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Posts Tagged ‘Duke of York and Albany Prince Frederick Augustus Hanover’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Watier’s Club
1807-1819

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Watier’s Club, 81 Piccadilly

Watier’s Club prior to its occupation as a gaming hall and restaurant, was a private residence, and the headquarters of a small singing club. The Prince of Wales suggested the creation of a club using his new chef, Jean-Baptiste Watier, (who, of course, was the club’s namesake). Amongst the members in the early days were Henry Mildmay, Baron Alvanley, Beau Brummell and Henry Pierrepont.

At the opposite corner of Bolton Street stood, from 1807 to 1819, Watier’s Gambling Club. Concerning the origin of this club—or rather, gaming house, for it was nothing more—the following anecdote is told by Captain Gronow:—”Upon one occasion, some gentlemen of both ‘White’s’ and ‘Brooks’s’ had the honour to dine with the Prince Regent, and during the conversation the Prince inquired what sort of dinners they got at their clubs; upon which Sir Thomas Stepney, one of the guests, observed that their dinners were always the same, the eternal joints or beef-steaks, the boiled fowl with oyster sauce, and an apple tart. ‘That is what we have at our clubs, and very monotonous fare it is.’ The Prince, without further remark, rang the bell for his cook, Watier, and in the presence of those who dined at the royal table, asked him whether he would take a house and organise a dinner-club. Watier assented, and named the Prince’s page, Madison, as manager, and Labourie, from the royal kitchen, as cook. The club flourished only a few years, owing to the night-play that was carried on there. The favourite game played there was ‘Macao.'” The Duke of York patronised it, and was a member. Tom Moore also tells us that he belonged to it. The dinners were exquisite; the best Parisian cooks could not beat Labourie.

Mr. John Timbs, in his account of this club, remarks, with sly humour, “In the old days, when gaming was in fashion, at Watier’s Club both princes and nobles lost or gained fortunes between themselves;’ and by all accounts “Macao” seems to have been a far more effective instrument in the losing of fortunes than either “Whist” or “Loo.”

Mr. Raikes, in his “Journal,” says that Watier’s Club, which had originally been established for harmonic meetings, became, in the time of “Beau” Brummell, the resort of nearly all the fine gentlemen of the day. “The dinners,” he adds, “were superlative, and high play at ‘Macao’ was generally introduced. It was this game, or rather losses which arose out of it, that first led the ‘Beau’ into difficulties.” Mr. Raikes further remarks, with reference to this club, that its pace was “too quick to last,” and that its records show that none of its members at his death had reached the average age of man. The club was closed in 1819, when the house was taken by a set of “black-legs” who instituted a common bank for gambling. This caused the ruin of several fortunes, and it was suppressed in its turn, or died a natural death.

It was at the behest of the Prince Regent, (later King George IV), that Brummell was named the club’s president.

The club carried the affectionate nickname, “The Dandies Club,” which was bestowed by Lord Byron who remarked, “I like the dandies, they were always very civil to me.”

The club had a very short life eventually fading out in 1819, it had become the haven for ‘blackguards’ and fortunes were being lost to a ‘common bank’ that had been set up by a group of members and guaranteed ruin for others.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Edward Dayes
1763–1804

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Edward Dayes

Edward Dayes studied under William Pether, and began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1786, when he showed a portrait and views of Waltham Cross and Canterbury. In the three following years he exhibited both miniatures and landscapes. He continued to exhibit at the Academy regularly until the year of his death, contributing a total of 64 works. He also was an exhibitor at the Society of Artists.

Dayes drew from nature in various parts of England, including the Lake District and Wales. Much of his topographical work depicted ruins, painted in a palette dominated by blues and greens, which had an influence on the early work of J.M.W. Turner. He laid out detailed rules for the correct method of laying down the colours in landscape in his Instructions for Drawing and Colouring Landscapes, published posthumously.

Many of his drawings were crowded with figures; among these were two views of the interior of St. Paul’s Cathedral on the occasion of the thanksgiving for the king’s recovery in 1789, The Trial of Warren Hastings in Westminster Abbey, and Buckingham House, St. James’s Park (1780), later hung in the South Kensington Museum. All these works were engraved. In 1798 Dayes began to show scriptural subjects, such as The Fall of the Angels (1798), John preaching in the Wilderness (1799), the Triumph of Beauty (1800), and Elisha causing Iron to swim (1801).

