Posts Tagged ‘Duke of York and Albany Prince Frederick Augustus Hanover’

Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Watier’s Club


Watier’s Club, 81 Piccadilly

Watier’s Club prior to its occupation as a gaming hall and restaurant, was a private residence, and the headquarters of a small singing club. The Prince of Wales suggested the creation of a club using his new chef, Jean-Baptiste Watier, (who, of course, was the club’s namesake). Amongst the members in the early days were Henry Mildmay, Baron Alvanley, Beau Brummell and Henry Pierrepont.

At the opposite corner of Bolton Street stood, from 1807 to 1819, Watier’s Gambling Club. Concerning the origin of this club—or rather, gaming house, for it was nothing more—the following anecdote is told by Captain Gronow:—”Upon one occasion, some gentlemen of both ‘White’s’ and ‘Brooks’s’ had the honour to dine with the Prince Regent, and during the conversation the Prince inquired what sort of dinners they got at their clubs; upon which Sir Thomas Stepney, one of the guests, observed that their dinners were always the same, the eternal joints or beef-steaks, the boiled fowl with oyster sauce, and an apple tart. ‘That is what we have at our clubs, and very monotonous fare it is.’ The Prince, without further remark, rang the bell for his cook, Watier, and in the presence of those who dined at the royal table, asked him whether he would take a house and organise a dinner-club. Watier assented, and named the Prince’s page, Madison, as manager, and Labourie, from the royal kitchen, as cook. The club flourished only a few years, owing to the night-play that was carried on there. The favourite game played there was ‘Macao.'” The Duke of York patronised it, and was a member. Tom Moore also tells us that he belonged to it. The dinners were exquisite; the best Parisian cooks could not beat Labourie.

Mr. John Timbs, in his account of this club, remarks, with sly humour, “In the old days, when gaming was in fashion, at Watier’s Club both princes and nobles lost or gained fortunes between themselves;’ and by all accounts “Macao” seems to have been a far more effective instrument in the losing of fortunes than either “Whist” or “Loo.”

Mr. Raikes, in his “Journal,” says that Watier’s Club, which had originally been established for harmonic meetings, became, in the time of “Beau” Brummell, the resort of nearly all the fine gentlemen of the day. “The dinners,” he adds, “were superlative, and high play at ‘Macao’ was generally introduced. It was this game, or rather losses which arose out of it, that first led the ‘Beau’ into difficulties.” Mr. Raikes further remarks, with reference to this club, that its pace was “too quick to last,” and that its records show that none of its members at his death had reached the average age of man. The club was closed in 1819, when the house was taken by a set of “black-legs” who instituted a common bank for gambling. This caused the ruin of several fortunes, and it was suppressed in its turn, or died a natural death.

It was at the behest of the Prince Regent, (later King George IV), that Brummell was named the club’s president.

The club carried the affectionate nickname, “The Dandies Club,” which was bestowed by Lord Byron who remarked, “I like the dandies, they were always very civil to me.”

The club had a very short life eventually fading out in 1819, it had become the haven for ‘blackguards’ and fortunes were being lost to a ‘common bank’ that had been set up by a group of members and guaranteed ruin for others.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Edward Dayes


Edward Dayes

Edward Dayes studied under William Pether, and began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1786, when he showed a portrait and views of Waltham Cross and Canterbury. In the three following years he exhibited both miniatures and landscapes. He continued to exhibit at the Academy regularly until the year of his death, contributing a total of 64 works. He also was an exhibitor at the Society of Artists.

Dayes drew from nature in various parts of England, including the Lake District and Wales. Much of his topographical work depicted ruins, painted in a palette dominated by blues and greens, which had an influence on the early work of J.M.W. Turner. He laid out detailed rules for the correct method of laying down the colours in landscape in his Instructions for Drawing and Colouring Landscapes, published posthumously.

