Posts Tagged ‘Arthur Wellesley’

Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Sir John Thomas Duckworth 1st Baronet
9 February 1748 – 31 August 1817


John Thomas Duckworth

Sir John Thomas Duckworth 1st Baronet was Born in Leatherhead, Surrey, England, Duckworth was one of five sons of Sarah Johnson and the vicar Henry Duckworth A.M. of Stoke Poges, County of Buckinghamshire. The Duckworths were descended from a landed family, with Henry later being installed as Canon of Windsor. John Duckworth went to Eton College, but began his naval career in 1759 at the suggestion of Edward Boscawen, when he entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman on HMS Namur. Namur later became part of the fleet under Sir Edward Hawke, and Duckworth was present at the Battle of Quiberon Bay on 20 November 1759. On 5 April 1764 he joined the 50-gun HMS Guernsey at Chatham, after leaving HMS Prince of Orange, to serve with Admiral Hugh Palliser, then Governor of Newfoundland. He served aboard HMS Princess Royal, on which he suffered a concussion when he was hit by the head of another sailor, decapitated by a cannonball. He spent some months as an acting lieutenant, and was confirmed in the rank on 14 November 1771. He then spent three years aboard the 74-gun HMS Kent, the Plymouth guardship, under Captain Charles Fielding. Fielding was given command of the frigate HMS Diamond in early 1776, and he took Duckworth with him as his first lieutenant. Duckworth married Anne Wallis in July 1776, with whom he had a son and a daughter.

After some time in North America, where Duckworth became involved in a court-martial after an accident at Rhode Island on 18 January 1777 left several men dead, the Diamond was sent to join Vice-Admiral John Byron’s fleet in the West Indies. Byron transferred him to his own ship, HMS Princess Royal, in March 1779, and Duckworth was present aboard her at the Battle of Grenada on 6 July 1779. Duckworth was promoted to commander ten days after this and given command of the sloop-of-war HMS Rover. After cruising off Martinique for a time, he was promoted to post captain on 16 June 1780 and given command of the 74-gun HMS Terrible. He returned to the Princess Royal as flag-captain to Rear-Admiral Sir Joshua Rowley, with whom he went to Jamaica. He was briefly in command of HMS Yarmouth, before moving into HMS Bristol in February 1781, and returned to England with a trade convoy. In the years of peace before the French Revolution he was a captain of the 74-gun HMS Bombay Castle, lying at Plymouth.

Fighting against France, Duckworth distinguished himself both in European waters and in the Caribbean. He was initially in command of the 74-gun HMS Orion from 1793 and served in the Channel Fleet under Admiral Lord Howe. He was in action at the Glorious First of June. Duckworth was one of few commanders specifically mentioned by Howe for their good conduct, and one of eighteen commanders honoured with the Naval Gold Medal, and the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. He was appointed to command the 74-gun HMS Leviathan in early 1794, and went out to the West Indies where he served under Rear-Admiral Sir William Parker. He was appointed commodore at Santo Domingo in August 1796. In 1798 Duckworth was in command of a small squadron of four vessels. He sailed for Minorca on 19 October 1798, where he was a joint commander with Sir Charles Stuart, initially landing his 800 troops in the bay of Addaya, and later landing sailors and marines from his ships, which included the frigates HMS Cormorant and HMS Aurora, to support the Army. He was promoted to rear-admiral of the white on 14 February 1799 following Minorca’s capture, and “Minorca” was later inscribed on his coat of arms. In June his squadron of four ships captured Courageux.

In April 1800 was in command of the blockading squadron off Cadiz, and intercepted a large and rich Spanish convoy from Lima off Cadiz, consisting of two frigates (both taken as prizes) and eleven merchant vessels, with his share of the prize money estimated at £75,000. In June 1800 he sailed to take up his post as the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief at Barbados and Leeward Islands, succeeding Lord Hugh Seymour.

Duckworth was nominated a Knight Companion of the most Honourable Military Order of the Bath in 1801 (and installed in 1803), for the capture of the islands of St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix and defeat of the Swedish and Danish forces stationed there on 20 March 1801. Lieutenant-General Thomas Trigge commanded the ground troops, which consisted of two brigades under Brigadier-Generals Fuller and Frederick Maitland, of 1,500 and 1,800 troops respectively. These included the 64th Regiment of Foot (Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Pakenham), and the 2nd and 8th West Indies Regiments, two detachments of Royal Artillery, and two companies of sailors, each of about 100 men. The ships involved, in addition to Leviathan, included HMS Andromeda, HMS Unite, HMS Coromandel, HMS Proselyte, HMS Amphitrite, HMS Hornet, the brig HMS Drake, armed brig HMS Fanny, schooner HMS Eclair, and tender HMS Alexandria. Aside from the territory and prisoners taken during the operation, Duckworth’s force took two Swedish merchantmen, a Danish ship (in ballast), three small French vessels, one privateer brig (12-guns), one captured English ship, a merchant-brig, four small schooners, and a sloop.

From 1803 until 1805, Duckworth assumed command as the commander-in-chief of the Jamaica Station, during which time he directed the operations which led to the surrender of General Rochambeau and the French army, following the successful Blockade of Saint-Domingue. Duckworth was promoted to vice-admiral of the blue on 23 April 1804, and he was appointed a Colonel of Marines. He succeeded in capturing numerous enemy vessels and 5,512 French prisoners of war. In recognition of his service, the Legislative Assembly of Jamaica presented Duckworth with a ceremonial sword and a gold scabbard, inscribed with a message of thanks. The merchants of Kingston provided a second gift, an ornamental tea kettle signifying Duckworth’s defence of sugar and tea exports Both sword and kettle were subsequently gifted to the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich.

Duckworth remained in Jamaica until 1805, returning to England that April aboard HMS Acasta. On his return to England again, he was called to face court-martial charges brought by Captain James Athol Wood of HMS Acasta, who claimed that Duckworth had transgressed the 18th Article of War; “Taking goods onboard other than for the use of the vessel, except gold & etc.” Duckworth had apparently acquired some goods, and in wishing to transport them home in person reassigned Captain Wood to another vessel on Jamaica station knowing that the vessel was soon to be take under command by another flag officer. Consequently Duckworth was able to take the goods to England as personal luggage, and Wood was forced to sail back as a passenger on his own ship. The court-martial was held on board HMS Gladiator in Portsmouth on 25 April 1805, but the charge was dropped on 7 June 1805.