He was draughtsman to the Duke of York and Albany. Thomas Girtin, was his pupil.

Dayes engraved at least four mezzotints, one after George Morland, another after John Raphael Smith, and two humorous scenes called Rustic Courtship and Polite Courtship. He wrote an Excursion through Derbyshire and Yorkshire, Essays on Painting, Instructions for Drawing and Colouring Landscapes, and Professional Sketches of Modern Artists. He committed suicide at the end of May 1804. After his death his works were collected and edited by E. W. Bradley, and published for the benefit of his widow in 1805.

His wife painted miniatures and exhibited four works at the Royal Academy between 1797 and 1800.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd
1761–1821

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Charles Gregan Craufurd

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd was the second son of Sir Alexander Crauford, 1st Baronet (see Crauford baronets), and the elder brother of Robert Craufurd. Born in Golden Square, London he was educated at Eton.

Charles Craufurd entered the 1st Dragoon Guards as a Cornet on 15 December 1778. Promoted a Lieutenant in 1781, he was raised to the rank of Captain in the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen’s Bays) in 1785. He became the equerry and intimate friend of the Duke of York. He studied in Germany for some time, and, with his brother Robert’s assistance, translated Tielke’s book on the Seven Years’ War (The Remarkable Events of the War between Prussia, Austria and Russia from 1756 to 1763). As aide-de-camp he accompanied the duke of York to the French War on the Netherlands in May 1793 attached to the Austrian HQ’s Commander-in-Chief. He was at once sent as commissioner to the Austrian headquarters, with which he was present at Neerwinden, Caesar’s Camp, Famars, Landrecies, etc.

Promoted to major in May 1793, and lieutenant-colonel in February 1794, he returned to the British Army in the latter year to become Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General. On one occasion distinguished himself at the head of a charge of two squadrons, capturing three guns and taking 1,000 prisoners.(See the Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies) When the British army left the continent Craufurd was again attached to the Austrian Army, and was present at the actions on the Lahn, the combat of Neumarket, and the Amberg. At the last battle a severe wound rendered him incapable of further service, and cut short a promising career. He was invalided out to England. There he did all he could to advance his brother, Robert’s career. Promoted Colonel on 26 January 1797, he was already in charge of a brigade-major. On 23 September 1803 he was promoted to Major-General.

On 7 February 1800 he was married Anna Mary, widow of Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle. The 4th Duke was a minor. His brother Robert got married on the same day. Charles Craufurd was already an MP when appointed Colonel of 2nd Dragoon Guards. He was made a Lieutenant-General in 1810. He succeeded his brother Robert as Member of Parliament (MP) for East Retford (1806–1812). He died in 1821, and made GCB on 27 May 1820. Charles Craufurd was a Tory in politics, friend of Lord Londonderry.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Ward (Engraver)
1766-1826

William Ward was the son of James and Rachael Ward, and elder brother of James Ward.

William Ward was appointed engraver to the Duke of York, the Prince of Wales, and associate engraver to the Royal Academy.

William Ward’s brother James was one of the outstanding artists of the day, his singular style and great skill set him above most of his contemporaries, markedly influencing the growth of British art. Regarded as one of the great animal painters of his time, James produced history paintings, portraits, landscapes and genre. He started off as an engraver, trained by William, who later engraved much of his work. The partnership of William and James Ward produced the best that English art had to offer, their great technical skill and artistry having led to images that reflect the grace and charm of the era.

He was married to Maria Morland, sister of George Morland, and had two children – Martin Theodore Ward, d. 1874 and William James Ward, d. 1840.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle
1762– 30 November 1833

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Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle

Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle was born at Chester about 1762, he was the only son of Francis Wardle, J.P., of Hartsheath, near Mold, Flintshire, and Catherine, daughter of Richard Lloyd Gwyllym. He was during 1775 at Harrow School, but left in poor health; he was then at the school of George Henry Glasse at Greenford, near Ealing, Middlesex. He was admitted pensioner at St John’s College, Cambridge, on 12 February 1780, but did not take a degree.

