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Archive for May, 2012

My last post I explained that I was working on the Regency timeline. I posted my entries for 1788. Now I have the entrees for 1789 and have uploaded both years to the Regency Assembly Press website. You can see a little preview of this below in the picture.

My sources which include the Internet and The Timetables of History by Grun and SteinPastedGraphic-2012-05-16-10-31.jpg as well as the Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield should cover a lot of events. There are now over 5000 listed for the period between 1788 and 1837 when Victoria comes to the Throne.

I may post a year at time every so often in between scanning through all these to find something that will be a good article for this blog and the blog at English Historical Fiction Authors. I will also have the full listing up shortly at Regency Assembly Press.

Those who have feedback, it is appreciated or if someone would like a specific year in a future post. The very first entry is to show who was Prime Minister of Great Britain, later it was the United Kingdom, during the period of the chronology. In choosing our dates, 1788 is the first sign of madness in George the III, it is the beginning of the end of the French Monarchy with the riots in Paris, it is the time when the mama’s of the girls during the true Regency would be girls going to London for their own season, and when our heroes are young lads or babes as well.

We need to know of the events that occurred when they were children, as well as what happens when they are on stage in our stories.

Click on the link below or the picture to go to the entry. More years coming. The list is now over 5000 event entries long and growing.

Regency Assembly Press 1789 Timeline

TheRegencyEraTimeline-2012-05-16-10-31.jpg

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My last post I explained that I was working on the Regency timeline. Here are 108 entries, a few duplicates I think, and my sources which include the Internet and The Timetables of History by Grun and SteinPastedGraphic-2012-05-14-16-28.jpg as well as the Chronology of CULTURE by Paxton and Fairfield should cover a lot of events. There are now over 5000 listed for the period between 1788 and 1837 when Victoria comes to the Throne.

I may post a year at time every so often in between scanning through all these to find something that will be a good article for this blog and the blog at English Historical Fiction Authors. I will also have the full listing up shortly at Regency Assembly Press.

Those who have feedback, it is appreciated or if someone would like a specific year in a future post. The very first entry is to show who was Prime Minister of Great Britain, later it was the United Kingdom, during the period of the chronology. In choosing our dates, 1788 is the first sign of madness in George the III, it is the beginning of the end of the French Monarchy with the riots in Paris, it is the time when the mama’s of the girls during the true Regency would be girls going to London for their own season, and when our heroes are young lads or babes as well.

We need to know of the events that occurred when they were children, as well as what happens when they are on stage in our stories.