In 1805 the Admiralty decided that Duckworth should raise his flag aboard HMS Royal George and sail to join Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson off Cadiz. However, the Plymouth Dockyards could not make Royal George ready to sail in time, and Duckworth was directed to raise his flag in HMS Superb, with Captain Richard Keats as his flag-captain. By the time of his arrival on 15 November, the Battle of Trafalgar had been fought. Duckworth was ordered to take command of the West Indies squadron involved in the blockade of Cadiz, with seven sail of the line, consisting of five 74-gun ships, the 80-gun HMS Canopus and the 64-gun HMS Agamemnon, and two frigates.

Although known for a cautious character, he abandoned the blockade and sailed in search of a French squadron under Admiral Zacharie Allemand, which had been reported by a frigate off Madeira on 30 November, on his own initiative. While searching for the French, which eventually eluded him, he came across another French squadron on 25 December, consisting of six sail of the line and a frigate. This was the squadron under Contre-Admiral Jean-Baptiste Willaumez, heading for the Cape of Good Hope, and pursued by Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Strachan. Duckworth gave chase, but with his squadron scattered, decided not to risk engaging with his one ship, and gave it up.

Duckworth then set sail for the Leeward Islands to take on water, dispatching the 74-gun HMS Powerful to reinforce the East Indies squadron. There, at Saint Kitts, he was joined on 21 January 1806 by the 74-gun ships HMS Northumberland and HMS Atlas commanded by Sir Alexander Cochrane, and on 1 February a brig Kingfisher commanded by Nathaniel Day Cochrane, which brought news of French at San Domingo. The French had a squadron of five ships: the 120-gun Imperial, two 84-gun and two 74-gun ships and two frigates, under the command of Vice-Admiral Corentin Urbain Leissègues which escaped from Brest and sought to reinforce the French forces at San Domingo with about 1,000 troops. Arriving at San Domingo on 6 February 1806, Duckworth found the French squadron with its transports anchored in the Occa bay. The French commander immediately hurried to sea, forming a line of battle as they went. Duckworth gave the signal to form two columns of four and three ships of the line.

In the Battle of San Domingo, Duckworth’s squadron defeated the squadron of French when
Duckworth at once made the signal to attack and “with a portrait of Nelson suspended from the mizzen stay of the Superb with the band playing ‘God Save the King’ and ‘Nelson of the Nile’, bore down on the leading French ship Alexandre of 84 guns and engaged her at close quarters. After a severe action of two hours, two of the French ships were driven ashore and burnt with three others captured. Only the French frigates escaped.

Despite this, it is thought that Duckworth used his own ship cautiously, and the credit for the victory was due more to the initiative of the individual British captains. Duckworth nearly grounded his own ship as he attempted to board Impérial.

His victory over the French Admiral Leissègues off the coast of Hispaniola on 6 February together with Admiral Alexander Cochrane’s squadron was a fatal blow to French strategy in the Caribbean region, and played a major part in Napoleon’s eventual sale of Louisiana, and withdrawal from the Caribbean. It was judged sufficiently important to have the Tower of London guns fire a salute. San Domingo was added to Duckworth’s coat of arms as words; a British sailor was added to the supporters of the Arms in 1814.
A promotion to vice-admiral of the white in April 1806 followed, along with the presentation of a sword of honour by the House of Assembly of Jamaica, while his naval feats were acknowledged with several honours, including a sword of honour by the corporation of the City of London. A great dinner was also held in his honour as the Mansion House. On his return to England, Duckworth was granted a substantial pension of £1,000 from the House of Commons, and the freedom of the city of London.

Santo Domingo was the last significant fleet action of the Napoleonic Wars which, despite negative claims made about his personality, displayed Duckworth’s understanding of the role of naval strategy in the overall war by securing for Britain mastery of the sea, and thus having sea-oriented mentality having placed a British fleet in the right strategic position. Duckworth also displayed the willingness of accept changing tactics employed by Nelson, and maintained the superiority of British naval gunnery in battle.

Duckworth was appointed second in command of the Mediterranean Fleet in 1805 primarily on consideration by the Admiralty of having a senior officer in the forthcoming operations with the Imperial Russian Navy. Sailing in the 100-gun first-rate HMS Royal George with eight ships of the line and four smaller vessels, he arrived at the island of Tenedos with orders to take possession of the Ottoman fleet at Constantinople, thus supporting Dmitry Senyavin’s fleet in the Dardanelles Operation. Accompanying him were some of the ablest Royal Navy officers such as Sidney Smith, Richard Dacres and Henry Blackwood but he was in doubt of having the capability to breach the shore batteries and reach the anchored Ottoman fleet. Aware of Turkish efforts to reinforce the shore artillery, he nevertheless took no action until 11 February 1807 and spent some time in the strait waiting for a favourable wind. In the evening of the same day Blackwood’s ship, HMS Ajax accidentally caught fire while at anchor off Tenedos, and was destroyed, although her captain and most of the crew were saved and redistributed among the fleet. Finally on 19 February at the Action at Point Pisquies (Nagara Burun), a part of the British force encountered the Ottoman fleet which engaged first. One 64-gun ship of the line, four 36-gun frigates, five 12-gun corvettes, one 8-gun brig, and a gunboat were forced ashore and burnt by the part of the British fleet.

The British fleet consisted of HMS Standard, under Captain Thomas Harvey, HMS Thunderer, under Captain John Talbot, HMS Pompee, under flag captain Richard Dacres, and HMS Repulse, under Captain Arthur Kaye Legge, as well as the frigate HMS Active, under Captain Richard Hussey Mowbray, under the command of Rear-Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, commanding the rear division. They took one corvette and one gunboat, and the flags of the Turkish Vice-Admiral and Captain Pasha in the process, with adjacent fortifications destroyed by landing parties from HMS Thunderer, HMS Pompée, and HMS Repulse, while its 31 guns were spiked by the marines. The marines were commanded by Captain Nicholls of HMS Standard who had also boarded the Turkish ship of the line. There were eight 32 lb and 24 lb brass guns and the rest firing marble shot weighing upwards of 200 pounds. On 20 February the British squadron under Duckworth, having joined Smith with the second division of ships under command of Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Louis, reached the Ottoman capital, but had to engage in fruitless negotiations with the Sultan’s representatives, advised by Napoleon’s ambassador Sébastiani, and with the accompanying British ambassador Charles Arbuthnot and Russian plenipotentiary Andrey Italinski, the latter being carried aboard on HMS Endymion, under the command of Captain Thomas Bladen Capel, due to the secret instructions that were issued as part of his orders for the mission, and therefore losing more time as the Turks played for time to complete their shore batteries in the hope of trapping the British squadron.