Many of his drawings were crowded with figures; among these were two views of the interior of St. Paul’s Cathedral on the occasion of the thanksgiving for the king’s recovery in 1789, The Trial of Warren Hastings in Westminster Abbey, and Buckingham House, St. James’s Park (1780), later hung in the South Kensington Museum. All these works were engraved. In 1798 Dayes began to show scriptural subjects, such as The Fall of the Angels (1798), John preaching in the Wilderness (1799), the Triumph of Beauty (1800), and Elisha causing Iron to swim (1801).

He was draughtsman to the Duke of York and Albany. Thomas Girtin, was his pupil.

Dayes engraved at least four mezzotints, one after George Morland, another after John Raphael Smith, and two humorous scenes called Rustic Courtship and Polite Courtship. He wrote an Excursion through Derbyshire and Yorkshire, Essays on Painting, Instructions for Drawing and Colouring Landscapes, and Professional Sketches of Modern Artists. He committed suicide at the end of May 1804. After his death his works were collected and edited by E. W. Bradley, and published for the benefit of his widow in 1805.

His wife painted miniatures and exhibited four works at the Royal Academy between 1797 and 1800.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd


Charles Gregan Craufurd

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd was the second son of Sir Alexander Crauford, 1st Baronet (see Crauford baronets), and the elder brother of Robert Craufurd. Born in Golden Square, London he was educated at Eton.

Charles Craufurd entered the 1st Dragoon Guards as a Cornet on 15 December 1778. Promoted a Lieutenant in 1781, he was raised to the rank of Captain in the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen’s Bays) in 1785. He became the equerry and intimate friend of the Duke of York. He studied in Germany for some time, and, with his brother Robert’s assistance, translated Tielke’s book on the Seven Years’ War (The Remarkable Events of the War between Prussia, Austria and Russia from 1756 to 1763). As aide-de-camp he accompanied the duke of York to the French War on the Netherlands in May 1793 attached to the Austrian HQ’s Commander-in-Chief. He was at once sent as commissioner to the Austrian headquarters, with which he was present at Neerwinden, Caesar’s Camp, Famars, Landrecies, etc.

Promoted to major in May 1793, and lieutenant-colonel in February 1794, he returned to the British Army in the latter year to become Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General. On one occasion distinguished himself at the head of a charge of two squadrons, capturing three guns and taking 1,000 prisoners.(See the Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies) When the British army left the continent Craufurd was again attached to the Austrian Army, and was present at the actions on the Lahn, the combat of Neumarket, and the Amberg. At the last battle a severe wound rendered him incapable of further service, and cut short a promising career. He was invalided out to England. There he did all he could to advance his brother, Robert’s career. Promoted Colonel on 26 January 1797, he was already in charge of a brigade-major. On 23 September 1803 he was promoted to Major-General.

On 7 February 1800 he was married Anna Mary, widow of Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle. The 4th Duke was a minor. His brother Robert got married on the same day. Charles Craufurd was already an MP when appointed Colonel of 2nd Dragoon Guards. He was made a Lieutenant-General in 1810. He succeeded his brother Robert as Member of Parliament (MP) for East Retford (1806–1812). He died in 1821, and made GCB on 27 May 1820. Charles Craufurd was a Tory in politics, friend of Lord Londonderry.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Ward (Engraver)

William Ward was the son of James and Rachael Ward, and elder brother of James Ward.

William Ward was appointed engraver to the Duke of York, the Prince of Wales, and associate engraver to the Royal Academy.

William Ward’s brother James was one of the outstanding artists of the day, his singular style and great skill set him above most of his contemporaries, markedly influencing the growth of British art. Regarded as one of the great animal painters of his time, James produced history paintings, portraits, landscapes and genre. He started off as an engraver, trained by William, who later engraved much of his work. The partnership of William and James Ward produced the best that English art had to offer, their great technical skill and artistry having led to images that reflect the grace and charm of the era.