1783 19-Dec Prime Minister of Great Britain: William Pitt “TheYounger”
1788 Jan 1 London’s Daily Universal Register began publishing as The Times.
1788 Jan 1 Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipated their slaves.
1788 Jan 2 Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Jan 9 Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Jan 18 The first English settlers arrived in Australia’s Botany Bay to establish a penal colony. They found the location unsuitable and Capt. Arthur Philip moved on to Sydney Cove. England sent the first sheep along with convicts to Australia.
1788 Jan 20 The pioneer African Baptist church was organized in Savannah, Ga.
1788 Jan 22 George Gordon (d.1824), (6th Baron Byron) aka Lord Byron, English poet, was born with a deformed foot. His work included “Lara,” “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” and “Don Juan.” He died in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1997 the biography: “Byron: The flawed Angel” by Phyllis Grosskurth was published.
1788 Jan 26 The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia.”
1788 Jan 31 Charles Edward Stuart (67), The Young Pretender, “Bonnie Prince Charlie” Stuart dies in Rome Born in 1720
1788 January January: The first edition of The Times of London is published.
1788 Feb 1 Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patented the steamboat on this day.
1788 Feb 5 Sir Robert Peel (d.1850), British prime minister through the early 1800s, was born. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called “bobbies.”
1788 Feb 6 Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Feb 22 Arthur Schopenhauer (d.1860), German philosopher (Great Pessimist), was born: “Hatred comes from the heart; contempt from the head; and neither feeling is quite within our control.”
1788 Mar 7 Alexander Hamilton published his Federalist Paper 65 in the New York Packet. It discussed the subject of impeachment.
1788 Mar 21 Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were burned.
1788 Mar 29 Charles Wesley, hymn writer and brother of John Wesley, died.
1788 Apr 4 Last of the Federalist essays was published. The series of 85 letters were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay urging ratification of the US Constitution. Defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce and the inability of Congress to levy taxes, leading Congress to endorse a plan to draft a new constitution.
1788 Apr 5 Franz Pforr, German painter, cartoonist (Lukasbund), was born.
1788 Apr 12 Carlo Antonio Campioni (67), composer, died.
1788 Apr 15 Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica,” a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “”The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72.”
1788 Apr 28 Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the US constitution, but on condition that a Bill of Rights be added.
1788 May 10 Augustin-Jean Fresnel, optics pioneer, physicist, was born.
1788 May 18 Hugh Clapperton, African explorer, was born in Annan, Scotland.
1788 May 23 South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution.
1788 May 29 Jacques Aliamet (61), French etcher, engraver, died.
1788 May May: The last volumes of Edward Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire are published.
1788 Jun 11 The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
1788 Jun 21 The U.S. Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
1788 Jun 25 Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Jul 6 Ten thousand troops were called out in Paris as unrest mounted in the poorer districts over poverty and lack of food.
1788 Jul 15 Louis XVI jailed 12 deputies who protest new judicial reforms.
1788 Jul 19 Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.
1788 Jul 20 The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
1788 Jul 26 New York became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
1788 Aug 2 Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and “Blue Boy.”
1788 Aug 8 King Louis XVI called the French States and Generals together.
1788 Aug 8 Louis FAD Duke de Richelieu (92), French marshal, died.
1788 Aug 27 Jacques Neeker was named French minister of Finance.
1788 August August: Louis XVI of France agrees to convene the Estates-General for the first time since 1614.
1788 August August: Mozart composes the “Jupiter Symphony” (Symphony No. 41).
1788 Sep 13 The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors (electoral college) in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
1788 Sep 15 An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
1788 Sep 19 Charles de Barentin became lord chancellor of France.
1788 Sep 22 Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for “Impromptu at Fulham,” was born.
1788 Sep 23 Louis XVI of France declared the Parliament restored.
1788 Sep 24 After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembled in triumph.
1788 Oct 6 The Polish Diet decided to hold a four year session.
1788 Oct 24 Sarah Josepha Hale, magazine editor and poet whose book Poems for Our Children included “Mary Had a Little Lamb” (the first words to be recorded in sound), was born.
1788 November November: The first Regency Crisis is brought about by George’s III’s first bout of madness.
1788 Dec 18 Camille Pleyel, Austrian piano builder and composer, was born.
1788 Dec 23 Maryland voted to cede a 100-square-mile area for the seat of the national government; about two-thirds of the area became the District of Columbia.
1788 Dec 30 Francesco Zuccarelli (86), Italian rococo painter and etcher, died.
1788 December December: King Charles III of Spain dies and is succeeded by his son Charles IV of Spain.
1788 Actor John Philip Kemble becomes manager of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
1788 Botany Bay Colonet established
1788 Sir John Soane begins his re-design of the Bank of England building, the first Greek revival building in England.
