. His second son George was born just before Christmas 1787 but the boy died just six months later. The third son also called George was born on 28 September 1789, and their final son Henry was born on 10 October 1790 but died the following year from Pertussis.

On the death of George Wyatt in February 1790 the Soanes inherited money and property, including a house in Albion Place, Southwark, where Soane moved his office.

On 30 June 1792 Soane purchased 12 Lincoln’s Inn Fields for £2100. He demolished the existing house and rebuilt it to his own design, the Soanes moving in on 18 January 1794. By 1800 Soane was rich enough to purchase Pitzhanger Manor Ealing as a country retreat, for £4,500 on 5 September 1800. Apart from a wing designed by George Dance, Soane demolished the house and rebuilt it to his own design and was occupied by 1804, Soane used the manor to entertain friends and used to go fishing in the local streams.

In June 1808 Soane purchased 13 Lincoln’s Inn Fields for £4,200, initially renting the house to its former owner and extending his office over the garden to the rear. On 17 July 1812 number 13 was demolished, the house was rebuilt and the Soanes moved in during October 1813. In 1823 Soane purchased 14 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, he demolished the house, building the Picture Room attached to no. 13 over the site of the stables, in March 1825 he rebuilt the house to match externally no. 12.

Soane hoped that one or both of his sons would also become architects. His purchase of Pizhanger Manor was partially an inducement to this end. But both sons became increasingly wayward in their attitude and behaviour, showing not the slightest interest in architecture. John was lazy and suffered from ill health, whereas George had an uncontrolable temper. As a consequence Soane decided to sell Pitzhanger in July 1810.

John was sent to Margate in 1811 to try and help his illness and it was here that he became involved with a woman called Maria Preston. Soane agreed reluctantly to John’s and Maria’s marriage on 6 June, on the agreement that her father would produce a dowry of £2000, which failed to happen. Meanwhile George who had been studying law at Cambridge University developed a friendship with James Boaden. George developed a relationship with Boaden’s daughter Agnes and one month after his brother’s wedding married her on 5 July. He wrote to his mother ‘I have married Agnes to spite you and father’.

George Soane tried to extort money from his father in March 1814 by demanding £350 per annum, and claiming he would otherwise be forced to become an actor. Agnes gave birth to twins in September, one child died shortly after. By November her husband George Soane had been imprisoned for debt and fraud. In January 1815 Eliza paid her son’s debts and repaid the person he had defrauded to ensure his release from prison.

In 1815 an article was published in the Champion for 10 to 24 September entitled The Present Low State of the Arts in England and more particularly of Architecture. In the article Soane was singled out for personal attack, although anonymous it soon emerged that his son George had written the article. On 13 October Mrs Soane wrote ‘Those are George’s doing. He has given me my death blow. I shall never be able to hold up my head again’. Soane’s wife died on 22 November 1815, she had been suffering from ill health for some time. His wife’s body was interred on 1 December in the churchyard of St Pancras Old Church. He wrote in his diary for that day ‘The burial of all that is dear to me in this world, and all I wished to live for!’. George and Agnes had another child, this time a son born in 1815, Frederick.

In 1816 Soane designed the tomb above the vault his wife was buried in it is built from Carrara marble and Portland Stone. The tomb avoids any Christian symbolism, the roof has a pine cone finial the symbol in Ancient Egypt for regeneration, below which is carved a serpent swallowing its own tail, symbol of eternity, there are also carvings of boys holding extinguished torches symbols of death.

The inscription is:
Sacred To The Memory of Elizabeth, The Wife of John Soane, Architect She Died the 22nd November, 1815. With Distinguished Talents She United an Amiable and Affectionate Heart. Her Piety was Unaffected, Her Integrity Undeviating, Her Manners Displayed Alike Decision and Energy, Kindness and Suavity. These, the Peculiar Characteristics of Her Mind, Remained Untainted by an Extensive Intercourse With The World.

The design of the tomb was a direct influence on Giles Gilbert Scott’s design for the red telephone box. Soane’s elder son John died on 21 October 1823, and was also buried in the vault. Maria Soane’s daughter-in-law was now a widow with young children including a son also called John in need of support. So Soane set up a trust fund of £10,000 to support the family.

Soane found out in 1824 that his son George was living in a Ménage à trois with his wife and her sister by whom he had a child called George Manfred. Soane’s grandson Fred and his mother were both subjected to domestic violence by George Soane, including beatings and in Agnes’s case being dragged by her hair from a room. Soane refused to help them while they remained living with his son, who was in debt. However by February 1834 Soane relented and was paying Agnes £200 per annum, also paying for Fred’s education. In the hope that Fred would become an architect, after he left school, Soane placed him with architect John Tarring. In January 1835 Tarring asked Soane to remove Fred, who was staying out late often in the company of a Captain Westwood, a known homosexual.