After travelling on the continent of Europe, Wardle settled at Hartsheath. He went into business with William Alexander Madocks, in particular at Tremadog.

When Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 5th Baronet raised a troop of dragoons, officially called “the ancient British Light Dragoons”,’ and popularly known as “Wynn’s Lambs”, Wardle served in it, in Ireland. He is said to have fought at the battle of Vinegar Hill in 1798. At the peace of Amiens the troop was disbanded, and Wardle retired with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.

Wardle moved to Green Park Place, Bath, Somerset, in about 1800, where he was living when elected Member of Parliament for Okehampton in Devon in 1807. He won the election with 113 votes, and he is said to have been returned without the support of the borough’s patron. According to a pamphlet by William Farquharson, he also had interests in a gin distillery in Jersey.

As a result of the scandals arising from the relationship of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the commander-in-chief of the army, with Mary Anne Clarke, Wardle brought forward a motion against the Duke on 27 January 1809. Acting with Sir Francis Burdett, Wardle was able, through parliamentary privilege, to fight against the government’s libel action against the press, which aimed to prevent corruption rumours against the Duke from becoming public. The House of Commons went into committee on the subject on 1 February, and the proceedings lasted until 20 March. Though he failed in convicting the Duke of personal corruption, sufficient indiscretions were proved to force his retirement. Due to public interest in the case, Wardle briefly became more prominent than Burdett, who was otherwise a more substantial radical campaigner.

Up to this point Wardle had been thought a bon viveur rather than a politician, but he remained committed to his cause. He made a long speech in parliament on 19 June 1809 on the public economy, and his resolutions on this were agreed. He was presented with the freedom of the city of London on 6 April 1809 and congratulatory addresses were presented to him by many corporations throughout the United Kingdom. His likeness was reproduced in a number of forms.

On 3 July 1809, Wardle’s fortunes changed for the worse, when an upholsterer called Francis Wright brought a court action against him over matters concerning the furnishing of Mary Anne Clarke’s house. With the attorney-general prosecuting, the jury found against Wardle, and evidence came out that Clarke and Wardle had colluded against the Duke. Wardle denied this in an open letter, and on 11 December he brought an action against the Wrights and Clarke for conspiracy. He lost the case, along with his reputation, James Glenie, a witness for the crown in the first trial, was also heavily criticised by the judge Lord Ellenborough.

Wardle’s radical supporters included Timothy Brown, Major John Cartwright, William Cobbett, William Frend, and Robert Waithman. He was not re-elected for Okehampton after the dissolution of parliament in 1812, despite strong backing.

Wardle moved to a farm in Kent between Tunbridge and Rochester; Mary Anne Clarke wrote that he sold milk. Later, with money troubles, he emigrated. He died in Florence, on 30 November 1833, aged 71.

An address from Colonel Wardle to his countrymen, arguing for Catholic Emancipation, was circulated in 1828. It was dated Florence, 3 November 1827, and praised conditions of life in Catholic Tuscany.

In 1792 Wardle married Ellen Elizabeth Parry, daughter of Love Parry of Madryn, Carnarvonshire, who brought him estates in that county. They had seven children. He was an unfaithful husband.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

General Lord Charles FitzRoy
17 July 1764 – 20 December 1829

Lord Charles FitzRoy was the second son of Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton and his first wife, Anne, a daughter of Henry Liddell, 1st Baron Ravensworth. After education at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he entered the army in 1782 as an ensign. In 1787, he was appointed a captain in the Scots Guards and an equerry in 1788, to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, under whom he served in Flanders from 1793-4.

In 1795, FitzRoy was appointed an aide-de-camp to King George III with the rank of colonel and promoted to major-general in 1798. From 1798-99, he served in Ireland then in England until 1809, commanding a battalion of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 1804-5. He was appointed colonel of the 48th (Northamptonshire) Regiment of Foot and lieutenant-general in 1805 and general in 1814.

From 1787-96 and again from 1802–18, FitzRoy was member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds (though never actually spoke in the house). He supported Pitt and favoured abolitionism and Catholic Emancipation.