1788 The Marylebone Cricket Club codifies the rules of cricket in its Code of Laws, which are universally adopted by the game. (MCC remains the custodian and arbiter of Laws relating to cricket around the world.)
1788 William Playfair, Scottish draughtsman for James Watt, produced an “atlas” of Britain using 44 charts and no maps.
1788 The Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was appalled by the excesses of the revolution and fled to Austria where he was imprisoned for 5 years.
1788 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Entraps, and Remorse Follows.”
1788 John Adams published “A Defense of the Constitutions.”
1788 “The Narrative of John Blanchford” was published. Blanchford (15), a Massachusetts cabin-boy, had been captured by the British and sent to prison in Halifax and later to Sumatra from where he escaped after a 6 year ordeal.
1788 “The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy” by Hannah Glasse was published in London.
1788 Mozart’s Don Giovanni was performed in conservative Vienna but was not a success.
1788 Mozart composed his 41st symphony titled by his publisher as the Jupiter.
1788 Rules were set for the game of cricket.
1788 “Buffalo clover… nearly knee-high… afforded a rich pasture.” An image of the fertile frontier penned by historian S.P. Hildreth. After 1907 the clover was unseen until 1989 when it emerged in some topsoil delivered to a botanist’s backyard.
1788 As British settlers arrived in Australia the native Aborigines are believed to have numbered about 750,000, and to have inhabited Australia for up to 70,000 years.
1788 A botanical garden opened in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands).
1788 A great fire destroyed much of the wooden city of Kyoto, Japan.
1788 A salon from Paris of this time was later transferred [c1993] to the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
1788 Louis XVI creates more dissatisfaction by abolishing the power of parliament to review royal edicts. There has been insufficient government planning and storage of grain for emergency shortages. A hailstorm destroys crops. France has its worst harvests in forty years. Winter food riots occur.
1788 Britain’s prisons have been overcrowded, and having lost its thirteen colonies in the Americas it can no longer send convicts there. Instead it sends eleven ships with 1,372 people, including 732 of its more unruly convicts, to a place in Australia named after Lord Sydney, secretary of state for Britain’s colonies.
1788 Parlement of Paris presents list of grievances; Louis XVI decides to call States-General for May 1789 and recalls Jacques Necker as Minister of Finance
1788 Austria declares war on Turkey
1788 British parliamentary motion for abolition of slave trade
1788 Trial of Warren Hastings for maladministration of India
1788 Goethe: “Egmont,” Tragedy
1788 Friendship between Goethe and Schiller
1788 Friedrich Ruckert, german author born
1788 Jospeh von Eichendorff, german romantic poet born
1788 John C Spencer, US Lawyer born
1788 Hannah More: “Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great to General Society”
1788 John Lempriere:”Classical Dictionary”
1788 Kant: “Critque of Practical Reason,” the “Categorical Imperative
1788 Georg Johann Hamann, German religious philosopher died. (born 1730)
1788 Mozart wrote his las three symphonies in 6 weeks, in E Flat, G Minor and C (Jupiter)
1788 Etelka by Andras Dugonics (1740-1818), playwright, novelist and mathematician. He deplored foreign influences and tried to preserve the native traditions, especially dialects. This was the first popular novel in Hungarian.
1788 First volume of The Scots Musical Museum published by James Johnson (1750-1811) Scottish music engraver who for nearly 40 years had a monopoly of music engraving in Scotland
1788 The Botanicum Uppsala by Jean Louis Desprez (1743-1804) is neo-classicism by a French trained architect
1788 William Savery died (born 1721) Cabinet-maker and carver of the Philadelphia school noted for his elaborate ornament
1788 Humphrey Repton (1752-1818) began to practice as a landscape gardener. His work was on lines developed by Lancelot Brown but on a smaller scale with more details added to Brown’s broad sweeps. In later life he returned to the formal terraces and beds of the French style for the area immediately surrounding the house. Repton is the designer of the grounds of Aspley House.
1788 Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806) made a new departure in Ukiyo-E colour prints with his insects, which exploited the accurate observation of Japanese naturalistic painting; he anticipated the work of Hokusai and Kiroshige in this respect, but was chiefly famous for depicting the world of women.
1788 Bread riots in France
1788 First hortensia and fuchsia imported to Europe from Peru
1788 First German Cigar factory opened in Hamburg
1788 James Hutton: “New Theory of the Earth”
1788 Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace: “Laws of the Planetary System”
1788 KPE Bach died (b 1714)
1788 Brandenburger Tor, Berlin built by CG Langhaus
1788 David: “Love of Paris and Helena”
1788 Maurice Quentin de Latour, French painter died (b 1704)
1788-1789 King George III suffered a mental breakdown.
1788-1792 Koray’s Letters Written from Paris by Adamantios Loraes (1748-1833) man of letters. Greek Scholars and writers were at this time trying to find a language that could be used by all Greeks for all purposes. The choice was between classical (Church) and spoken (demotic) Greek. Koraes attempted a compromise between Church language and spoken Greek, but the result was too artificial.
1788-1800 In 2007 Jay Winik authored “The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800.”
1788-1865 C.J. Thomson, Danish museum curator, contributed to the Three Age System classification of early man from stone to bronze to iron.