He was married to Maria Morland, sister of George Morland, and had two children – Martin Theodore Ward, d. 1874 and William James Ward, d. 1840.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle
1762– 30 November 1833


Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle

Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle was born at Chester about 1762, he was the only son of Francis Wardle, J.P., of Hartsheath, near Mold, Flintshire, and Catherine, daughter of Richard Lloyd Gwyllym. He was during 1775 at Harrow School, but left in poor health; he was then at the school of George Henry Glasse at Greenford, near Ealing, Middlesex. He was admitted pensioner at St John’s College, Cambridge, on 12 February 1780, but did not take a degree.

After travelling on the continent of Europe, Wardle settled at Hartsheath. He went into business with William Alexander Madocks, in particular at Tremadog.

When Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 5th Baronet raised a troop of dragoons, officially called “the ancient British Light Dragoons”,’ and popularly known as “Wynn’s Lambs”, Wardle served in it, in Ireland. He is said to have fought at the battle of Vinegar Hill in 1798. At the peace of Amiens the troop was disbanded, and Wardle retired with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.

Wardle moved to Green Park Place, Bath, Somerset, in about 1800, where he was living when elected Member of Parliament for Okehampton in Devon in 1807. He won the election with 113 votes, and he is said to have been returned without the support of the borough’s patron. According to a pamphlet by William Farquharson, he also had interests in a gin distillery in Jersey.

As a result of the scandals arising from the relationship of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the commander-in-chief of the army, with Mary Anne Clarke, Wardle brought forward a motion against the Duke on 27 January 1809. Acting with Sir Francis Burdett, Wardle was able, through parliamentary privilege, to fight against the government’s libel action against the press, which aimed to prevent corruption rumours against the Duke from becoming public. The House of Commons went into committee on the subject on 1 February, and the proceedings lasted until 20 March. Though he failed in convicting the Duke of personal corruption, sufficient indiscretions were proved to force his retirement. Due to public interest in the case, Wardle briefly became more prominent than Burdett, who was otherwise a more substantial radical campaigner.

Up to this point Wardle had been thought a bon viveur rather than a politician, but he remained committed to his cause. He made a long speech in parliament on 19 June 1809 on the public economy, and his resolutions on this were agreed. He was presented with the freedom of the city of London on 6 April 1809 and congratulatory addresses were presented to him by many corporations throughout the United Kingdom. His likeness was reproduced in a number of forms.

On 3 July 1809, Wardle’s fortunes changed for the worse, when an upholsterer called Francis Wright brought a court action against him over matters concerning the furnishing of Mary Anne Clarke’s house. With the attorney-general prosecuting, the jury found against Wardle, and evidence came out that Clarke and Wardle had colluded against the Duke. Wardle denied this in an open letter, and on 11 December he brought an action against the Wrights and Clarke for conspiracy. He lost the case, along with his reputation, James Glenie, a witness for the crown in the first trial, was also heavily criticised by the judge Lord Ellenborough.

Wardle’s radical supporters included Timothy Brown, Major John Cartwright, William Cobbett, William Frend, and Robert Waithman. He was not re-elected for Okehampton after the dissolution of parliament in 1812, despite strong backing.

Wardle moved to a farm in Kent between Tunbridge and Rochester; Mary Anne Clarke wrote that he sold milk. Later, with money troubles, he emigrated. He died in Florence, on 30 November 1833, aged 71.

An address from Colonel Wardle to his countrymen, arguing for Catholic Emancipation, was circulated in 1828. It was dated Florence, 3 November 1827, and praised conditions of life in Catholic Tuscany.

In 1792 Wardle married Ellen Elizabeth Parry, daughter of Love Parry of Madryn, Carnarvonshire, who brought him estates in that county. They had seven children. He was an unfaithful husband.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

General Lord Charles FitzRoy
17 July 1764 – 20 December 1829

Lord Charles FitzRoy was the second son of Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton and his first wife, Anne, a daughter of Henry Liddell, 1st Baron Ravensworth. After education at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he entered the army in 1782 as an ensign. In 1787, he was appointed a captain in the Scots Guards and an equerry in 1788, to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, under whom he served in Flanders from 1793-4.

