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Posts Tagged ‘Harry Powlett 6th Duke of Bolton’

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Harry Powlett 4th Duke of Cleveland
19 April 1803 – 21 August 1891

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Harry Powlett

Harry Powlett 4th Duke of Cleveland was the third son of William Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland, by Lady Catherine Margaret Powlett, daughter of Admiral Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton. Henry Vane, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, and William Vane, 3rd Duke of Cleveland, were his elder brothers. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford.

Vane entered the foreign service and held posts in Paris and Stockholm before entering the House of Commons in 1841 as a member for South Durham. He would represent Durham until 1859, when he switched to Hastings, which he represented until his accession to the dukedom on the death of his brother on 6 September 1864. Later the same year, on 18 November, he adopted by Royal Licence the surname of Powlett in lieu of that of Vane, in accordance with the will of his maternal grandmother (wife and Duchess to the 6th Duke of Bolton). He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1865. During the crisis which led to the collapse of Lord Russell’s government in 1866 over the question of parliamentary reform, he was considered a possible compromise Prime Minister in a Whig-Conservative anti-reform coalition government, but such plans came to nothing.

In 1854 Cleveland married Lady Catherine Lucy Wilhelmina Stanhope (1819-1901), a historian known as the Duchess of Cleveland, the daughter of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope and widow of Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, by whom she was the mother of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The marriage was without progeny.

Although Cleveland had no legitimate progeny, he produced an illegitimate daughter by his mistress Mary Ann Raby. The daughter was called Charlotte (Lottie) Raby (1841-1919) and took the surname Raby so her parentage was not discovered.

Cleveland died in August 1891, aged 88, at his London townhouse Cleveland House, 16 St James’s Square, Westminster, London. Thereupon the line of succession to his peerages became unclear. In 1891 the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords declared the title of Duke of Cleveland extinct but declared Henry de Vere Vane to be the rightful heir of the title Baron Barnard and to the estates of Raby Castle and Barnard Castle, which latter had been purchased in 1626 by the Vane family.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Vane 3rd Duke of Cleveland
3 April 1792 – 6 September 1864

William Vane 3rd Duke of Cleveland styled The Hon. William Vane from 1792 to 1813, The Hon. William Powlett from 1813 to 1827 and Lord William Powlett from 1827 to 1864, was a British politician.

Vane was the son of William Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland and his first wife, Katherine, the second daughter and coheiress of Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton. He was Member of Parliament for Winchelsea from 1812 to 1815, for County Durham from 1815 to 1831, for St Ives from 1846 to 1852, and for Ludlow from 1852 to 1857. On 3 July 1815, he married Lady Grace Caroline Lowther (1792–1883), the fifth daughter of William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale.

After inheriting the estate of his maternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Bolton in 1809, he changed his surname to Powlett, under the terms of her will, by Royal Licence in 1813. On inheriting the dukedom of Cleveland from his childless brother Henry in 1864, he resumed the surname of Vane. Also dying childless a few months later, his titles passed to his younger brother, Harry, who took the name of Powlett shortly after. Late in life, he lived at Harewood House, at Cheapside, in Berkshire.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

George Paulet 12th Marquess of Winchester
7 June 1722 – 22 April 1800

George Paulet 12th Marquess of Winchester was the eighth and youngest son of Norton Paulet, or Powlett (d. 1741), of Amport. Norton was the grandson of Lord Henry Paulet, of Amport, and the great-grandson of William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester.

Paulet held a series of court posts. On 29 October 1750, he was appointed an Extra Gentleman Usher Daily Waiter to Frederick, Prince of Wales, and served until the Prince’s death in 1751. From 1758 to 1772, he was a Gentleman Usher Quarterly Waiter to Frederick’s widow, Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales. In 1761, Paulet was appointed High Sheriff of Hampshire. On 7 January 1762, he married Martha Ingoldsby (d. 1796), by whom he had three children:

  • Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester (1764–1843)
  • V-Adm. Lord Henry Paulet (1767–1832)
  • Lady Urania Anne Paulet (c.1767 – 27 December 1843), married first on 17 March 1785 Henry de Burgh, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde (d. 1797), married second on 28 October 1799 Col. Peter Kington (d. 1807), and married third on 22 May 1813 V-Adm. Sir Joseph Sidney Yorke, having issue by the second marriage only

He was elected Member of Parliament for Winchester as a Tory in 1765, after his third cousin once removed, Lord Harry Powlett, succeeded as Duke of Bolton in July. At the time, his only surviving brother, William, a naval officer, was heir presumptive to the Duke’s marquessate of Winchester, although the Duke had taken a second wife in April of that year. Later in 1765, Paulet was appointed Groom Porter to King George III on 23 December 1765, holding the office until it was abolished on 14 November 1782. By the time Paulet left Parliament in 1774, his brother had died and he had become heir presumptive to the Duke.