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For several months now, since November, we have had weekly posts about several historical aspects of the Regency Period.

This has shown me that while I know a lot of what has occurred in the Regency, there is a great deal that I still can learn.

In order to increase my awareness of what took place, I started to look at timelines that I own, and that are on the internet. Thinking that they are quite incomplete. I then began to combine a few as a project and that soon I will have a fairly complete one, perhaps by next weeks posting. The Regency I have always said is a period from 1795 to 1830 but that needs to be codified a bit. 1795 is when Geor

ge IV gets married so he can increase his income, so we have a reason for its start. The end of 1830 is when George passes, but his brother takes over. If we extend this to 1837 when William passes and Victoria begins her rule, perhaps that is the true length of the Regency Era.

For good measure the events of a few years prior, for these will be the events the mama’s of Regency heroines experience in their youth.

There are some duplicates. I am cleaning it up. Your comments about this project are appreciated.

Year Month Day Event
1788 Jan 1 London’s Daily Universal Register began publishing as The Times.
1788 Jan 1 Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipated their slaves.
1788 Jan 2 Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Jan 9 Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Jan 18 The first English settlers arrived in Australia’s Botany Bay to establish a penal colony. They found the location unsuitable and Capt. Arthur Philip moved on to Sydney Cove. England sent the first sheep along with convicts to Australia.
1788 Jan 20 The pioneer African Baptist church was organized in Savannah, Ga.
1788 Jan 22 George Gordon (d.1824), (6th Baron Byron) aka Lord Byron, English poet, was born with a deformed foot. His work included “Lara,” “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” and “Don Juan.” He died in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1997 the biography: “Byron: The flawed Angel” by Phyllis Grosskurth was published.
1788 Jan 26 The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia.”
1788 Jan 31 Charles Edward Stuart (67), The Young Pretender, died.
1788 January January: The first edition of The Times of London is published.
1788 January January: The Young Pretender Charles Edward “Bonnie Prince Charlie” Stuart dies in Rome at age 67.
1788 Feb 1 Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patented the steamboat on this day.
1788 Feb 5 Sir Robert Peel (d.1850), British prime minister through the early 1800s, was born. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called “bobbies.”
1788 Feb 6 Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Feb 22 Arthur Schopenhauer (d.1860), German philosopher (Great Pessimist), was born: “Hatred comes from the heart; contempt from the head; and neither feeling is quite within our control.”
1788 Mar 7 Alexander Hamilton published his Federalist Paper 65 in the New York Packet. It discussed the subject of impeachment.
1788 Mar 21 Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were burned.
1788 Mar 29 Charles Wesley, hymn writer and brother of John Wesley, died.
1788 Apr 4 Last of the Federalist essays was published. The series of 85 letters were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay urging ratification of the US Constitution. Defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce and the inability of Congress to levy taxes, leading Congress to endorse a plan to draft a new constitution.
1788 Apr 5 Franz Pforr, German painter, cartoonist (Lukasbund), was born.
1788 Apr 12 Carlo Antonio Campioni (67), composer, died.
1788 Apr 15 Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica,” a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “”The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72.”
1788 Apr 28 Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the US constitution, but on condition that a Bill of Rights be added.
1788 May 10 Augustin-Jean Fresnel, optics pioneer, physicist, was born.
1788 May 18 Hugh Clapperton, African explorer, was born in Annan, Scotland.
1788 May 23 South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution.
1788 May 29 Jacques Aliamet (61), French etcher, engraver, died.
1788 May May: The last volumes of Edward Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire are published.
1788 Jun 11 The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
1788 Jun 21 The U.S. Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
1788 Jun 25 Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution.
1788 Jul 6 Ten thousand troops were called out in Paris as unrest mounted in the poorer districts over poverty and lack of food.
1788 Jul 15 Louis XVI jailed 12 deputies who protest new judicial reforms.
1788 Jul 19 Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.
1788 Jul 20 The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
1788 Jul 26 New York became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
1788 Aug 2 Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and “Blue Boy.”
1788 Aug 8 King Louis XVI called the French States and Generals together.
1788 Aug 8 Louis FAD Duke de Richelieu (92), French marshal, died.
1788 Aug 27 Jacques Neeker was named French minister of Finance.
1788 August August: Louis XVI of France agrees to convene the Estates-General for the first time since 1614.
1788 August August: Mozart composes the “Jupiter Symphony” (Symphony No. 41).
1788 August August: Painter Thomas Gainsborough dies at age 61.
1788 Sep 13 The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors (electoral college) in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
1788 Sep 15 An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
1788 Sep 19 Charles de Barentin became lord chancellor of France.
1788 Sep 22 Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for “Impromptu at Fulham,” was born.
1788 Sep 23 Louis XVI of France declared the Parliament restored.
1788 Sep 24 After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembled in triumph.
1788 Oct 6 The Polish Diet decided to hold a four year session.
1788 Oct 24 Sarah Josepha Hale, magazine editor and poet whose book Poems for Our Children included “Mary Had a Little Lamb” (the first words to be recorded in sound), was born.