Smith was joined a week later by Duckworth, who observed the four bays of the Dardanelles lined with five hundred cannon and one hundred mortars as his ships passed towards Constantinople. There he found the rest of the Turkish fleet of twelve ships of the line and nine frigates, all apparently ready for action in Constantinople harbour. Exasperated by Turkish intransigence, and not having a significant force to land on the shore, Duckworth decided to withdraw on 1 March after declining to take Smith’s advice to bombard the Turkish Arsenal and gunpowder manufacturing works. The British fleet was subjected to shore artillery fire all the way to the open sea, and sustaining casualties and damage to ships from 26-inch calibre (650 mm) guns firing 300-800 pound marble shot.

Though blamed for indecisiveness, notably by Thomas Grenville, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Duckworth announced that

I must, as an officer, declare to be my decided opinion that, without the cooperation of a body of land forces, it would be a wanton sacrifice of the squadrons to attempt to force the passage

After his departure from Constantinople, he commanded the squadron protecting transports of the Alexandria expedition of 1807, but that was forced to withdraw after five months due to lack of supplies. Duckworth summed up this expedition, in reflection on the service of the year by commenting that

Instead of acting vigorously in either one or the other direction, our cabinet comes to the miserable determination of sending five or six men-of-war, without soldiers, to the Dardanelles, and 5000 soldiers, without a fleet, to Alexandria.

Soon after, he married again, on 14 May 1808 to Susannah Catherine Buller, a daughter of William Buller, the Bishop of Exeter. They had two sons together before his death, she survived him, dying on 27 April 1840.

Duckworth’s career however did not suffer greatly, and in 1808 and 1810 he went on to sail in HMS San Josef and HMS Hibernia, some of the largest first-rates in the Royal Navy, as commander of the Channel Fleet, One of the least pleasant duties in his life was his participation in the court-martial of Admiral Lord Gambier, after the Battle of the Basque Roads.

Probably because he was thought of as irresolute and unimaginative, on 26 March 1810 Duckworth was appointed Governor of Newfoundland and Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian squadron’s three frigates and eight smaller vessels. Although this was a minor command in a remote station spanning from Davis Strait to the Gulf of St Lawrence, he also received a promotion to admiral of the blue, flying his flag aboard the 50-gun HMS Antelope.

While serving as Governor he was attacked for his arbitrary powers over the territory, and retaliated against the pamphleteer by disallowing his reappointment as surgeon of the local militia unit, the Loyal Volunteers of St John, which Duckworth renamed the St John’s Volunteer Rangers, and enlarged to 500 officers and militiamen for the War of 1812 with the United States.

Duckworth also took an interest in bettering relationship with the local Beothuk Indians, and sponsored Lieutenant David Buchan’s expedition up the Exploits River in 1810 to explore the region of the Beothuk settlements.

As the governor and station naval commander, Duckworth had to contend with American concerns over the issues of “Free Trade and Sailor’s Rights.” His orders and instructions to captains under his command were therefore directly concerned with fishing rights of US vessels on the Grand Banks, the prohibition of United States trade with British colonials, the searching of ships under US flag for contraband, and the impressment of seamen for service on British vessels. He returned to Portsmouth on 28 November in HMS Antelope after escorting transports from Newfoundland.

On 2 December 1812, soon after arriving in Devon, Duckworth resigned as governor after being offered a parliamentary seat for New Romney on the coast of Kent. At about this time he found out that his oldest son George Henry had been killed in action while serving in the rank of a Colonel with the Duke of Wellington, during the Peninsular War. George Henry had been killed at the Battle of Albuera at the head of the 48th (Northamptonshire) Regiment of Foot. Sir John was created a baronet on 2 November 1813, adopting a motto Disciplina, fide, perseverantia (Discipline, fidelity, perseverance), and in January 1815 was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth 45 miles from his home; a post considered one of semi-retirement by his successor, Lord Exmouth. However, on 26 June that year it became a centre of attention due to the visit by HMS Bellerophon bearing Napoleon to his final exile, with Duckworth being the last senior British officer to speak with him before his departure on board HMS Northumberland.

Duckworth died at his post on the base in 1817 at 1 o’clock, after several months of illness; after a long and distinguished service with the Royal Navy. He was buried on 9 September at the church in Topsham, where he was laid to rest in the family vault, with his coffin covered with crimson velvet studded with 2,500 silvered nails to resemble a ship’s planking.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

Sir Hugh Gough
3 November 1779 – 2 March 1869


Hugh Gough

Sir Hugh Gough a British Army officer. After serving as a junior officer at the seizure of the Cape of Good Hope during the French Revolutionary Wars, Gough commanded the 2nd Battalion of the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot during the Peninsular War. After serving as commander-in-chief of the British forces in China during the First Opium War, he became Commander-in-Chief, India and led the British forces in action against the Mahrattas defeating them decisively at the conclusion of the Gwalior Campaign and then commanded the troops that defeated the Sikhs during both the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

Born the son of Lieutenant-Colonel George Gough and Letitia Gough (née Bunbury), Gough was commissioned into the Limerick Militia on 7 August 1793. He transferred to a locally-raised regiment on 7 August 1794 and, having been promoted to lieutenant in the 119th Regiment of Foot on 11 October 1794, transferred to the 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot on 6 June 1795. He took part in the capture of the Cape of Good Hope in September 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars and transferred to the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot in December 1795, before being deployed with his regiment in the West Indies and taking part in the expedition to Dutch Guiana in 1799. After returning to England he was promoted to captain in the 2nd Battalion of his regiment on 25 June 1803 and to major in the same battalion on 25 June 1803.

Gough joined joined Sir Arthur Wellesley in Spain in January 1809 and commanded the 2nd Battalion of his regiment at the Battle of Talavera, during which he was wounded in July 1809 during the Peninsular War. He also fought at the Battle of Barrosa, where his regiment captured a French Imperial Eagle in March 1811. Promoted to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 30 March 1811, he also took part in the Siege of Tarifa in January 1812, the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 and the Battle of Nivelle, during which he was again badly wounded in November 1813. He was promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant-colonel on 25 May 1815, appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 4 June 1815 and appointed a Knight Bachelor on 16 March 1816.

