Posts Tagged ‘George Stewart 8th Earl of Galloway’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency (I include those who were born before 1811 and who died after 1795), today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Rear-Admiral John Maitland
1771 – 20 October 1836


John Maitland

Rear-Admiral John Maitland was born in Scotland in 1771, the third son of Colonel the Honourable Richard Maitland, who was himself the fourth son of Charles Maitland, 6th Earl of Lauderdale. His mother was Mary Maitland, née McAdam, of New York City. John Maitland was born into a substantial naval dynasty. His uncle was Frederick Lewis Maitland, who was a captain in the navy, and his first cousin was Frederick Lewis Maitland, who reached the rank of rear-admiral. John Maitland also entered the navy, and by 1793 was a midshipman aboard John Jervis’s flagship HMS Boyne. Maitland was involved in the attacks on the French colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique, often serving on shore with landing parties. In the assault on Fort Fleur d’Épée he was the first person over the walls, and came to the rescue of Captain Robert Faulknor when Faulknor was attacked by two Frenchmen. Maitland ran one through with a pike and went on to kill another seven or eight of the garrison. During the attack on Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, Maitland took over command of the landing parties as an acting-lieutenant when all of the more senior officers had been killed or incapacitated by wounds or exhaustion.

He received his commission as a lieutenant on 20 July 1794, and returned to serve in home waters, initially aboard the 32-gun frigate HMS Winchelsea, under Lord Garlies. Maitland then followed Garlies into the 32-gun frigate HMS Lively, soon becoming her acting commander and sailing her to join Jervis’s Mediterranean Fleet. He continued to serve with considerable gallantry, capturing the French frigate Touterelle in 1795. An impressed Jervis promoted him to commander on 23 December 1796, appointing him to the sloop HMS Transfer. Maitland was moved to HMS Kingfisher in April 1797, and took her to cruise off Portugal. On 1 August though he was almost the victim of a mutiny. Taking a direct approach he gathered his officers and marines and attacked the mutineers with swords and cutlasses, killing and wounding several. This decisive action quashed the mutiny, and met with Jervis’s approval. He described Maitland’s actions as ‘Doctor Maitland’s recipe’, and advised that it should be adopted in future instances of attempted mutiny. A further promotion for Maitland followed, he was made post-captain on 11 August 1797 and was given command of HMS San Nicolas, one of the prizes captured by Nelson at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

Maitland sailed the San Nicolas to Britain, where she was paid off at Plymouth on her arrival, and Maitland went ashore. He married Elizabeth Ogilvy on 22 April 1799, and by 1800 had returned to active service aboard the 36-gun HMS Glenmore in the English Channel. He moved to the 38-gun HMS Boadicea in 1803, and on 24 July 1803 he spotted the French 74-gun third-rate Duguay-Trouin and the 38-gun frigate Guerrière sailing off Ferrol, Spain. Maitland decided to test whether the French ships were armed en flûte and were being used as troopships, and closing to within range, opened fire. The French returned fire, revealing they were fully armed and manned, and Maitland broke off. The French pursued, but were unable to catch him. Maitland continued on in the Channel, but while sailing off Brest the Boadicea struck the Bas de Lis rock and was badly holed. She returned to Portsmouth and was back on station eight days later, having spent just three days in dock. He went on to have a successful cruise, capturing the 12-gun French Vanteur, and several merchants. Maitland and the Boadicea spent 1804 enforcing the blockade of Rochefort, followed by a period in the North Sea and off the Irish coast.

On 2 November he came across a squadron of four French ships of the line under Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley, that had escaped from the Battle of Trafalgar two weeks previously. Maitland fired rockets to attract a nearby British squadron under Captain Sir Richard Strachan, but subsequently lost the French in fog. Strachan was able to make contact with the French thanks to Maitland, and after engaging them in the battle of Battle of Cape Ortegal, captured all of the French ships. A few days later Maitland spotted and gave chase to a French frigate, eventually breaking off after two days pursuit due to the nearness of the coast. He later learnt that the French frigate had run onto the island of Groix. In the autumn of 1806 Boadicea was employed protecting the whale fishery in the Davis Strait. He escorted a convoy to Britain from Oporto, and followed this with service on the Irish station in 1807, blockading Le Havre. During this time the 14-gun French privateer General Concleux was captured, and Maitland left the Boadicea in 1808. He was appointed to the 98-gun HMS Barfleur in late 1813, spending the rest of the war aboard her in the Mediterranean.

Maitland married for the second time at Bath on 8 January 1820, this time to Dora Bateman. He was promoted to rear-admiral on 19 July 1821 and died at Montagu Square, London on 20 October 1836 at the age of 65.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

John Stewart 7th Earl of Galloway
13 March 1736 – 13 November 1806


John Stewart

John Stewart 7th Earl of Galloway was a Scottish peer, styled Viscount Garlies from 1747 until 1773. He succeeded his father Alexander in 1773. He was elected one of the representative peers, representing the Peerage of Scotland in the House of Lords, in 1774 and sat there until the 1790s. From 1783 until his death he was a Lord of the Bedchamber to King George III.