On Monday 6 August 1810 Soane and his wife set off on a thirteen-day tour of England and Wales. They normally rose at five or six in the morning and would visit many towns and monuments a day. Starting in Oxford they visited New College, Oxford, Merton College, Oxford, Blenheim Palace and Woodstock, Oxfordshire, where they stayed the night. Next day they went to Stratford-upon-Avon and Shakespeare’s Birthplace, Church of the Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon to visit Shakespeare’s tomb, Kenilworth Castle, Warwick Castle, Whitley Abbey, Coventry and on to Lichfield. They next travelled to Liverpool, staying for four nights at the Liverpool Arms near Liverpool Town Hall. They attended a performance of Othello with George Frederick Cooke as Iago. Among the people they visited was Soane’s former assistant Joseph Gandy, then living in the city. Their son John was also living and studying with Gandy, in a failed attempt to become an architect. They visited John Foster (architect). Leaving Liverpool on Saturday 11, they crossed the River Mersey to the Wirral Peninsula and on to Chester where they saw the Rows and greatly admired Thomas Harrison’s work at Chester Castle. From Chester they visited Wrexham, Ellesmere, Shropshire. On Sunday they moved on to Shrewsbury, visiting architect George Steuart’s St Chad’s Church, Shrewsbury. Monday they headed for Coalbrookdale, with The Iron Bridge then on to Buildwas Abbey. The journey continued down the River Severn to Bridgnorth then Ludlow and Ludlow Castle, Leominster. Wednesday 15 they were in Hereford, where they visited Hereford Cathedral and the Gaol designed by his friend John Nash. Continuing on they reached Ross-on-Wye. from where they journeyed down the River Wye stopping at Tintern Abbey, glimpsed Piercefield House one of Soane’s designs and arriving in Chepstow. Before moving on to Gloucester Cathedral and Gloucester where they spent the night. The next day they headed for Cheltenham, returning through the Cotswolds. Where they visited Northleach and Witney where they spent their last night on the tour. Next day they travelled via High Wycombe and Uxbridge, on to their home at Pitzhanger Manor in Ealing for a days angling. Returning at nine o’clock at night on Monday 17 to their home in Lincoln’s Inn Fields.

Soane was initiated on 1 December 1813 as a freemason, Soane did not like organised religion and was a Deist. Soane was very much influenced by the ideas that belonged to the enlightenment, and had read Voltaire’s & Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s works.

Soane was taken ill on 27 December 1813 and was incapacitated until 28 March 1814, when he underwent an operation by Astley Cooper on his bladder to remove a fistula.

For the first time since his Grand Tour Soane decided to travel abroad, he set off on 15 August 1815 for Paris returning on 5 September. In the summer of 1816 Soane’s and his late wife’s mutual friend Barbara Hofland, persuaded him to take a holiday in Harrogate, there they visited Knaresborough, Plompton and its rocks, Ripon, Newby Hall, Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal Park, Castle Howard, Harewood House and Masham.

Soane visited Paris again in 1819, setting off on 21 August, he travelled via Dunkirk, Abbeville and Beauvais arriving in Paris. He stayed at 10 rue Vivienne, over the following days he visited, the Pont de Neuilly, Les Invalides, Palais du Roi de Rome, Père Lachaise Cemetery, Étienne-Louis Boullée’s chapel at Sainte-Roche, the Arc de Triomphe, Vincennes and the Château de Vincennes, Sèvres, Saint-Cloud, Arcueil with its ancient Roman aqueduct, Basilica of St Denis, Chamber of Deputies of France, Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Musée du Louvre, Luxembourg Palace, Palace of Versailles with the Grand Trianon and Petit Trianon with its Hameau de la reine, Halle aux blés, Halle aux vins, Jardin des Plantes, Bassin de la Villette with its Rotonde de la Villette by Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Tuileries Palace, Château de Malmaison, he failed to gain admission to the Château de Bagatelle, he travelled home via Amiens and Amiens Cathedral, Abbeville, stopping of to visit Canterbury and Canterbury Cathedral.
On 24 December 1825 Soane underwent an operation to have a cataract removed from his eye.

In 1835 Soane had this to say:
Devoted to Architecture from my childhood, I have through my life pursued it with the enthusiasm of a passion.

Soane included many members of the Royal Academy as friends including J. M. W. Turner, who was professor of drawing at the Royal Academy, with whom he spent the Christmas after his wife’s death as well as owning three works by the artist; John Flaxman was an old friend, he was professor of sculpture at the Royal Academy and Soane also acquired several plastercasts of Flaxman’s work for his museum; Thomas Banks again Soane owned sculptures by him; Thomas Lawrence who painted Soane’s portrait; despite falling out with his old master, George Dance the Younger, they were firm friends after his death Soane purchased Dance’s drawings; after the death of his other teacher Henry Holland, Soane tried to buy his drawings and papers, but found they had been destroyed, but did purchase some of his antique sculptures; despite being rivals Soane got on with fellow architect John Nash, they often dined together. Soane called on William Thomas Beckford both in London and when he was taking the waters in Bath, Somerset in 1829. Soane had other friends including: James Perry, Thomas Leverton Donaldson, Barbara Hofland. As well as several lifelong friendships he formed while on the Grand Tour, including Rowland Burdon.