Promoted to colonel on 12 August 1819, Gough became commanding officer of the 22nd Regiment of Foot in County Tipperary where he also served as a local magistrate. He was promoted to major general on 22 July 1830 and advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 18 September 1831.

Gough became General Officer Commanding the Mysore division of the Madras Army in 1837. At the outset of the First Opium War in March 1839 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in China. He led the assault at the Battle of Canton in May 1841, and having been promoted to the local rank of lieutenant general in India and in China on 18 June 1841, he also led the assault at the Battle of Amoy in August 1841. Advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 14 October 1841 and promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 23 November 1841, he commanded the British forces at the Battle of Chapoo in May 1842 and at the Battle of Chinkiang in July 1842. After the Treaty of Nanking, the British forces were withdrawn and he returned to India. He became a baronet on 1 December 1842 and was promoted to the local rank of full general in India on 3 March 1843.

In August 1843 Gough became Commander-in-Chief, India, and in December 1843 he led the British forces in action against the Mahrattas defeating them decisively at the conclusion of the Gwalior Campaign. He also commanded the troops at the Battle of Mudki in December 1845, at the Battle of Ferozeshah also in December 1845 and at the Battle of Sobraon in February 1846 during the First Anglo-Sikh War. Gough was loyally supported by Lord Hardinge, the governor-general, who served under him during these actions. Gough was elevated to the peerage as Baron Gough of Chinkiang in China and of Maharajpore and the Sutlej in the East Indies on 7 April 1846.

The Second Anglo-Sikh War started in 1848, and again Gough took to the field commanding in person at the Battle of Ramnagar in November 1848 and at the Battle of Chillianwala in January 1849. He was criticised for relying on frontal assault by infantry rather than using artillery and was replaced as commander-in-chief by Sir Charles Napier but, before news of his replacement had arrived, Gough achieved a decisive victory over the Sikhs in the Battle of Gujarat in February 1849. For this, he became known as the ‘hammer of the Sikhs’. He returned to Ireland and was advanced in the peerage as Viscount Gough of Goojerat in the Punjab and of the City of Limerick on 4 June 1849. He retired from active service later that year and was promoted to the substantive rank of full general on 20 June 1854.

Gough also served as colonel of the 99th Regiment of Foot, as colonel of the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot and later as colonel of the Royal Horse Guards. In Dublin, he was a member of the Kildare Street Club. Promoted to field marshal on 9 November 1862, he died at St. Helen’s, his home in Booterstown, on 2 March 1869 and was buried in Stillorgan. In June 1807 Gough married Frances Maria Stephens, daughter of General Edward Stephens.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Salter
1804–22 December 1875

Salter was born in 1804 and educated in Honiton, Devon. He was able to work in James Northcote’s studios from 1822. Five years later he went on a Grand Tour to Italy. Unlike other grand tourers Salter took up employment as a professor at Florentine Academy of Fine Arts. Salter taught History Painting until 1833 when he returned to England.

His most famous work is The Waterloo Banquet (1836) in Apsley House, which depicts a commemorative banquet held by the Duke of Wellington at Apsley House on the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo in 1836.

The Waterloo Banquet 1836

The story is that Salter was on his horse in Hyde Park on 18 June when he happened to hear and then see the banquet in progress at the Duke of Wellington’s house at Hyde Park Corner. He was so intrigued by the spectacle that he approached his patron with a proposal for a painting to capture the scene. His patron Lady Berghersh consented to approach the Duke with the proposal. The Duke was immediately against the idea as he considered Salter’s immaturity would not be up to the complexity of the painting Salter was proposing. Lady Berghersh was the Duke’s niece and she and the Duke were close and kept up a correspondence for many years. The Duke was persuaded and he gave Salter access to the room and ornaments so that he could get their likenesses.

The centrepiece of the banquet was a large centrepiece that is over a metre wide and over eight metres long. It was a present from the government of Portugal and was made from silver that came from melting down coins. The silver and gilt metalwork was designed by Domingos Antonio de Sequeira and shows the victories of the Napoleonic wars. This silverware and Salter’s painting are both today at Apsley House.

Salter painted scores of military figures as preparation for the Waterloo banquet painting and many of these are now in the National Portrait Gallery. He worked on this painting for five years at his studio in Pall Mall persevering to obtain a sitting from the invitees. Each of the people in the painting was reported as a good likeness.

The banquet that is shown is the one in 1836 when King William IV attended. The King died the following year, but Lord Bathurst was included in the picture despite his having already died. Earlier banquets may have had even more invitees. All the field officers were invited and over the years some had already died. Others in the picture were William, King of the Netherlands, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, Hussey Vivian, 1st Baron Vivian, Major-General Sir Peregrine Maitland and Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill. Other field officers there included Sir Frederick Adam, Sir Henry Askew Bt, General Sir Andrew Francis Barnard, Colonel Sempronius Stretton, and General Sir Henry Wyndham.

The King is sitting at Wellington’s right as the Duke proposes a toast. The idea of choosing this moment is not by chance. Salter had a problem of composition as he had to deliver a good likeness of over eighty people. As a banquet usually would result in half of the people facing away from a viewer he chose this moment so that the celebrants could more naturally be displayed facing to the side as they sat in conversational groups.

The painting was engraved and was very popular. Tickets were sold to people who wanted to see the painting when it was exhibited in 1841. An 1846 engraving by William Greatbach of the painting also sold well. It was proposed in 1852 to purchase the painting from the artist by public subscription, however this failed to achieve its goal probably due to the Duke’s death in September 1852. The painting remained unsold and passed down to Salter’s heirs.

The painting is now displayed at Apsley House. The tradition of holding a banquet of the anniversary of the day of the battle still continues today.

His picture of Socrates before his Judges was painted whilst he was in Italy and is credited with his favourable reception in Florence and Padua.

In 1835, a new church was built in Honiton. Salter paid for and painted an altarpiece called Descent from the Cross for his hometown in 1838.

Salter was a lifelong member of the Florentine academy and he painted a range of subjects, but he is primarily known for his banquet painting and the related portraits. He, and his patron Lady Burghersh, exhibited at the British Institution and he joined the Society of British Artists in 1846. Salter died at his home in West Kensington on 22 December 1875.

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Regency Personalities Series
In my attempts to provide us with the details of the Regency, today I continue with one of the many period notables.