The Earl, a Tory, was the target of two hostile poems by Robert Burns, John Bushby’s Lamentation and On the Earl of Galloway.
Galloway, a frequent opera-goer, was caricatured by James Gillray in An Old Encore at the Opera! of 1803. In 1762 James Boswell wrote of him that he had “a petulant forwardness that cannot fail to disgust people of sense and delicacy”.
On 14 August 1762, he married Lady Charlotte Greville (died 1763), the daughter of Francis Greville, 1st Earl of Warwick. They had two sons, both of whom died in infancy. After Charlotte’s death, he married Anne Dashwood, daughter of Sir James Dashwood, 2nd Baronet, on 13 June 1764. They had sixteen children:

  • Lady Catherine Stewart (18 March 1765 – 20 September 1836), married Sir James Graham, 1st Baronet in 1781
  • Hon. Alexander Stewart (18 February 1766 – 29 March 1766)
  • Lady Susan Stewart (10 April 1767 – 2 April 1841), married George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough in 1791
  • Adm. George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway (1768–1834)
  • Lady Anne Harriet Stewart (2 November 1769 – 30 January 1850), married Lord Spencer Chichester in 1795
  • Lady Elizabeth Euphemia Stewart (6 October 1771 – 12 November 1855), married William Philips Inge in 1798
  • Hon. Leveson Keith Stewart (4 October 1772 – 12 September 1780)
  • Lady Georgiana Frances Stewart (15 May 1776 – 12 April 1804)
  • Lt.-Gen. Hon. Sir William Stewart (1774–1827)
  • Rt. Rev. Hon. Charles James Stewart (15 April 1775 – 13 July 1837), Bishop of Quebec
  • Lady Charlotte Stewart (7 August 1777 – May 1842), married Sir Edward Crofton, 3rd Baronet in 1801
  • Lady Caroline Stewart (23 October 1778 – 1818), married Rev. Hon. George Rushout-Bowles in 1803; mother of George Rushout, 3rd Baron Northwick
  • Hon. Montgomery Granville John Stewart (1780–1860)
  • Hon. Edward Richard Stewart (1782–1851)
  • Lt.-Col. James Henry Keith Stewart (1783–1836)
  • Lady Georgiana Charlotte Sophia Stewart (1 February 1785 – 25 July 1809), married Col. Hon. William Bligh {1775-6 August 1845} in 1806; {Bligh was the a son of John Bligh, 3rd Earl of Darnley}; had issue of one daughter Sophia married to Henry William Parnell {1809-1896} in 1835 {His father Henry Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton was a Great uncle of Charles Stewart Parnell. A sister Emma Jane Parnell was married to Edward Bligh, 5th Earl of Darnley}. Sophia and Henry marriage had issue of four sons and one daughter.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

George Spencer-Churchill 6th Duke of Marlborough
27 December 1793 – 1 July 1857


George Spencer-Churchill

George Spencer-Churchill 6th Duke of Marlborough was styled Earl of Sunderland from birth, Marlborough was born at Bill Hill, Wokingham, Berkshire (an estate his father was renting at the time), the eldest son of George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough and Lady Susan Stewart, daughter of John Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway. He was educated at Eton between 1805 and 1811 and later at Christ Church, Oxford. He was also given an honorary Doctorate of Civil Laws by Oxford University on 15 June 1841.

Marlborough became known by the courtesy title Marquess of Blandford in 1817 when his father succeeded in the dukedom. He sat as Tory Member of Parliament for Chippenham between 1818 and 1820 and for Woodstock from 1826 to 1831, from 1832 to 1835 and from 1838 to 1840, when he succeeded to the dukedom and entered the House of Lords. In 1842 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire, a post he held until his death.

Spencer-Churchill played cricket as a young man and is recorded in one first-class match in 1817, totalling 4 runs with a highest score of 4.


Lady Jane Stewart

The Duke of Marlborough married, firstly, his first cousin Lady Jane Stewart, daughter of George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway, on 13 January 1819. They had four children:

  • Lady Louisa Spencer-Churchill (c. 1820–1882), married the Honourable Robert Spencer, son of Francis Spencer, 1st Baron Churchill and had issue.
  • John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough (1822–1883).
  • Lord Alfred Spencer-Churchill (1824–1893), married Hon. Harriet Gough-Calthorpe, daughter of Frederick Gough-Calthorpe, 4th Baron Calthorpe and had issue.
  • Lord Alan Spencer-Churchill (25 July 1825 – 18 April 1873), married Rosalind Dowker.