Soane died, a widower and estranged from his surviving son George, who he felt had betrayed him, contributing to his own mother’s death. Having caught a chill, Soane died in 13 Lincoln’s Inn Field at half past three on Friday 20 January 1837. His obituary appeared in the Monday 23 January edition of The Times. Following a private funeral service, at his own request it was ‘plain without ostentation or parade’, he was buried in the same vault as his wife and elder son.

Within days of his father’s death George Soane, left an annuity of £52 per annum, challenged Soane’s will. Soane stated that he was left so little because ‘his general misconduct and constant opposition to my wishes evinced in the general tenor of his life’. To his daughter-in-law Agnes he left £40 per annum ‘not to be subject to the debts or control of her said husband’. The grounds for overthrowing the will were that his father was insane. On 1 August 1837 the judge at the Prerogative court rejected the challenge. George appealed but on 26 November dropped his suit.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

John Nash
18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835


John Nash

Nash was born during 1752 in Lambeth, London, the son of a Welsh millwright also called John. From 1766 or 67, John Nash trained with the architect Sir Robert Taylor; the apprenticeship was completed in 1775 or 1776.

In 1775 Nash married his first wife Jane Elizabeth Kerr daughter of a surgeon. Initially he seems to have pursued a career as a surveyor, builder and carpenter. This gave him an income of around £300 a year. The couple set up home at Royal Row, Lambeth. He established his own architectural practice in 1777 as well as being in partnership with a timber merchant, Richard Heaviside. The couple had two children.

In 1781 Nash instigated action against his wife Jane for separation on grounds of adultery. The case was tried at Hereford in 1782, Charles Charles, Jane’s lover was found guilty but was unable to pay the damages of £76 and subsequently died in prison. The divorce was final in 1787.

Nash’s career was initially unsuccessful and short-lived. After inheriting £1000 in 1778 from his uncle Thomas, he invested the money in building his first known independent works, 15-17 Bloomsbury Square and 66-71 Great Russell Street in Bloomsbury. But the property failed to let and he was declared bankrupt in 1783. His debts were £5000, including £2000 he had been lent by Robert Adam and his brothers.

Nash left London in 1784 to live in Carmarthen, where his mother had retired to. In 1785 he and a local man Samuel Simon Saxon re-roofed the town’s church for 600 Guineas. Nash and Saxon seem to have worked as building contractors and suppliers of building materials. Nash’s London buildings had been standard Georgian terrace houses, and it was in Wales that he matured as an architect.

His first major work in the area was the first of three prisons he would design, Carmarthen, this prison was planned by the penal reformer John Howard and Nash developed this into the finished building. He went on to design the prisons at Cardigan and Hereford. It was at Hereford that Nash met Richard Payne Knight, whose theories on the picturesque as applies to architecture and landscape would influence Nash. The commission for Hereford Gaol came after the death of William Blackburn, who was to have designed the building, Nash’s design was accepted after James Wyatt approved of the design.

By 1789 St David’s Cathedral was suffering from structural problems, the west front was leaning forward by one foot. Nash was called in to survey the structure and develop a plan to save the building, his solution completed in 1791 was to demolish the upper part of the facade and rebuild it with two large but inelegant flying buttresses.

In 1790 Nash met Uvedale Price, whose theories of the Picturesque would have a major future influence on Nash’s town planning. In the short term Price would commission Nash to design Castle House Aberystwyth, its plan took the form of a right angled triangle, with an octagonal tower at each corner, sited on the very edge of the sea, this marked a new and more imaginative approach to design in Nash’s work.

One of Nash’s most important developments were a series of medium sized country houses that he designed in Wales, these developed the villa designs of his teacher Sir Robert Taylor. Most of these villas consist of a roughly square plan with a small entrance hall with a staircase offset in the middle to one side, around which are placed the main rooms, there is then a less prominent Servants’ quarters in a wing attached to one side of the villa. The buildings are usually only two floors in height, the elevations of the main block are usually symmetrical. One of the finest of these villas is Llanerchaeron, at least a dozen villas were designed throughout south Wales.

Nash met Humphry Repton at Stoke Edith in 1792 and formed a successful partnership with the landscape garden designer. One of their early commissions was at Corsham Court. The pair would collaborate to carefully place the Nash-designed building in grounds designed by Repton. The partnership ended in 1800 under recriminations.

As Nash developed his architectural practice it became necessary to employ draughtsmen, the first in the early 1790s was Augustus Charles Pugin, then a bit later in 1795 John Adey Repton son of Humphry.

In 1796, Nash spent most of his time working in London, this was a prelude to his return to the capital in 1797.