William Huskisson
March 11 1770-September 15 1830
(DWW-Before I began my deeper study of the birth of the locomotive era, and all that was part of modern transportation which has since changed the world so greatly, I had never heard of William Huskisson. Since, the tragic events of his death at the very birth of the era, has made him a name I am very familiar with.)


Huskisson was a Statesman, financier and Member of Parliament. But he is known as the first widely reported railway casualty on the very day that the first railway line was opened.

Born the son of William, and Elizabeth in Worcestershire, his mother died and his father remarried. His two half brothers were officers in military service, one in the Royal Navy, the other in the Royal Marines. Huskisson attended Appleby Grammar School which was designed by Sir Christopher Wren on the Derbyshire border. In 1783 he was sent to live in Paris with a great-uncle, Dr. Richard Gem. He stayed until 1792 and thus saw the fall of the Bastille as well as the beginning of the entire Revolution. He became interested in politics from his first hand experience. He became a member of the ‘Club of 1789.’ At this point the Marquess of Stafford (DWW-who was or would become in his lifetime, the world’s richest man) was the Ambassador to France and Huskisson became his protégé.

In London he became friends with two others, Henry Dundas, the Home Secretary and William Pitt the Younger, the Prime Minister. Huskisson, fluent in French, was appointed to oversee the Aliens Act in 1793. He was so well recognized for his skill that in 1795 he was appointed Under-Secretary at War (the deputy to the Secretary at War) In 1796 he was elected MP for Morpeth, though he was sick and could not debate in Parliament. In 1800 he inherited his great-uncle, Dr. Gem’s fortune. When Pitt resigned, Huskisson took time for his private ice but in 1804 he represented Liskeard and then when Pitt resumed duties as Prime Minister, Huskisson was named Secretary of the Treasury.

In 1807 he stood for Harwich, and was again Secretary of the Treasury under the Duke of Portland. But he withdrew in 1809 along with George Canning In 1810 Huskisson published a pamphlet on the currency which showed he was the ablest financier of his time. In 1812 he was returned for Chichester. And in 1814 he was appointed First Commissioner of Woods and Forests. In 1819 he proposed a method for the resumption of cash payments which was adopted the same year. In 1821 he was appointed to the committee looking into the agricultural distress of the nation and advocated the relaxation of the Corn Laws.

In 1823 he was appointed President of the Board of Trade and also Treasurer of the Navy. He was now returned as MP for Liverpool, the successor of Canning. Thought to be the only man who could reconcile the Tory merchants to a free trade policy. But Huskisson’s reforms were too much for the Duke of Wellington and he added to Huskisson’s work which caused the measures that were needed to fail. When Canning died, Goderich became Prime Minister and Huskisson became Secretary of the Colonies. Then when Wellington became Prime Minister, he still held the cabinet seat. There was a great compromise on the Corn Laws, after which Huskisson famously resigned his seat. Many other Tories resigned as well including Lord Palmerston, Charles Grant, Lord Dudley and Lord Melbourne.

Now, Wellington did his best to bring back Huskisson, one of the ablest men in England, back to the fold. They were set to shake hands on September 15th, 1830, at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. This was the last day that Huskisson was alive on this earth.


(DWW-I discuss at length the events of Huskisson’s death HERE. The Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The event that perhaps eclipses all he had down in life to make of the event of his death greater and more tied to the history of the modern era, than any other.)

Previous Notables (Click to see the Blog):

George III George IV Georgiana Cavendish
William IV Lady Hester Stanhope Lady Caroline Lamb
Princess Charlotte Queen Charlotte Charles James Fox
Queen Adelaide Dorothea Jordan Jane Austen
Maria Fitzherbert Lord Byron John Keats
Princess Caroline Percy Bysshe Shelley Cassandra Austen
Edmund Kean Thomas Clarkson Sir John Moore
John Burgoyne William Wilberforce Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Sarah Siddons Josiah Wedgwood Emma Hamilton
Hannah More John Phillip Kemble John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent
Ann Hatton Stephen Kemble Mary Robinson
Harriet Mellon Zachary Macaulay George Elphinstone
Thomas Babington George Romney Mary Moser
Ozias Humphry William Hayley Daniel Mendoza
Edward Pellew Angelica Kauffman Sir William Hamilton
David Garrick Pownoll Bastard Pellew Charles Arbuthnot
William Upcott

There will be many other notables coming, a full and changing list can be found here on the blog as I keep adding to it. The list so far is:

General Sir Robert Arbuthnot
Harriet Fane Arbuthnot
Richard Harding Evans
Sir George Barlow
Joseph Antonio Emidy
John Ireland
William Gifford
John Wolcot
Richard Porson
Eva Marie Veigel
‘Gentleman’ John Jackson
Edward Gibbon
William Mason
Thomas Warton
Adam Walker
John Opie
William Cowper
Richard Cumberland
Richard Cosway
Jacob Phillipp Hackert
Sir George Warren
Dominic Serres
Wellington (the Military man)
Horatio Nelson
Cuthbert Collingwood
Thomas Troubridge
Admiral Sir Graham Moore
Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville
Viscount Hood
Thomas Hope
Charles Greville
Colin Mccaulay
Thomas Babington Macaulay
Napoleon Bonaparte
Admiral Israel Pellew
General Banastre Tarleton
Henry Paget
Stapleton Cotton
Sir Charles Grey
Thomas Picton
Thomas Gainsborough
Sir Joshua Reynolds
George Stubbs
Joseph Priestley
William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 9th Duke of St. Albans
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland
Horace Walpole
John Thomas ‘Antiquity’ Smith
Thomas Coutts
William Blake
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Sir Marc Brunel
Marquis of Stafford George Leveson-Gower
George Stephenson
Robert Stephenson
Fanny Kemble
Mary Shelley
Ann Radcliffe
Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy
Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
Henry Herbert Southey
John Nash
Matthew Gregory Lewis
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Thomas Hope
William Beechey
Scrope Davies
Henry Holland
Sir Walter Scott
Lord Elgin
Jeffery Wyatville
Hester Thrale
William Windham
Madame de Stael
James Boswell
Edward Eliot
George Combe
Sir Harry Smith
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond
Juana Maria de Los Dolores de Leon (Lady Smith)
Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell (1766-1839)
Lord Barrymore, Richard Barry (1769-1794)
Lord Bedford, Francis Russell (1765-1802)
Mr. G. Dawson Damer (1788-1856)
Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish (1748-1811)
Lord Foley, Thomas Foley (1780-1833)
Colonel George Hanger (c.1751-1824)
Lord Hertford, Francis Seymour-Ingram (1743-1822)
Lord Yarmouth, Francis Charles Seymour-Ingram (1777-1842)
Edward “Golden Ball” Hughes (1798-1863)
Earl of Jersey, George Bussey Villiers (1735-1805)
Sir John , John Lade (1759-1838)
Duke of Norfolk, Charles Howard (1746-1815)
Duke of York , Frederick Augustus Hanover (1763-1827)
Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1785 as Duc d’ Orleans (1747-1793)
Louis Philippe, Duc de Chartres, acceded 1793 as Duc d’ Orleans (1773-1850)
Captain John (Jack) Willett Payne (1752-1803)
Viscount Petersham, Charles Stanhope(1780-1851)
Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas (1724-1810)
Duke of Rutland, John Henry Manners(1778-1857)
Lord Sefton, William Philip Molyneux (1772-1838)
Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour (1759-1801)
Sir Lumley St. George Skeffington Baronet (1771 – 1850)
Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1766-1835)
Lord Worcester, Henry Somerset (1792-1853)
Hon. Frederick Gerald aka “Poodle” Byng
Thomas Cochrane
Warren Hastings
Edmund Burke