In 1795, FitzRoy was appointed an aide-de-camp to King George III with the rank of colonel and promoted to major-general in 1798. From 1798-99, he served in Ireland then in England until 1809, commanding a battalion of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 1804-5. He was appointed colonel of the 48th (Northamptonshire) Regiment of Foot and lieutenant-general in 1805 and general in 1814.

From 1787-96 and again from 1802–18, FitzRoy was member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds (though never actually spoke in the house). He supported Pitt and favoured abolitionism and Catholic Emancipation.

FitzRoy died at his house in Berkeley Square, London in 1829 and was buried at Wicken, Northamptonshire.

On 20 June 1795, FitzRoy married Frances Mundy (d. 1797; the daughter of Edward Miller Mundy, MP) and they had one son, Sir Charles FitzRoy who was the governor of New South Wales, governor of Prince Edward Island and governor of Antigua. After his wife’s death, he married Lady Frances Stewart (d. 1810; the eldest daughter of Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry) and they had three children:

  • George FitzRoy (c.1800-1882), British Army officer.
  • Robert (1805–1865), hydrographer.
  • Frances (d. 1878), married George Rice-Trevor, 4th Baron Dynevor.

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Regency Personalities Series

In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

General Henry Edward Fox
4 March 1755 – 18 July 1811


Henry Edward Fox

General Henry Edward Fox a son of Henry Fox, first Baron Holland and his second wife, (Georgiana) Caroline Fox, née Lennox, he was a younger brother of the politician Charles James Fox.

He attended Westminster School before being commissioned as a cornet in the 1st dragoon guards in 1770. Soon after that he spent 1 year’s leave at the military academy at Strasbourg. After his return he rose to lieutenant (1773) then captain (1774).

In 1773 he moved to the 38th Regiment of Foot, stationed at Boston, and fought in the American War of Independence (spending 1778-79 on leave in England). By the end of the war he had risen to colonel and king’s aide-de-camp, and he then moved to command the forces in Nova Scotia (1783–89), where he was influential in the creation of the new colony of New Brunswick, and then the Chatham barracks (1789–93).

Next he was quartermaster-general on the Duke of York’s staff in Flanders to replace the recently killed James Moncrieff (1793–95) and fought in the Netherlands theatre of the French Revolutionary Wars. He then served as inspector-general of the recruiting service (1795–99), lieutenant-governor of Minorca (1799–1801) following its capture from the French, commander in chief of all British Mediterranean forces outside Gibraltar (1801–03, replacing General Sir Ralph Abercromby fatally wounded at the battle of Alexandria) and finally Commander-in-Chief, Ireland (1803). In Ireland he was caught off-guard by Robert Emmet’s Dublin uprising (23 July 1803) and was quickly replaced by Lieutenant-General Cathcart, whose appointment was gazetted on 20 October.

Fox moved to be commander of the London district (1803), Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar (1804–06), Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean (1806–07) and minister to Sicily. With his health weakening, Fox passed active command of the force to his deputy, Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore. The smallness of his force (made yet smaller when Major-General Mackenzie Fraser was sent to occupy Alexandria) meant he refused the repeated requests from the Sicilian court and William Drummond, British minister at the Sicilian court, for land operations on the Italian mainland. Fox and Moore also opposed the naval commander William Sidney Smith’s political machinations at the Sicilian court, contrary as they were to the army’s tactics for the Italian theatre, until Fox’s ill health finally led to his being recalled by the British government and replaced by Moore. Fox was promoted full general on 25 April 1808, appointed governor of Portsmouth in 1810 and died the following year.

On 14 November 1786 he married Marianne Clayton, daughter of William Clayton, 4th Baronet and sister of Catherine, Lady Howard de Walden, and they had 3 children

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