In June 1797, he moved into 28 Dover Street, a building of his own design. He built a larger house next door at 29, into which he moved the following year. Nash married 25-year-old Mary Ann Bradley in 1798 at St George’s, Hanover Square. He purchased a plot of land of 30 acres at East Cowes on which he erected East Cowes Castle as his residence. It was the first of a series of picturesque Gothic castles that he would design.

Nash’s final home in London was No.14 Regent Street that he designed and built 1819–23, No. 16 was built at the same time the home of Nash’s cousin John Edwards, a lawyer who handled all of Nash’s legal affairs. Located in Lower Regent Street, near Waterloo Place, both houses formed a single design around an open courtyard. Nash’s drawing office was on the ground floor, on the first floor was the finest room in the house, the 70-foot-long picture and sculpture gallery; it linked the drawing room at the front of the building with the dining room at the rear. The house was sold in 1834 and the gallery interior moved to East Cowes Castle.

The finest of the dozen country houses that Nash designed as picturesque castles include the relatively small Luscombe Castle Devon, Ravensworth Castle, Caerhays Castle, Shanbally Castle. These buildings all represented Nash’s continuing development of an asymmetrical and picturesque architectural style, that had begun during his years in Wales, at both Castle House Aberystwyth and his alterations to Hafod Uchtryd.

This process would be extended by Nash in planning groups of buildings, the first example being Blaise Hamlet; there a group of nine asymmetrical cottages was laid out around a village green. Nash developed the asymmetry of his castles in his Italianate villas; his first such exercise was Cronkhill, others included Sandridge Park and Southborough Place.

He advised on work to the buildings of Jesus College, Oxford in 1815, for which he required no fee but asked that the college should commission a portrait of him from Sir Thomas Lawrence to hang in the college hall.
Nash was a dedicated Whig and was a friend of Charles James Fox through whom Nash probably came to the attention of the Prince Regent (later King George IV). In 1806 Nash was appointed architect to the Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases. From 1810 Nash would take very few private commissions and for the rest of his career he would largely work for the Prince.

His first major commissions from the Prince were Regent Street and the development of an area then known as Marylebone Park. With the Regent’s backing, Nash created a master plan for the area, put into effect from 1818 onwards, which stretched from St James’s northwards and included Regent Street, Regent’s Park and its neighbouring streets, terraces and crescents of elegant town houses and villas.

Nash did not design all the buildings himself; in some instances, these were left in the hands of other architects such as James Pennethorne and the young Decimus Burton. Nash went on to re-landscape St. James’s Park reshaping the formal canal into the present lake, and giving the park its present form.

A characteristic of Nash’s plan for Regent Street was that it followed an irregular path linking Portland Place to the north with Carlton House to the south. At the northern end of Portland Place Nash designed Park Crescent, this opens into Nash’s Park Square and this only has terraces on the east and west, the north opens into Regent’s Park.

The terraces that Nash designed around Regent’s park though conforming to the earlier form of appearing as a single building, as developed by John Wood, the Elder, are unlike earlier examples set in gardens and are not orthoganal in their placing to each other. This was part of Nash’s development of planning, this found it is most extreme example when he set out Park Village East and Park Village West to the north-east of Regent’s Park. Here a mixture of detached villas, semi-detached houses, both symmetrical and assymmetrical in their design are set out in private gardens railed off from the street, the roads loop and the buildings are both classical and gothic in style. No two buildings were the same, and or even in line with their neighbours. The park Villages can be seen as the prototype for the Victorian suburbs.

Nash was employed by the Prince from 1815 to develop his Marine Pavilion in Brighton, originally designed by Henry Holland. By 1822 Nash had finished his work on the Marine Pavilion, which was now transformed into the Royal Pavilion. The exterior was based on Mughal architecture, giving the building its exotic form, the Chinoiserie style interiors are largely the work of Frederick Crace.

Nash was also a director of the Regent’s Canal Company set up in 1812 to provide a canal link from west London to the River Thames in the east. Nash’s masterplan provided for the canal to run around the northern edge of Regent’s Park. As with other projects, he left its execution to one of his assistants, in this case James Morgan. The first phase of the Regent’s Canal was completed in 1816 and finally completed in 1820.

Together with Robert Smirke and Sir John Soane, he became an official architect to the Office of Works in 1813, at a salary of £500 per annum, following the death in September of that year of James Wyatt, this marked the high point in his professional life. As part of Nash’s new position he was invited to advise the Parliamentary Commissioners on the building of new churches from 1818 onwards. Nash produced ten church designs, each estimated to cost around £10,000 with seating for 2000 people, the style of the buildings were both classical and gothic. In the end Nash only built two churches for the Commission, the classical All Souls Church, Langham Place terminating the northern end of Regent Street, and the gothic St. Mary’s Haggerston.