The Dandy Club
        Beau Brummell
        William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
        Henry Mildmay
        Henry Pierrepoint

Patronesses of Almacks
        Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper
        Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
        Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
        Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton
        Mrs. Drummond Burrell
        Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian Ambassador
        Countess Esterhazy, wife of the Austrian Ambassador

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Regency History

Often in my research I keep needing to find who was leading the government and do this through every book. I thought that having the list handy would be good, and then turning it into a research webpage even better. Here is the list. After I post a few more Timeline years and write some more, I will work on the web page with notes about each PM.

The next PM I am doing is Arthur Wellesley, and I am hosting a page devoted to him and then all our period PMs at Regency Assembly Press. That page is here.

Prime Ministers of England

William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 04/02/1783
William Pitt the Younger 12/19/1783
Henry Addington 1st Viscount Sidmouth, “The Doctor” 03/14/1801
William Pitt the Younger 05/10/1804
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville 02/11/1806
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 03/31/1807
Spencer Perceval 10/04/1809
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool 06/08/1812
George Canning 04/10/1827
Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich 08/31/1827
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 01/22/1828
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 11/14/1834
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
Tory* (Tory government, PM a Whig)

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington,

“The Iron Duke”, “The Beau”, “The Peer”, “Beau Douro” “and “Beaky“

Born 05/01/1769 Dublin, Ireland

Died 09/14/1852 Walmer Castle, Kent

Major Acts:

Roman Catholic Relief Act-removed many of the restrictions on Catholics in the UK


The Duke of Wellington is today more famous as a soldier than as a politician. In fact, as the Prime Minister, he was known for his measures to repress reform, and his popularity sank a little during his time in office.

But he did succeed in passing the Catholic Emancipation Bill – something which caused the downfall of many earlier prime ministers – and he remains one of the best-known figures of British history.

Arthur Wellesley was born in Dublin to the Earl and Countess of Mornington.

Fatherless at an early age, and neglected by his mother, he was a reserved, withdrawn child. He failed to shine at Eton, and instead attended private classes in Brussels, followed by a military school in Angers.

Ironically, the young Wellesley had no desire for a military career. Instead he wished to pursue his love of music. Following his mother’s wishes, however, he joined a Highland regiment.

Wellesley fought at Flanders in 1794, (Age 25) and directed the campaign in India in 1796, (Age 27) where his elder brother was Governor General. Knighted for his efforts, he returned to England in 1805.

The following year he was elected Member of Parliament for Rye, and within a year was appointed Chief Secretary of Ireland by the Duke of Portland. He continued with his military career despite his parliamentary duties, fighting campaigns in Portugal and France, and being made commander of the British Army in the Peninsular War.

He was given the title Duke of Wellington in 1814, and went on to command his most celebrated campaigns in the Napoleonic Wars, with final victory at Waterloo in 1815.

On returning to Britain, Wellington was feted as a hero, formally honoured, and presented with both an estate in Hampshire and a fortune of £400,000.

After the Battle of Waterloo, Wellington became Commander in Chief of the army in occupied France until November 1818.

He later returned to England and Parliament, and joined Lord Liverpool’s government in 1819 as Master-General of the Ordnance. He undertook a number of diplomatic visits overseas, including a trip to Russia.

Heading for Parliament

In 1828, after twice being overlooked in favour of Canning and Goderich,

Wellington was finally invited by King George IV to form his own government and set about forming his Cabinet.

As prime minister, Wellington was very conservative, yet one of his first achievements was overseeing Catholic emancipation in 1829, the granting of almost full civil rights to Catholics in the United Kingdom.

Feelings ran very high on the issue. Wellington persuaded the King only by his threat of resignation. Lord Winchilsea, an opponent of the bill, claimed that by granting freedoms to Catholics Wellington “treacherously plotted the destruction of the Protestant constitution”.

As a result, Wellington and Winchilsea fought a duel in Battersea Park in March 1829. The two deliberately missed each other in firing, and honour was satisfied.

Wellington had a much less enlightened position on parliamentary reform. He defended rule by the elite and refused to expand the political franchise.

His fear of mob rule was strengthened by the riots and sabotage that followed rising rural unemployment. His opposition to reform caused his popularity to plummet to such an extent that crowds gathered to throw missiles at his London home.

Specifically his visit to the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway(see my article-ed) in September of 1830 where the death of Husskisson ensued, and then his refusal to attend the man’s funeral led to the fall of his government.

The Government was defeated in the Commons, and Wellington resigned, to be replaced by Earl Grey. Wellington continued to fight reform in opposition, though he finally consented to the Great Reform Bill in 1832.

Two years later he refused a second invitation to form a government, and instead joined Peel’s ministry as Foreign Secretary. He later became Leader of the House of Lords, and upon Peel’s resignation in 1846, retired from politics.

Marshalling the troops

But in 1848 he organised a military force to protect London against possible Chartist violence at the large meeting at Kennington Common.

‘The Iron Duke’ died in September 1852 after a series of seizures. After lying in state in London, he was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral, London.

The Wellington Arch still stands in London’s Hyde Park. He also gave his name to the humble Wellington boot. And of course we have Been Wellington to remember him by as well.

