Posts Tagged ‘Henry Duncan’

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

James Coutts Crawford
20 July 1760 – 10 May 1828

Crawford was born at Dundee on 20 July 1760, the son of James Crawford and his wife Helen, née Coutts. Helen was a cousin of the owners of the large London banking firm Coutts. He initially went to sea aboard merchant ships, making several voyages to trade with the American colonies of Virginia and North and South Carolina, before joining the navy in April 1777.

His first posting was as a midshipman aboard the sloop HMS Vigilant, then serving off the North American coast under the command of Lieutenant John Henry. Vigilant was armed with heavy cannon for supporting shore-based operations during the American War of Independence. Crawford served aboard Vigilant until late in 1777, when Henry was appointed to command the 20-gun HMS Fowey, upon which Crawford moved with his captain to the new ship. He continued as midshipman until one of the ship’s lieutenants was wounded during operations around Boston. Henry then appointed him acting lieutenant on 24 October 1778.

Crawford took part in several important battles during the remainder of the war, commanding a battery of Fowey‘s guns that had been landed to defend Savannah during its siege. The besieging forces were eventually repulsed and for his good service there, Crawford was mentioned in the despatches written by Captain Henry, and the commander of the land forces, General Augustine Prévost. Fowey then moved to support the Siege of Charleston, which ended in the capitulation of the city to the British. Following this success, Captain Henry was again transferred, taking over command of the newly captured HMS Providence, with orders to take her back to Britain carrying despatches. Crawford again accompanied Henry, still with the rank of acting-lieutenant.

Providence was placed out of commission shortly after her arrival in Britain, and Crawford reverted to his former rank of midshipman. He spent two months serving aboard the 100-gun HMS Britannia, the flagship of Vice-Admiral George Darby, until April 1781 when Darby gave him command of an armed vessel, the 5-gun Repulse. Repulse had been fitted with Spanish-made 26 pounders, and was based at Gibraltar during the great siege. The siege was intensified about this time, with the Spanish making determined efforts to oust the British. On 7 August 1781 he played an important role in the defence of the brig-rigged HMS Helena, which had been becalmed in the entrance of the Bay of Gibraltar. The Spanish sent 14 gunboats from Algeciras to attack her, against which the senior British officer, Roger Curtis, dispatched Crawford’s Repulse, and another armed vessel, the Vanguard, to defend her. Despite the superior Spanish numbers, the three British vessels were able to fight off the gunboats and Helena was towed into harbour. After thirteen months commanding Repulse, often closely engaged with Spanish gunboats, Crawford was appointed acting first lieutenant of the 32-gun HMS Brilliant.

All the previous assaults having failed to capture Gibraltar, a Franco-Spanish forced launched the biggest assault yet on the fortifications, on 13 September 1782. Anticipating the assault, and the danger to shipping, the British scuttled Brilliant, and Crawford went ashore to serve with the naval brigade encamped at Europa Point under Curtis. He served as Curtis’s brigade major during the assault, which was eventually repulsed. With the attack decisively defeated, the sunken Brilliant was re-floated within a few days and Crawford resumed his post aboard her, serving under Curtis. He remained her until October 1782, when he was moved to the recently captured Spanish ship of the line San Miguel, which had run aground off Gibraltar and forced to surrender. The Spanish made several attempts to recapture or destroy her, sending flotillas against her on 12 November and 18 December. Both attempts failed, though several days later the San Miguel was blown from her anchorage and had to be run aground. She stayed in British hands for the remainder of the war. San Miguel was eventually sailed to Britain under the command of Sir Charles Knowles, and Crawford joined Roger Curtis aboard the Brilliant in March 1783. His lieutenant’s commission was confirmed by the Admiralty on 10 August 1783, but with the conclusion of the American War of Independence and the drawdown of the navy, there was little service available. Crawford does not appear to have served at sea for some time after his commission.

Crawford’s former service with Curtis, now Sir Roger Curtis following his knighthood for his service at Gibraltar, brought dividends during the Spanish Armament. As the threat of war with Spain loomed, Curtis, by now captain of the fleet to Admiral Lord Howe recommended Crawford to Howe. Howe took Crawford aboard his flagship, the 100-gun HMS Queen Charlotte. The crisis passed without breaking into open war, and Crawford took a period of absence from the navy, going out to the East Indies where he attended to his personal affairs. He took passage back to Britain aboard a merchant ship at some point after the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, but the ship was captured by a French warship en route. He was held as a prisoner of war until being exchanged in March 1797, and allowed to return to Britain. Once there he was appointed lieutenant aboard the 98-gun HMS Prince, which was at this time the flagship of Crawford’s old patron, now Rear-Admiral Sir Roger Curtis, with the Channel Fleet. He remained with Curtis until his promotion to commander on 14 February 1799, and his subsequent appointment to command the 14-gun brig HMS Childers in March that year. He spent the rest of the war commanding her, principally off the British coast, and was promoted to post-captain on 29 April 1802.

After a long period without a ship, Crawford was assigned to the 24-gun HMS Champion in 1808. He commanded her off the Spanish coast during the Peninsular War, supporting Spanish patriots against the French forces, later moving to the 32-gun HMS Venus to carry out the same service. During operations off Vigo Crawford arranged for the capitulation of the French garrison of the fort there, which caused his senior officer to write approvingly of his “liberal attention and zealous services”. Vigo was then besieged by a French army led by Marshal Michel Ney, causing Crawford to land a party of seamen and marines, and lead them against the French in defence of the city. The French were defeated at the Battle of Puente Sanpayo and forced back towards Lugo.