Nash was involved in the design of two of London’s theatres, both in Haymarket. The King’s Opera House where he and George Repton remodelled the theatre, with arcades and shops around three sides of the building, the fourth being the still surviving Royal Opera Arcade.

The other theatre was the Theatre Royal Haymarket, with its fine hexastyle Corinthian order portico, which still survives, facing down Charles II Street to St. James’s Square.

Further London commissions for Nash followed, including the remodelling of Buckingham House to create Buckingham Palace and for the Royal Mews and Marble Arch. The arch was originally designed as a triumphal arch to stand at the entrance to Buckingham Palace. It was moved when the east wing of the palace designed by Edward Blore was built, at the request of Queen Victoria whose growing family required additional domestic space. Marble Arch became the entrance to Hyde Park and The Great Exhibition.

Nash’s career effectively ended with the death of George IV in 1830. The King’s notorious extravagance had generated much resentment and Nash was now without a protector. The Treasury started to look closely at the cost of Buckingham Palace. Nash’s original estimate of the building’s cost had been £252,690, but this had risen to £496,169. In 1829 the actual cost was £613,269 and the building was still unfinished. This controversy ensured that Nash would not receive any more official commissions nor would he be awarded the Knighthood that other contemporary architects received. Nash retired to the Isle of Wight to his home, East Cowes Castle.

Nash died at his home on 13 May 1835. His funeral took place at St. James’s Church, East Cowes on 20 May, where he was buried in the churchyard.

His widow acted to clear Nash’s debts (some £15,000). The Castle itself was sold for a reported figure of £20,000 to Richard Boyle, 4th Earl of Shannon within the year.

Nash’s widow retired to a property Nash had bequeathed to her in Hampstead where she lived until her death in 1851; she was buried with her husband on the Isle of Wight.

  • Park Crescent, London (1806, 1819–21)
  • Carlton House, alterations, demolished
  • Southborough House, 14 Ashcombe Avenue, Southborough, Surbiton (1808)
  • Southborough Lodge, 16 Ashcombe Avenue, Southborough, Surbiton (1808)
  • 18 Ashcombe Avenue, Southborough, Surbiton (1808) Southborough House’s summer house
  • Regent Street (1809–1826) rebuilt
  • Regent’s Park (1809–32)
  • Regent’s Canal (1811–1820)
  • Royal Lodge (1811–20) subsequently remodelled by Sir Jeffry Wyattville
  • Carlton House, London remodelled several interiors, (1812–14)
  • Trafalgar Square (1813–30) completely redesigned by Sir Charles Barry
  • The Rotunda, Woolwich (1814) & (1820)
  • St. James’s Park (1814–27)
  • The King’s Opera House, Haymarket (1816–18)
  • Waterloo Place (1816) rebuilt
  • The County Fire Office (1819) rebuilt
  • Piccadilly Circus (1820) rebuilt
  • Suffolk Place, Haymarket (1820)
  • Haymarket Theatre (1820–21)
  • 14-16 Regent Street (Nash’s own house) (1820–21)
  • York Gate (1821)
  • the Church of All Souls, Langham Place (1822–25)
  • Hanover Terrace (1822)
  • York Terrace (1822)
  • Royal Mews (1822–24)
  • Sussex Place (1822–23)
  • Albany Terrace, London (1823)
  • Park Square, London (1823–24)
  • Park Village East & West (1823–34)
  • Cambridge Terrace (1824)
  • landscaped King’s Road (1824)
  • Ulster Terrace (1824)
  • Buckingham Palace the state rooms and western front (1825–30)
  • Chester Terrace (1825)
  • Clarence House (1825–27)
  • Cumberland Terrace (1826)
  • Former United Services Club Pall Mall now Institute of Directors(1826–28)
  • Gloucester Terrace (1827)
  • Carlton House Terrace (1827–1833)
  • Marble Arch (1828)
  • 430-449 Strand (1830)

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Holland
20 July 1745–17 June 1806


Henry Holland

Holland was an architect to the English nobility. Born in Fulham, London, his father also Henry ran a building firm and he built several of Capability Brown’s buildings, although Henry would have learnt a lot from his father about the practicalities of construction it was under Brown that he would learn about architectural design, they formed a partnership in 1771. He married Brown’s daughter Bridget on the 11th February 1773 at St George’s, Hanover Square. In 1772 Sir John Soane joined Holland’s practice in order to further his education, Soane left in 1778 to study in Rome. Holland paid a visit to Paris in 1787 this is thought to have been in connection with his design of the interiors at Carlton House, from this moment on his interior work owed less to the Adam style and more to contemporary French taste.