First Ministry

01/22/1828                        11/16/1830        

First Lord of the Treasury

Leader of the House of Lords

The Duke of Wellington
January 1828 – November 1830
Lord Chancellor
The Lord Lyndhust
January 1828 – November 1830
Lord President of the Council
The Earl Bathurst
January 1828 – November 1830
Lord Privy Seal
The Lord Ellenborough

The Earl of Rosslyn

January 1828 – June 1829

June1829 – November 1830

Chancellor of the Exchequer
Henry Goulburn
January 1828 – November 1830
Home Secretary

Leader of the House of Commons

Robert Peel
January 1828 – November 1830
Foreign Secretary
The Earl of Dudley

The Earl of Aberdeen

January 1828 – June 1828

June 1828 – November 1830

Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
William Huskisson

Sir George Murray

January 1828 – May 1828

May 1828 – November 18

First Lord of the Admiralty
The Viscount Melville
September 1828 – November 1830
Master-General of the Ordnance
Marquess of Anglesey

The Viscount Beresford         

January 1828 – April 1828

April 1828 – November 1830

President of the Board of Trade
Charles Grant         

William Vesey-Fitzgerald         

John Charles Herries         

January 1828 – June 1828

June 1828 – February 1830

February 1830 – November 1830

President of the Board of Control
Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn

The Viscount Melville         

The Lord Ellenborough         

January 1828 – July 1828

July 1828 – September 1828

September 1828 – November 1830

Master of the Mint
John Charles Herries
January 1828 – November 1830
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
The Earl of Aberdeen

Charles Arbuthnot

January 1828 – June 1828

June 1828 – November 1830

First Commissioner of Woods and Forests
Charles Arbuthnot

Viscount Lowther

February 1828 – June 1828

June 1828 – November 1830

Paymaster of the Forces
William Vesey-Fitzgerald         

John Calcraft         

January 1828 – July 1828

July 1828 – November 1830

Secretary at War
Viscount Palmerston

Sir Henry Hardinge         

Lord Francis Leveson-Gower

January 1828 – May 1828

May 1828 – July 1830

July 1830 – November 1830

Second Ministry

11/14/1834                        12/10/1834

Prime Minister

Secretary of State for the Home Department

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

Secretary of State for War and the Colonies

Leader of the House of Lords

The Duke of Wellington
17 November 1834 – 9 December 1834
Chancellor of the Exchequer
The Lord Denman
15 November 1834-9 December
Lord Chancellor
The Lord Lyndhurst
21 November 1834-9 December
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury
The Duke of Wellington

The Earl of Rosslyn         

The Lord Ellenborough

Lord Maryborough

Sir John Beckett

Joseph Planta

21 November 1834-9 December


Arthur and Kitty had two sons and adopted 4 children. (See below for more on Kitty)


After his first Cabinet meeting as PM; “An extraordinary affair. I gave them their orders and they wanted to stay and discuss them.”




Catherine Sarah Dorothea “Kitty” Pakenham, the sister of one of his generals, Edward Pakenham. who died leading such famous units as the 95th Rifles (Sharp!) and 93rd Highlanders at the Battle of New Orleans in the American war of 1812 which was over by the time the battle had been fought in 1815, but because of communications then, they had not gotten the word.

Wellesley and Kitty might have been hot and heavy at first, but he was turned away when he did not have any prospects and she found another to love. Who, when he found that Wellesley was still interested bowed out. When Kitty and Wellesley did marry, their marriage was not one of love on his side. Though, Kitty did love the Duke. She died in 1831




Do you know about our Giveaway this week? If you answer in the comments there, that you have an idea, or just comment (not just a HI, but which research track you like and why) I am giving away an eBook in your favorite format, ePub, Mobi, or PDF, etc. You can choose from 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic4-2012-07-7-06-20.jpgThe End of the World, 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic3-2012-07-7-06-20.jpgThe Shattered Mirror, 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic-2012-07-7-06-20.jpgColonel Fitzwilliam’s Correspondence, or the one I think you will enjoy the most, 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic1-2012-07-7-06-20.jpgJane Austen and Ghosts. (And if you want to ready the 1__%252524%252521%252540%252521__PastedGraphic2-2012-07-7-06-20.jpgTrolling books instead, just mention that.

The giveaway will last through Sunday the 8th, at which time I will pick a winner and announce your feedback and what it all means for future posting, as well as the winner on the following Monday.

And then,

Are you A RAPper or a RAPscallion?

The Writing Life

My current writing project, a Fantasy, the third part of my trilogy on the son of Duke. It is the third in what I started when I left college. I finished the second part about 2 years ago, and so now I will wrap it up and reedit it all. It is tentatively titles, Crown in Jeopardy, the third book in the Born to Grace tale.

It opens with our hero setting up a trap for the enemies.

Chapter 1: Bait (to the end)

“Caradoc, everyone is here.” Jamus said from outside the tent. Or at least the small portion of the tent where he rested. Enough room for his cot, and to swing his legs over the side of it.

Coming. His feet had been back in his boots since he had cooled them down with the water to wash them. He hoisted himself from the cot and getting his legs firmly under him, not instantly for he carried nearly two hundred pounds of armor, he then grabbed his sword and strode out of the tent.

His bodyguard awaited him and the commanders of all the troops were there as well. William and most of the Magus were to one side. William turned to Francis, his closest associate. “No enemies, or spies still, my lord.”

That had been a concern, since they had left the column of Northmarch, that their subterfuge would be found out. It still had not, so that was a blessing of Aer. “Now is the time to speak if you have questions. We think that tomorrow, first light, I should guess, will be when this is resolved.”

The other commanders nodded. No one should have a question. They had talked it through for days. And if what was to come did, it would be how they would proceed as well. The best time to attack a camp is at first light. Men are awake and want to piss, or want to eat and rub the sleep from their eyes. Start a fire and get something hot in them. Then there would be enough light, if you were an attacker, to see where your enemy was. Attack in the night, and you had to hope for a moon to see by.

William and the Magus had made sure that at night, it was as dark as if there had been no moon, no stars, and no torches to guide a man, each night. Cynwal’s commanders would have told him that it would be impossible to attack under such circumstances, and Pincus relayed that they had done so on one evening.

“Then to your beds and sleep and rest this night. Tomorrow we are sure to fight. Get your meals tonight as well, for there will likely be no food in the morning. William, the magus will have to be ready to deflect an archery attack, and General Frederick, the scouts, be sure that they do not get caught when the enemy attack. For as we would, the enemy would surely try to sneak upon them and cut their throats. They are not sacrifices and should they be wary, they should survive and can fight during the attack.” That was one of the most worrisome parts of the entire operation.