FitzRoy died at his house in Berkeley Square, London in 1829 and was buried at Wicken, Northamptonshire.

On 20 June 1795, FitzRoy married Frances Mundy (d. 1797; the daughter of Edward Miller Mundy, MP) and they had one son, Sir Charles FitzRoy who was the governor of New South Wales, governor of Prince Edward Island and governor of Antigua. After his wife’s death, he married Lady Frances Stewart (d. 1810; the eldest daughter of Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry) and they had three children:

  • George FitzRoy (c.1800-1882), British Army officer.
  • Robert (1805–1865), hydrographer.
  • Frances (d. 1878), married George Rice-Trevor, 4th Baron Dynevor.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

General Henry Edward Fox
4 March 1755 – 18 July 1811

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Henry Edward Fox

General Henry Edward Fox a son of Henry Fox, first Baron Holland and his second wife, (Georgiana) Caroline Fox, née Lennox, he was a younger brother of the politician Charles James Fox.

He attended Westminster School before being commissioned as a cornet in the 1st dragoon guards in 1770. Soon after that he spent 1 year’s leave at the military academy at Strasbourg. After his return he rose to lieutenant (1773) then captain (1774).

In 1773 he moved to the 38th Regiment of Foot, stationed at Boston, and fought in the American War of Independence (spending 1778-79 on leave in England). By the end of the war he had risen to colonel and king’s aide-de-camp, and he then moved to command the forces in Nova Scotia (1783–89), where he was influential in the creation of the new colony of New Brunswick, and then the Chatham barracks (1789–93).

Next he was quartermaster-general on the Duke of York’s staff in Flanders to replace the recently killed James Moncrieff (1793–95) and fought in the Netherlands theatre of the French Revolutionary Wars. He then served as inspector-general of the recruiting service (1795–99), lieutenant-governor of Minorca (1799–1801) following its capture from the French, commander in chief of all British Mediterranean forces outside Gibraltar (1801–03, replacing General Sir Ralph Abercromby fatally wounded at the battle of Alexandria) and finally Commander-in-Chief, Ireland (1803). In Ireland he was caught off-guard by Robert Emmet’s Dublin uprising (23 July 1803) and was quickly replaced by Lieutenant-General Cathcart, whose appointment was gazetted on 20 October.

Fox moved to be commander of the London district (1803), Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar (1804–06), Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean (1806–07) and minister to Sicily. With his health weakening, Fox passed active command of the force to his deputy, Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore. The smallness of his force (made yet smaller when Major-General Mackenzie Fraser was sent to occupy Alexandria) meant he refused the repeated requests from the Sicilian court and William Drummond, British minister at the Sicilian court, for land operations on the Italian mainland. Fox and Moore also opposed the naval commander William Sidney Smith’s political machinations at the Sicilian court, contrary as they were to the army’s tactics for the Italian theatre, until Fox’s ill health finally led to his being recalled by the British government and replaced by Moore. Fox was promoted full general on 25 April 1808, appointed governor of Portsmouth in 1810 and died the following year.

On 14 November 1786 he married Marianne Clayton, daughter of William Clayton, 4th Baronet and sister of Catherine, Lady Howard de Walden, and they had 3 children

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Sir James Murray Pulteney 7th Baronet
1755 – 26 April 1811

Sir James Pulteney 7th Baronet was born James Murray, he was the eldest son of Colonel Sir Robert Murray, 6th Baronet and his first wife Janet Murray, a younger sister of Patrick Murray, 5th Lord Elibank. Murray succeeded his father as baronet in 1771, while still a minor. He was educated at Westminster School and joined then the British Army.

Murray had had his first commission purchased in his mid-teens, as lieutenant in the 19th Regiment of Foot in 1770. Already a year later, he became captain in the 57th Regiment of Foot. He left for Europe in 1772 and having spent the time travelling, he returned to his regiment in Ireland in November 1775. With begin of the next year, Murray embarked for The Colonies to serve in the American War of Independence. He was wounded at the ankle during the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777, and shared his convalescence with his cousin Patrick Ferguson. Soon after recovering, he was shot through the thigh at the Battle of White Marsh in November.