Crawford commissioned the 38-gun HMS Hussar in late 1810 and sailed for the East Indies in February 1811. He served at the reduction of Java between August and September 1811. In 1813 he took command of the 36-gun HMS Modeste and on 6 February 1813 captured the 14-gun privateer Furet off Sicily. Modeste was put out of commission towards the end of the wars and Crawford went on half-pay. He does not appear to have served at sea again.

Crawford was twice married, his first wife was Anne Duncan, with whom he had a daughter, Mary. Mary married the naval officer Henry Duncan in 1823. Crawford’s second wife, Jane, was the eldest daughter of Vice-Admiral John Inglis. The couple had a son together, James Coutts Crawford, better known as Coutts Crawford. Captain James Coutts Crawford died at Liverpool on 10 May 1828, at the age of 67. He had been travelling to London, but was taken ill and died after a few days.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Henry Duncan
1786 – 1 November 1835

Duncan was a prominent Royal Navy officer of the early nineteenth century. The second surviving son of the highly regarded Admiral Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan, who defeated the Dutch Navy at the Battle of Camperdown in 1797, Duncan achieved a successful career in his own right, operating with great success against French and Italian shipping and shore fortifications in the Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars. For his services he was knighted and given numerous honours before dying at the young age of 49 from a sudden apoplexy in 1835.

Henry Duncan was born in 1786, the second surviving son of Adam Duncan, then a captain in the Royal Navy, later to become the admiral who defeated the Dutch fleet at the Battle of Camperdown and thus became Viscount Duncan. Henry’s elder brother Robert inherited the titles on their father’s death and was later created Earl of Camperdown. Their mother, Henrietta, was the daughter of Robert Dundas, a prominent Scottish judge. Following his father into the Navy at 14 in 1800, Duncan served as a midshipman on board the frigate HMS Maidstone until the Peace of Amiens the following year.

When the Navy was expanded once more at the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803, Duncan joined HMS Narcissus in the Eastern Mediterranean and served in operations in the Aegean Sea and off Egypt. With Narcissus ordered back to Britain in 1804, Duncan joined the first rate HMS Royal Sovereign under Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton as a lieutenant and it was aboard this ship that he received news of the death of his father. The death of such a senior officer was marked by numerous letters of condolence, including one from Horatio Nelson which offered command of the small brig HMS Bittern, whose captain Robert Corbet had been taken ill. When Duncan arrived to take command however Corbet had recovered and was restored to command. Duncan was instead promoted to commander and returned to Britain to take over the 18-gun HMS Minorca in the Channel Fleet.

Returning to the Mediterranean, Duncan was promoted to post captain in 1806 and took over the sixth rate HMS Porcupine in 1807, sent to serve in the Adriatic campaign by operating off the coast of the Kingdom of Italy. In 1808 he moved to the small frigate HMS Mercury engaged on the same service, raiding French harbours in the Adriatic Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. During these operations, he captured numerous coastal merchant ships and destroyed large quantities of military supplies. With Mercury in a poor state of repair, Duncan was ordered to escort the Mediterranean merchant shipping back to Britain and pay the ship off, arriving in early 1810 after a stormy passage.

Duncan was then given the large frigate HMS Imperieuse and commanded her in the Western Mediterranean off Toulon and Tripoli, seizing a number of French merchant ships. Raiding the Northwestern coast of Italy, Duncan succeeded in capturing numerous ships and destroying large quantities of supplies in fortified harbours before Imperieuse was forced to undergo extensive repairs in Port Mahon. Offered two other frigates as replacements, Duncan was presented with a letter from Imperieuse‘s crew declaring their regard and respect for him and asking him not to move to another ship without them. Moved by this letter, Duncan remained with the ship and was given command of a squadron to operate against the Kingdom of Naples.

Returning to Britain in 1814 at the end of the War of the Sixth Coalition, Imperieuse was paid off and Duncan given command of the new HMS Glasgow. Operating off the Spanish Atlantic coast and in the Bay of Biscay, Duncan saw little action before the final end to the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and his ship was paid off in September. Appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath, Duncan was unemployed for three years before taking over the 50-gun fifth rate HMS Liffey which he commanded on anti-pirate operations in the West Indies and later escorted the Prince Regent on his fleet inspection in 1819, during which he praised Duncan and his ship. He subsequently conveyed Sir Charles Bagot, Ambassador to Russia, to Saint Petersburg and took despatches to Naples, remaining in the Mediterranean until 1821.

Marrying Mary Simson Crawford, the daughter of naval officer Captain James Coutts Crawford, in 1823, Duncan was briefly detached to Lisbon on confidential duties. He subsequently conveyed King George IV to Ireland and Calais before the ship was paid off and Duncan entered retirement. Except for occasional and largely ceremonial shore duties, Duncan did not serve in a naval capacity again. He had one surviving son, Adam Alexander and a daughter Anne Mary. A third child, Henry Robert, died at only a few days old. In December 1834, Duncan was knighted in the Royal Guelphic Order, but two years later suddenly collapsed and died at his London home in Eaton Place from apoplexy. He was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, his funeral attended by many prominent serving naval officers.

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