In 1793, Paulet was the first commissioner for the Lord-Lieutenancy of Hampshire, formerly held by the Duke of Bolton, and in the following year, succeeded as Marquess of Winchester upon the Duke’s death (the dukedom becoming extinct). Appointed Vice-Admiral of Dorset and of Hampshire in 1797, he died in 1800 and was succeeded in the marquessate by his eldest son Charles.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Harry Powlett 6th Duke of Bolton
6 November 1720 – 25 December 1794

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Harry Powlett

Admiral Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton was the second son of Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton and Catherine Parry. Educated at Winchester (1728–1729), he joined the Royal Navy, becoming a lieutenant aboard Shrewsbury on 4 March 1740. He was promoted to captain of the Port Mahon on 15 July 1740, and was moved to Oxford in July 1741. While commanding Oxford, he took part in the Battle of Toulon, and later gave damaging evidence against Richard Lestock.

He was moved to Sandwich in March 1745, and shortly thereafter to Ruby. Ruby, with Defiance and Salisbury, was dispatched from Plymouth to the fleet off Brest on 11 April 1746. Before finding the fleet under Admiral William Martin on 22 May, he was able to capture the French frigate Embuscade. He was given command of Exeter in November 1746 and was sent to the East Indies to serve under Rear-Admiral Thomas Griffin and Admiral Edward Boscawen. He was employed by Boscawen at the Siege of Pondicherry to take soundings off Pondicherry, in order to arrange the dispositions of the naval blockade of the town.

Upon returning to England in April 1750, Captain Powlett charged Griffin with misconduct for failing to engage eight French ships at Cuddalore, a decision which had been generally unpopular among Griffin’s captains. Griffin was, indeed, found guilty of negligence, and suspended from his rank for a time. He, in turn, court-martialed Powlett on charges including cowardice, which Powlett attempted to escape by going on half-pay. Meanwhile, he entered the House of Commons in 1751 as Member of Parliament for Christchurch. On 7 May 1752, he married Mary Nunn (died 1764), by whom he had one daughter:

  • Lady Maria Henrietta Powlett (died 30 March 1779), married John Montagu, 5th Earl of Sandwich

Despite Powlett’s evasions, he was court-martialled on 1 September 1752, but Griffin’s charges failed for want of evidence, and he was acquitted. The incident proved somewhat sensational, and concluded in a duel between the two officers in 1756 on Blackheath. He was appointed to command Somerset in January 1753.

Both Powlett’s rapid rise to a captaincy and his willingness to engage in courts martial of his superiors were a result of his patronage connections. His father’s support of Walpole had made him a Lord of the Admiralty in 1733, a post which he retained until 1742. Even after leaving the Admiralty, the Bolton political connections remained sufficiently strong to ensure his continued promotion. However, he had apparently already become a figure of satire: he is believed to have inspired the character of “Captain Whiffle” in The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748).

In 1754, he became known as Lord Harry Powlett on his father’s succession to the Dukedom, and replaced his elder brother Charles in the family constituency of Lymington. Appointed to command Barfleur on 4 February 1755, he petitioned the Duke of Newcastle, then Prime Minister, for promotion to flag rank, on the strength of his family’s support of the government. However, a damaging accident to his reputation occurred soon after, while acting with Admiral Hawke’s fleet off France. Sent on 22 August 1755 to chase a sail to the south-east, he became detached from the fleet. While waiting at the rendezvous on 25 August, the ship’s carpenter reported Barfleur’s sternpost to be dangerously loose, and Powlett returned to Spithead for repairs. In October, he was court-martialled for separating from the fleet and returning to port without justification. He was admonished on the first charge and acquitted on the second, the carpenter being dismissed as incompetent; but it was popularly felt that the carpenter had been scapegoated, and Powlett hereafter received the sobriquet of Captain Stern-post.

Notwithstanding this incident, the Bolton influence proved irresistible, and he was promoted Rear Admiral on 4 June 1756 and Vice-Admiral of the White on 14 February 1758. Feeling ran strongly against him, despite his promotions, and he never again received a naval command, even at the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War. Supposedly, Boscawen requested Powlett’s appointment as his second-in-command in 1756, but it was refused by George II, who shared in the general low opinion of Powlett. In 1761, he again changed constituencies, and was returned as MP for Winchester.

His wife died in 1764, and on 8 April 1765, he married Katherine Lowther (died 21 March 1809), daughter of Robert Lowther, by whom he had two daughters:

A lukewarm supporter of the government, he was intermittently at odds with George Grenville. However, upon succeeding to the dukedom in July 1765 by his brother’s suicide, he threw off his political connections and became a supporter of the crown alone. Bolton was sworn of the Privy Council on 10 December 1766. He was given the sinecure post of Vice-Admiral of Dorset and Hampshire (held by several Dukes of Bolton) in 1767, and promoted Admiral of the Blue on 18 October 1770 and Admiral of the White on 31 March 1775.

In 1778, he went into opposition with the government over its handling of the American Revolution, and joined Vice-Admiral Bristol in opposing the court-martial of Admiral Keppel. His political activity diminished after 1780, although in 1782 he was appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight and Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire. He died at Hackwood Park at Winslade in Hampshire on 25 December 1794, and his dukedom became extinct. His distant cousin George Paulet succeeded to the Marquessate of Winchester and other titles, while Bolton Hall, Bolton Castle, Hackwood Park and most of his estates devolved upon his brother’s natural daughter Jean Browne-Powlett, wife of Thomas Orde, who adopted the additional surname of Powlett.

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