Murray purchased a majorship in 1778, serving with the 4th Regiment of Foot in the West Indies and was involved in the Battle of St Lucia. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 94th Regiment of Foot in 1780 and on the regiment’s disbandment after three years was set on half pay. In 1789, he was transferred to active duty and was appointed an aide-de-camp to King George III of the United Kingdom, ranked as a colonel. Murray was sent to Koblenz, the headquarters of the allied forces against the French Revolutionary Armies. He was attached as adjutant to the Frederick, Duke of York in April 1793, fighting in Flanders, and was promoted to major-general in December. In 1794, he received command of the 18th Regiment of Foot and led his regiment to suppress the Irish Rebellion of 1798. A year thereafter, in June 1799 Pulteney (he had taken the name of Pulteney in 1794) was made a lieutenant-general and in November was wounded in the Helder Campaign, having been second in command. He commanded the Ferrol Expedition in August 1800 and sailed then to Gibraltar, before returning to England. He became General Officer Commanding Eastern District in 1805. In 1808 he became a full general.

In 1790, he entered the British House of Commons, sitting as a Member of Parliament (MP) for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis until his death in 1811. Murray-Pulteney was sworn off the Privy Council in 1807, when he became Secretary at War, a post he held for two years.

On 24 July 1794, he married Henriette Laura Pulteney, 1st Baroness Bath, daughter of his cousin Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet in Bath House, London. Two days before he had by Royal Licence assumed the surname Pulteney only to inherit his wife’s relative Harry Pulteney. Henrietta was raised to a countess in her own right in 1803 and inherited also the estates of her father in 1805, worth about £50,000 per year. She predeceased her husband in 1808 and Murray survived her for three years, dying in Buckenham in Norfolk, from complications after losing an eye when a powder flask accidentally exploded in his face. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his halfbrother John.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Mary Anne Clarke
3 April 1776 – 21 June 1852

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Mary Anne Clarke

Mary Anne Thompson was born on 3 April 1776 in London, the daughter of a humble tradesman. Attractive and intelligent, she was married before the age of 18, to a man named Clarke, who worked as a stonemason. However, shortly after the marriage, her husband went bankrupt, and Mary Thompson Clarke left him because of this. By 1803, after several liaisons with prominent men, Clarke had been established long enough in the world of courtesans to receive the attention of Frederick, Duke of York, then the Commander in Chief of the army.

Taking her as his mistress, he set her up in a fashionable residence. However, he failed to supply the funds necessary to support their lavish lifestyle. In 1809, a national scandal arose when Clarke testified before the House of Commons that she had sold army commissions with the Duke of York’s knowledge. Frederick was forced to resign from his position, though he was later reinstated.

After the Duke of York resigned his post as Commander in Chief of the Army, and before he was later reinstated, he cut all ties to Clarke, paying her a considerable sum to prevent her from publishing letters he had written to her during their relationship. When the scandal forced Clarke to leave London, she took a tenancy of Loughton Lodge, Loughton, Essex. This house still exists, and a blue plaque to Mary Anne Clarke was unveiled on it in April 2009. Clarke was prosecuted for libel in 1813 and imprisoned for nine months. On her release from prison, Clarke went to live in France. She died in Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1852.

Her daughter, born of her marriage to Clarke, married Louis-Mathurin Busson du Maurier and was the mother of the caricaturist George du Maurier (1834–96) and the great-grandmother of the novelist Daphne du Maurier (1907–1989), who wrote a book about her (Mary Anne).

Writings by Mary Anne Clarke include the following:

  • The Authentic and Impartial Life of Mrs. Mary Anne Clarke, Including Numerous Royal and Other Original Letters, and Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, Which Have Escaped Suppression, with a Compendious View of the Whole Proceedings, Illustrative of the Late Important Investigation of the Conduct of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, &C. &C. and a Curious Poem.
  • The Rival Princes; Or, A Faithful Narrative of Facts, Relating to Mrs. M.A. Clarke’s Political Acquaintance with Colonel Wardle, Major Dodd, &C. &C. &C., Who Were Concerned in the Charges against the Duke of York; Together with a Variety of Authentic and Important Letters, and Curious and Interesting Anecdotes of Several Persons of Political Notoriety.