If he were going to attack a war camp, then he would send men to kill the sentries. That would mask the approach. Here the sentries knew that was something that might happen and the Magus were going to do their best to see that the sentries were not taken unawares. Also, Cynwal was certain that he outnumbered Caradoc’s force near five times. He would be pleased at the advantage that surprise gave him in attack, but it was not so needed.

Superiority of numbers would go a long way towards ensuring victory. That was always an advantage that a commander wished for. Again, Caradoc thought, it disvalued the worth of a man. When one thought in terms that having more men in your command than the enemy, and somehow that greater number meant that you would inflict more death and less would be caused to your own side, may have been a blessing for you, but it also meant that you just regarded your men as so many numbers. Did you care then about how happy there were in their marriage, or that they had a new born daughter? That there parents had been married thirty years? None of that mattered except that you had twice or more times the men to hand as your enemy did.

Caradoc hated this job more then he liked it. He was a well paid murderer. That had become the task of the lords of the land. Not overseeing their people in peace and battling a truer enemy, the weather. One less predictable than a man.

Caradoc shook his head and sent the men away. He might have thought to proceed about the camp and see how all were doing. Instead, he listened to reports to ensure that all were ready. He got his own hot meal and then once more, lay down on his cot. At least in the midst of his army, he did not have to stand a watch. He would be woken early though. He was to inspect the came and sure that the moments before dawn, when it was hoped they lured Cynwal to them, that the camp was perceived to hold only twelve hundred men.

When he had woken, relaxed he found from his sleep, he was joined by the Magus Francis. William was sleeping as much as he could. “We have cast our spells and done all we can think to confuse the enemy.”

“And they have given no indication that they have sussed us out. They think all is as it should be with twelve hundred men having invaded their country. We have done well. You the Magus, have done well.”

“Thank you lord. The ArchMagus has said you have always been generous with your praise, but that it is also well earned.” Francis said.

Caradoc smiled, “I hope so. I hope that is what is said of me. I think it, of course, but you are never sure that is what is said about you. Now, are you all rested. Much of our success when we are engaged will have those of us without magic relying on you with the power.”

“We are rested. Near every magus in the north that was with the Army is here with us. Lady Miriam and only two others remain with Prince Edward.”

Caradoc was aware of that as well. He knew the plan, and he knew where the players he had control of were. His side of the board. And with the aid of the spies of the Atorane who were a part of Cynwal’s army, he knew more about the enemy then hey did of him, he hoped.

“There is one of you maintaining the spell now?” They had an illusion cast about all of the camp, and they knew that it worked as what one saw from outside the camp was much different than what was inside the camp. And what one was able to have followed by watching the patrols that Caradoc had sent out as well.

“Two my lord. As we have gotten closer to when you think the attack will come, we have had much more work to do.”

“Show me.” Caradoc instructed. It was needful as he had to know where the efforts of the Magus were being utilized. He and his commanders needed to prepare for where they suspected the enemy would attack, and where he wanted his men to respond. They had a small wall erected about the camp. Since Landing, armies had made war camps with temporary defenses, and then there had been kingdoms that did not. Those kingdoms who did, seemed to have lasted longer than those that did not.

Northmarch was a kingdom that did erect such walls. But 1200 men did not make the walls as if they were full regiments. They were a raiding force. At least the illusion was such that they had weak points in their walls.

It did not take long for Francis to walk him through the camp and show him where the Magus were stationed, or anticipated that they would need to work their magic. After he had finished with Francis, then it was a chance to walk with Avram and Frederick. Both of whom were then awake. Both of whom had been leaders for far longer than he, but it had been Caradoc’s plan to travel north, and they had been deferential to him since Larsent Bridge.

“We are ready. You spend a great deal of time agonizing over whether we are ready before every battle.” Avram said.

“It is time for you to go back to the Atorane and start your family, or to show them that you are your own man and take a wife with you from here. I think perhaps as good as you are, you may need some new blood amongst you.” Caradoc teased, but there was some truth there. The Atorane was almost entirely comprised of the Hovite religion. They needed blood from elsewhere in the world. Just as the clans married amongst other clans, the Hovites did not need to trade their identity away, but they needed more genes in the mix. That was well thought amongst the tenets of the Captain. No marriage closer than that of a second cousin. And no community with fewer than 100 patriarchs.

“You comment on whether I do not worry enough? I worry, yet once I am sure that a thing is correct and well attended to, I put it from my mind. The men who have that responsibility will take care of it. As to my taking a wife with me back to the Atorane, I have thought that perhaps I might. There is a lady amongst the woman of Princess Sarah I think quite catching. She has been after me since we all returned to Luckston. I think you know her as well.”

Lady ### had been a lover of Caradoc’s once. But when he had returned to Luckston and Clarisse, he had not looked at the girl. She had looked to Caradoc a few times and that had been uncomfortable. But he kept his distance. Not because he was afraid of what Clarisse would do to him knowing that he had a former lover about. Because he was worried what Clarisse would do to the girl.

Clarisse said she bore no grudges, but that would not be the entire truth. Clarisse was a hellion when wronged. “I wish you well of that, my friend. She, I think, would shake things up in the Atorane. And then, you will have a very beautiful wife also. I can see her, the wife of a Medbar of the Atorane and a respected general. She will make quite an impression on Hovite society.”

Avram laughed. “You thought I was joking. Caradoc, I am serious. I have thought to wed her and take her to our homeland for just that reason. We need new perspective and most women of court would be overwhelmed by the Hovite woman back in the Atorane. Lady #### won’t.”

Well Caradoc could agree with that. She would not be shunted aside, but would be in the forefront of any decision or event. As the wife of Avram and the mother of his sons, she would be right in the middle of things, just as he would when he did return to the country.

“I have to marry her in any event. It would not be decent to let things proceed without doing so. Your Aer would think me churlish.” Alain laughed from where he walked.

“Oh, don’t mind me. Valens will take care of any child, whether a father claims him or not. But to have begotten a child on a lady of the court, and related to the king of Falchon. You, general just can not stop playing with hot water.”

Caradoc would have laughed but Francis stiffened. “They come! Less than ten minutes.”

That was all the leaders needed and they all began to hurry away quietly sounding the alarm, as the other Magus did as well. They would be ready much sooner than the ten minutes. Caradoc just mouthed as he went to mount his horse. “It begins. The end is now started.”

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