Holland was a founder member in 1791 of the Architects’ Club, which included Thomas Hardwick as a signtory. In the 1790s he translated into English A.M. Cointereaux’s Traite sur la construction des Manufactures, et des Maisons de Champagne. Holland was feeling unwell in the early summer of 1806, on the 13th June he had a seizure and his son Lancelot made this entry in his diary on the 17th June, ‘My poor father breathed his last about 7 o’clock in the morning. He had got out of bed shortly before and inquired what the hour was. Being told he said is was too early to rise and got into bed again. He immediately fell into a fit. I was sent for, and a minute after I came to his bedside he breathed his last.’. He was buried at All Saints Church, Fulham, in a simple tomb, a few yards from the house in which he had been born. Bridget Holland his wife lived for another 17 years and was the main beneficiary of her husband’s will.

Of his sons the elder Henry Jr (1775-1855). remained a bachelor. The younger son Colonel Lancelot (1781-1859), married Charlotte Mary Peters (1788-1876) and they had fifteen children. Of Holland’s five daughters, two married two brothers, Bridget (1774-1844) to Daniel Craufurd (lost at sea 1810) and Mary Frances Holland (1776-1842) to Major-General Robert Craufurd (1764–1812), commander of the Light Division during the Peninsular War. Bridget later remarried to Sir Robert Wilmot of Chaddesden. The remaining daughters, Harriet (1778-1814), Charlotte (1785-1824) and Caroline (1786-1871) never married.

Holland began his practice by designing Claremont House for Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, with his future father-in-law in 1771 and their partnership lasted until Brown’s death twelve years later. Claremont is of nine by five bays, of white brick with stone dressings. The main feature on the entrance front is the tetrastyle Corinthian pedimented portico. This leads to the entrance hall with red scagliola columns, these are arranged in an oval with the rectangular room. The drawing room has a fine plaster ceiling and marble fireplace with two caryatids. There is a fine staircase.

In 1771 he took a lease from Charles Cadogan, 2nd Baron Cadogan on his Chelsea estate and began the Hans Town (named after an earlier owner Hans Sloane) development on 89 acres (360,000 m²) of open field and marsh. There he laid out parts of Knightsbridge and Chelsea, including Sloane Street and Sloane Square, and Hans Place, Street and Crescent and Cadogan Place. The buildings were typical Georgian, terraced houses, they were three or four floors in height plus an attic and basement and two or three windows wide, of brick, decoration was minimal, occasionally the ground floor was decorated with stucco rustication. These developments quickly became some of the most fashionable areas in greater London. Construction was slow, the start of the American war of independence in 1776 being one of the factors (Lord Cadogan also died that year). Sloane Square was virtually complete by 1780. Apart from a few houses on the east side Sloane Street was not developed before 1790. By 1789 Holland was living in a house designed by himself, called Sloane Place, it was to the north of Hans Place. The house was large 114 feet in length, to the north the octagonal entrance hall had a black and white marble floor the south front had a one storey ionic loggia across the central five bays with an iron balcony above in front of the main bedrooms, the rooms on the ground floor south front were the drawing room, dining room, lobby, library and music room. As the area was developed on ninety-nine year leases Holland’s houses were almost entirely rebuilt from the 1870s onwards. A few houses survive in Hans Place, Nos. 12 and 33-34. Cadogan Square was laid out from 1879 onwards in part over the gardens of Sloane Place.

Another joint work was Benham Park 1774-75 designed for William Craven, 6th Baron Craven, three stories high, nine bays wide, in a plain neoclassical style, of stone, with a tetrastyle Ionic portico, the building was altered in 1914, the pediment on the portico was replaced by a balustrade and the roof lowered and hidden behind a balustrade. The interiors have also been altered. Though the Circular Hall in the centre of the building, with its large niches and fine plasterwork, is probably as designed by Holland, it has an opening in the ceiling rising to the galleried floor above and a glazed dome. The principal staircase is also original.

Brown had been designing the landscape of Trentham hall since 1768, for the owner Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford (he was an Earl at the time), when it was decided to remodel the house, this took from 1775–78, it was enlarged from nine to fifteen bays, the pilasters and other features were in stone, but the walls were of brick covered in stucco to imitate stonework. The building was remodelled and extended by Sir Charles Barry in 1834-40 and largely demolished in 1910.

John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute commissioned Holland and Brown to restore Cardiff Castle (1778–80), Holland’s interiors were swept away when the castle was remodelled and extended by William Burges in the 1860s. The east front of the main apartments retain Holland’s work a rare example of him using Gothic Revival architecture and the neoclassical style Drawing Room being the only significant interior to survive more or less as Holland designed it.

In 1776 Holland designed Brooks’s club in St James’s Street, Westminster. Build of yellow brick and Portland stone in a Palladian style similar to his early country houses. The main suite of rooms on the first floor consisted of the Great Subscription Room, Small Drawing Room and the Card Room, Brook’s was known for its gambling on card games, the Prince of Wales being a member. The interiors are in neoclassical style, the Great Subscription Room having a segmental barrel vault ceiling.