She co-authored with Elizabeth Taylor:

  • Authentic Memoirs of Mrs. Clarke.

With Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle, Francis Wright, and Daniel Wright:

  • Wardle Versus Clarke, &c.: The Trial of F. Wright, D. Wright, and Mary Ann Clarke for a Conspiracy against G. L. Wardle Before Lord Ellenborough in the Court of King’s Bench, Westminster on December the 11th, 1809.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Henry Lyttelton 3rd Baron Lyttelton
3 April 1782 – 30 April 1837

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William Henry Lyttelton

William Henry Lyttelton 3rd Baron Lyttelton was the son of William Henry Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton, by his second marriage to Caroline, daughter of John Bristow of Quiddenham, Norfolk. He was educated at Rugby School, then matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 24 October 1798 and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) on 17 June 1802 and a Master of Arts (M.A.) on 13 December 1805. A student from December 1800 until 1812 a brilliant scholar of Greek, on 5 July 1810 he was created a Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) on the occasion of Lord Grenville’s installation as Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

Lyttelton unsuccessfully contested Worcestershire in March 1806, but was returned in the following year, and represented the county until 1820 for the Whig party. His maiden speech was made on 27 February 1807 in favour of the rejection of the Westminster petition; and on 16 March he brought forward a motion (rejected by 46 votes) expressing regret at the substitution of the Duke of Portland’s administration for Lord Grenville’s. He attacked the new ministers, especially Spencer Perceval, for bigotry. He supported the naval expedition to Copenhagen in opposition to the bulk of his party, but voted with them on the motion of Samuel Whitbread for the production of papers relative to it.

Lyttelton felt the Whig jealousy of the influence of the court. In supporting John Christian Curwen’s bill for the prevention of the sale of seats, he suggested that the Duke of York and Albany, the late Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, had to some extent corrupted members of parliament; and in speaking on the budget resolutions of 1808 he declared his belief that the influence of the prerogative had increased. Again, on 4 May 1812, in a debate on the Royal Sinecure Offices Bill, he said that the Prince Regentwas surrounded by favourites. Nevertheless, Lyttelton in 1819 thought that the “revolutionary faction of the radicals” ought to be opposed. In the same session he thought an inquiry was needed into the Peterloo massacre.

Lyttelton advocated abolishing the system of having climbing boys sweep chimneys, and was a strong opponent of the property tax. He supported Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s motion of 6 February 1810 against the standing order for the exclusion of strangers from the house. In the same session, on 16 February, he opposed the voting of an annuity to the Duke of Wellington. He spoke strongly against the Alien Bill in 1816 and 1818.

On the death of his half-brother George Lyttelton, 2nd Baron Lyttelton, on 12 November 1828, Lyttelton succeeded to the title. He did not take much part in the debates of the House of Lords, but on 6 December 1831 he made an speech in favour of the Reform Bill in the debate on the address. He was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Worcestershire on 29 May 1833.

Lyttelton died at the house of John Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer, his brother-in-law, in Green Park, London, on 30 April 1837, aged 55.

Sydney Smith’s Letters of Peter Plymley were for a time ascribed to Lyttelton before their authorship was known. In August 1815, through his friendship with the captain, he obtained a passage on board the HMS Northumberland (1798) from Portsmouth to Plymouth to witness Napoleon’s departure into exile, and privately printed 52 copies of An Account of Napoleon Buonaparte’s Coming on Board H.M.S. Northumberland, 7 Aug. 1815; with Notes of Two Conversations Held with Him. He also printed a Catalogue of Pictures at Hagley (date of publication unknown), and published Private Devotions for School Boys.

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Lady Sarah Spencer

Lyttelton married Lady Sarah Spencer, daughter of George John, 2nd Earl Spencer, on 4 March 1813; she was for a time governess to the children of Queen Victoria and a Lady of the Bedchamber, and died 13 April 1870. They had three sons:

  • George William, who succeeded to the title;
  • Spencer (1818–1882), who became marshal of the ceremonies to the royal household; and
  • William Henry Lyttelton, canon of Gloucester;

They also had two daughters, Caroline (1816–1902), who died unmarried; and Lavinia (1821–1850), wife of Henry Glynne, rector of Hawarden.

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