After his first wife’s death in October 1844, aged 46, he married, secondly, the Honourable Charlotte Augusta Flower, daughter of Henry Flower, 4th Viscount Ashbrook, on 10 June 1846. They had two children:

  • Lord Almeric Athelstan Spencer-Churchill (1847 – 12 December 1856) died young.
  • Lady Clementina Augusta Spencer-Churchill (4 May 1848 – 27 March 1886) married John Pratt, 3rd Marquess Camden and had issue.

After his second wife’s death in April 1850, aged 31, he married, thirdly, his first cousin (that is the second of his first cousins he married—Both named Jane) Jane Francis Clinton Stewart, daughter of the Honourable Edward Richard Stewart and granddaughter of John Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway, on 18 October 1851. They had one child:

  • Lord Edward Spencer-Churchill (28 March 1853 – 5 May 1911), married Augusta Warburton, daughter of Major George Drought Warburton and had issue.

Marlborough died at Blenheim Palace in July 1857, aged 63, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John.

The Duchess of Marlborough died at 28 Grosvenor Street, Mayfair, London, in March 1897, aged 79.

Child by Harriet Churchill (1798 – 1834) married Karl Graf v. Westerholt in 1819.

  • Susan Churchill (1818 – 1882) married Aimé Timothé Quénod

George Spencer-Churchill, then Marquess of Blandford, and Harriet Churchill went through a false ceremony of marriage with a relative of the groom posing as a cleric. A voyage to Scotland where they lived as husband and wife was intended by the bride and her parents to make this marriage legal under Scotch law. The sixth Duke did however successfully contest in a court of law that they had lived as if they had been married.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

George Stewart 8th Earl of Galloway
24 March 1768 – 27 March 1834

Stewart was the eldest son of John Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway, and Anne, daughter of Sir James Dashwood, 2nd Baronet. He attended Westminster School before joinging the Royal Navy.

Known as Lord Garlies he entered the navy serving as a 13-year old midshipman under the command of his uncle, Commodore Keith Stewart at the Battle of Dogger Bank in August 1781, and also in the Great Siege of Gibraltar in 1782.

In 1789 promoted to lieutenant, serving in the frigate Aquilon in the Mediterranean. He returned to England in early 1790, when appointed commander of the fire ship Vulcan. He was promoted to post-captain in 1793, and soon after was appointed to the frigate Winchelsea, serving in the West Indies, and being wounded while covering the landing of the army at Guadaloupe in 1794.Then sent with detachments of troops to accept the surrender of the islands of Marie-Galante and La Désirade.

In 1795 he took command of the frigate Lively, and took Sir John Jervis out from England to assume command in the Mediterranean, and serving there until the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797. After the battle Lively carried Sir Robert Calder, with the account of the victory, and Lord Minto, Viceroy of Corsica, and his suite, who were on board during the battle, back to England.

Around November 1799 Garlies commissioned the frigate Hussar, and commanded her in the Channel and on the coast of Ireland until early 1801, making several captures and recaptures:

  • On 17 May 1800 Hussar, the frigate Loire and the schooner Milbrook recaptured the ship Princess Charlotte, and captured the French schooner La Francoise.
  • On 2 March 1801 Hussar captured the French schooner Le General Bessieres.
  • On 12 April 1801 Hussar recaptured the ship James of Liverpool.

In early 1801 Garlies moved into the Bellerophon, to serve on the blockade of Brest, remaining there until the Treaty of Amiens in early 1802 brought a short-lived period of peace. Following the renewal of hostilities in 1803 he commanded the ship Ajax, and sat on the Board of Admiralty in between May 1805 and February 1806. Galloway saw no further active service, but was promoted to Rear-Admiral in 1810; to Vice Admiral in 1819; and to Admiral in 1830.

Apart from his military career Garlies also sat as a Member of Parliament. He was first elected in 1790 for the constituency of Saltash, and served until vacating his seat in favour of his brother William in February 1795.

He returned to Parliament when elected MP for Cockermouth on in 1805, and then sat for Haslemere after the 1806 election, but was shortly after obliged to quit his seat following the death of his father on 13 November, when he became the Earl of Galloway, and moved to the House of Lords.

He served as Lord Lieutenant of Kirkcudbright from 1794 to 1807, and from 1820 to 1828, and of Wigtownshire from 1807 to 1828. In 1814 he was invested as a member of the Order of the Thistle. He also served as Vice-President of Board of Agriculture in 1815.

In April 1797 he married Lady Jane Paget, the daughter of Henry Paget, 1st Earl of Uxbridge, and sister of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey. They had eight children:

  1. Lady Jane Stewart (1798–1844), m. George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough.
  2. Lady Caroline Stewart (1799–1857)
  3. Hon. Randolph Stewart, later 9th Earl of Galloway (1800–1873)
  4. Lady Louisa Stewart (1804–1889), m. William Duncombe, 2nd Baron Feversham.
  5. Hon. Arthur Stewart (1805–1806)
  6. Hon. Alan Stewart (1807–1808)
  7. Lady Helen Stewart (1810–1813)
  8. Vice Admiral Hon. Keith Stewart CB (1814–1879)

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