From 1778-81 for Thomas Harley, Holland designed and built Berrington Hall, Herefordshire, one of his purest exercises in the Neoclassical style, the exterior is largely devoid of decoration, the main feature is the tetrastyle Ionic portico. The interior are equally fine, the most impressive being the staircase at the centre of the building, with its glazed dome and the upper floor is surrounded by Scagliola Corinthian columns. The main rooms have fine plaster ceilings and marble chimney pieces, these are the library, dining and drawings rooms. The small boudoir has a shallow apse screened by two Ionic columns of Scagliola imitating Lapis lazuli. Holland also designed the service yard behind the house with the laundry, dairy and stables as well as the entrance lodge to the estate in the form of a Triumphal arch.

In 1788 Holland continued the remodelling of Broadlands in Hampshire for Henry Temple, 2nd Viscount Palmerston started by Brown. The exterior was re-clad in yellow brick and a three bay recessed Ionic portico added on the north front, a tetrastyle Ionic portico was added on the south front, within he added the octagonal domed lobby, also by Holland are the ground floor rooms on the south front library (Wedgwood room), saloon and drawing room, and on the east front the dining room, all in the Adam style.

Holland first major commission for the Prince of Wales, later King George IV, was his celebrated remodelling of Carlton House, London (1783-c.1795), exemplified his dignified neoclassicism, which contrasted with the more lavish style of his great contemporary Robert Adam. Carlton House was his most significant work, built on a slope, the north entrance front on Pall Mall was of two floors, the south front overlooking the gardens and The Mall was of three floors. The large hexastyle Corinthian portico on the north front acted as a porte-cochère, after Carlton was demolished the columns were reused in the construction of the National Gallery by the architect William Wilkins. The principal rooms were on the ground floor as entered on the north front. The various floors were linked by the Grand Staircase, built c.1786, this was one of Holland’s finest designs. Carlton House was demolished in 1827, other significant interiors by Holland were the Great Hall, (1784–89), and the Circular Dining Room (1786–94). After Carlton House was demolished many fittings including chimney-pieces were reused by John Nash in the construction of Buckingham Palace.

Holland is perhaps best remembered for the original Marine Pavilion (known as such from 1788) (1786–87) at Brighton, Sussex, designed for the Prince of Wales. The Prince had taken a lease on a farmhouse in October 1786 in the centre of Brighton, then little more than a village. From 1788 Holland began transforming the building, the east front had two double height bows added, to the north the present saloon was created circular in plan with two apses to north and south, the exterior was of the form of a large bow surrounded by Ionic columns, and to the north of that the farmhouse copied, the west front was quite plain, a tetrastyle, Ionic portico in the centre flanked by two wings forming an open court. Holland proposed further alterations to the pavilion in 1795, but due to the Prince’s financial problems were delayed and it was not until 1801 that any work was carried out, this involved extending the main facade with wings at 45 degrees to north and south containing an eating room and conservatory (these were later replaced by Nash’s Banqueting and Music rooms) and the entrance hall was extended with the portico moved forward, and three new staircases created within. In 1803 Holland produced a design to remodel the Pavilion in Chinese style but this was not executed.

The Prince of Wales brother Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany commissioned Holland to extend Dover House (then called York House), work started in 1788 he designed the facade to Whitehall with its portico and behind it the circular domed vestibule 40 feet in diameter with an inner ring of eight scagliola Doric columns.

In 1785 George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer entrusted Holland with the remodelling of his country house Althorp, the exterior was encased in white Mathematical tiles to hide the unfashionable red brick and he added the four Corinthian pilasters to the entrance front. He also added the corridors to the wings. Several interiors are by Holland, the Library, Billiard Room and the South Drawing Room. He also remodelled the Picture Gallery.

One of the Prince of Wales’s friends was Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford, he commissioned Holland to remodel and extend his country residence Woburn Abbey from 1786, this involved a remodelling the south front, within the south wing Holland remodelled several rooms (1787–90), the Venetian Room, to house twenty four paintings of Venice by Canaletto, the Ante-Library and the Library a tripartite room divided by openings containing two columns of the Corinthian order. Also he created the greenhouse (1789)(later altered by Jeffry Wyattville) attached to the stable block, a grand riding-school (1789) demolished, indoor tennis court, demolished and Chinese style dairy (1789). Within the park he also designed a new entrance archway (1790), farm buildings, cottages and kennels. In 1801 he converted the greenhouse into a sculpture gallery to house the Duke’s collection of Roman sculpture, adding the ‘Temple of Liberty’ at the east end to house busts of Charles James Fox and other prominent Whigs.

Holland went on to design the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, when it was rebuilt (c.1791-94) as Europe’s largest functioning theatre with 3919 seats. The building was 300 feet in length, 155 feet in width and 108 feet tall. The Portland stone exterior was of four floors, rising a floor higher above the stage, the facades were fairly plain, the main embellishments were on the ground floor a single storey Ionic colonnade surrounding the building, there were shops and taverns behind it. The auditorium was approximately semi-circular in plan, with the Pit, there was a row of eight boxes flanking each side of the Pit, two levels of boxes above, then two galleries above them. The stage was 42 feet wide and 34 feet to the top of the scenery. The Theatre Royal burnt down on the night of 24 February 1809. At the Royal Opera House he rebuilt the auditorium in 1792. The new auditorium contained a pit and four horseshoe shaped, straight-sided tiers, the first three were boxes, and the four the two-shilling gallery. The ceiling was painted to resemble the sky. In addition Holland extended the theatre to provide room for the Scene Painters, Scene Room, Green room, Dressing Rooms etc. The theatre burnt down on the 20th September 1808. From 1802 Holland converted York House on Piccadilly into the Albany apartments.

In 1796 Holland started remodelling Southill House, Southill, Bedfordshire, for Samuel Whitbread the work would continue until 1802, the exterior was remodelled with loggias and a portico with Ionic columns and the interiors completed modernised in the latest French Directoire style. The finest interiors are the library, drawing room, dining room, Mrs. Whitbread’s room and the boudoir. In the garden Holland created the north terrace and the temple with four Tuscan columns.

In 1796 Holland received the commission to design the new headquarters for the East India Company, East India House in Leadenhall Street, the city of London. In order to find a suitable design a competition had been held between Holland, John Soane and George Dance. The building was of two stories and fifteen bays in length, the centre five having a portico of six Ionic columns, that only projected by the depth of a column from the facade. The building was demolished in 1861-62.

  • Hale House, Hampshire, alterations (1770)
  • Hill Park, near Westerham, Kent, (c.1770) subsequently altered and renamed Valence
  • Battersea Bridge, the original wooden bridge (1771-2) demolished 1881
  • Claremont House (1771–74)
  • Benham Park (1774–75)
  • Trentham Hall remodelled (1775–80), later remodelled by Sir Charles Barry (1834–49) demolished 1910
  • Cadland, near Southampton (1775–78) demolished 1953
  • Brooks’s club London (1776–78)
  • Cardiff Castle reconstruction in a Gothic style (1777–78)
  • Hans Town, London, including Cadogan Place, Sloane Street & Sloane Square, (1777–1791), few of his buildings survive
  • The Crown Hotel, Stone, Staffordshire (1778)
  • Berrington Hall (1778–81)
  • St. Michael’s Church, Chart Sutton, rebuilt except for the tower (1779) altered in 19th century
  • Nuneham House alterations (1781–82)
  • Grangemouth, he devised the plan for the town, (1781–83)
  • 7 St. James’s Square, London, refronted (1782)
  • Carlton House, London (1783–95) demolished 1827.
  • Spencer House, London, internal alterations (1785–92)
  • Royal Pavilion Brighton, (1786–87) remodelled by John Nash (1815–22)
  • Bedford House, Bloomsbury, remodelled dining room (1787) demolished 1800
  • Knight’s Hill, Norwood, Surrey, (1787) demolished 1810
  • Stanmore Park, Stanmore, Middlesex, (1787) demolished
  • Woburn Abbey, the south front, library, stables, sculpture gallery, Chinese dairy, entrance lodge (1787–1802)
  • Althorp remodelled the exterior and interior (1787–89)
  • 105 Pall Mall, London, remodelled interior (1787) demolished 1838
  • Dover House (was York House), Whitehall, extended the house adding the grand pillared & domed entrance hall and facade & portico on Whitehall (1789–92)
  • House, Allerton Mauleverer for the Duke of York (1788) rebuilt 1848-51
  • Broadlands Ionic Portico on east front, and the major interiors (1788–92)
  • Oakley House, Bedfordshire, (1789–92)
  • 44 Berkeley Square, remodelling of rooms the original architect being William Kent (c.1790)
  • Theatre Royal, Drury Lane designed the 3rd theatre (1791–94) burnt down 1809
  • Covent Garden Theatre, new auditorium (1792) burnt down 1808
  • The Swan Hotel, Bedford c.(1792)
  • Birchmore Farm, Woburn, Bedfordshire (1792)
  • Oatlands House, Weybridge, (1794–1800)
  • The Theatre, Aberdeen, Marischal Street, (1795) demolished
  • Debden Hall, Debden, Epping Forest (1795) demolished 1936.
  • Southill Park Southill, Bedfordshire (1796–1802)
  • Park Place, Henley-on-Thames, (1796) demolished
  • East India House London (1796–1800) demolished 1861-2
  • Dunira, Perthshire, (1798) demolished
  • East India Warehouses, London, Middlesex Street, (1799–1800) demolished
  • Wimbledon House (1800-02) demolished 1949
  • Albany (London) conversion of the former Melbourne House by William Chambers into bachelor apartments (1803–04)
  • Assembly rooms, Glasgow added terminal pavilions (1807) to the building by Robert Adam, demolished 1889
  • Gateway Westport, County Mayo (1807) demolished 1958

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