1788 November November: The first Regency Crisis is brought about by George’s III’s first bout of madness.
1788 Dec 18 Camille Pleyel, Austrian piano builder and composer, was born.
1788 Dec 23 Maryland voted to cede a 100-square-mile area for the seat of the national government; about two-thirds of the area became the District of Columbia.
1788 Dec 30 Francesco Zuccarelli (86), Italian rococo painter and etcher, died.
1788 December December: King Charles III of Spain dies and is succeeded by his son Charles IV of Spain.
1788 Actor John Philip Kemble becomes manager of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
1788 Botany Bay Colonet established
1788 Sir John Soane begins his re-design of the Bank of England building, the first Greek revival building in England.
1788 The Marylebone Cricket Club codifies the rules of cricket in its Code of Laws, which are universally adopted by the game. (MCC remains the custodian and arbiter of Laws relating to cricket around the world.)
1788 William Playfair, Scottish draughtsman for James Watt, produced an “atlas” of Britain using 44 charts and no maps.
1788 The Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was appalled by the excesses of the revolution and fled to Austria where he was imprisoned for 5 years.
1788 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Entraps, and Remorse Follows.”
1788 John Adams published “A Defense of the Constitutions.”
1788 “The Narrative of John Blanchford” was published. Blanchford (15), a Massachusetts cabin-boy, had been captured by the British and sent to prison in Halifax and later to Sumatra from where he escaped after a 6 year ordeal.
1788 “The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy” by Hannah Glasse was published in London.
1788 Mozart’s Don Giovanni was performed in conservative Vienna but was not a success.
1788 Mozart composed his 41st symphony titled by his publisher as the Jupiter.
1788 Rules were set for the game of cricket.
1788 “Buffalo clover… nearly knee-high… afforded a rich pasture.” An image of the fertile frontier penned by historian S.P. Hildreth. After 1907 the clover was unseen until 1989 when it emerged in some topsoil delivered to a botanist’s backyard.
1788 As British settlers arrived in Australia the native Aborigines are believed to have numbered about 750,000, and to have inhabited Australia for up to 70,000 years.
1788 A botanical garden opened in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands).
1788 A great fire destroyed much of the wooden city of Kyoto, Japan.
1788 A salon from Paris of this time was later transferred [c1993] to the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
1788-1789 King George III suffered a mental breakdown.
1788-1800 In 2007 Jay Winik authored “The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800.”
1788-1865 C.J. Thomson, Danish museum curator, contributed to the Three Age System classification of early man from stone to bronze to iron.
1789 Jan 7 The first U.S. presidential election was held. Americans voted for electors who, a month later, chose George Washington to be the nation’s first president.
1789 Jan 21 Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach (b.1723), a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment, died. In 2010 Philipp Blom authored “A Wicked Company: The Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment,” the story of the Paris salon run by Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach.
1789 Jan 23 Georgetown University was established by Jesuits in present-day Washington, D.C., as the 1st US Catholic college.
1789 January January: The first national elections are held in the United States.
1789 Feb 2 Armand-Louis Couperin (63), French composer, organist at Notre Dame, died.
1789 Feb 4 Electors unanimously chose George Washington to be the first  president of the United States and John Adams as vice-president. The results of the balloting were not counted in the US Senate until two months later. Washington accepted office at the Federal Building of New York. His first cabinet included Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton as first secretary of the Treasury, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph.
1789 Feb 8 Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, was born.
1789 Mar 2 Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
1789 Mar 4 The Constitution of the United States, framed in 1787, went into effect as the first  Federal Congress met in New York City. Lawmakers then adjourned for the lack of a quorum (9 senators, 13 representatives). In 2006 Robert V. Remini, historian of the US House of Representatives, authored “The House.”
1789 Mar 4 Pavel P. Gagarin, Russian monarch, was born.
1789 Mar 16 George S. Ohm (d.1854), German scientist,  was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [WUD says Mar 16, 1787]
1789 March March: The newly ratified Constitution of the United States is put into action as the first government begins operations.
1789 Apr 1 The U.S. House of Representatives held its first full meeting, in New York City. Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania was elected the first House Speaker.
1789 Apr 6 The first US Congress began regular sessions at Federal Hall on Wall Street, NYC.
1789 Apr 8 The U.S. House of Representatives held its first meeting.
1789 Apr 16 George Washington left Mount Vernon, Va., for the first presidential inauguration in New York.
1789 Apr 21 John Adams was sworn in as the first vice president of the United States.
1789 Apr 23 President-elect Washington and his wife moved into the first executive mansion, the Franklin House, in New York. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. In 1790, with construction on the new federal capital underway, the government was moved temporarily to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
1789 Apr 28 Fletcher Christian lead a mutiny on the Bounty as the crew of the British ship set Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific. Richard Hough later authored: “Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian.”
1789 Apr 30 George Washington was inaugurated and took office in New York as the first president of the United States. He took his oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street and spoke the words “So help me God,” which all future US presidents have repeated. The oath as prescribed by the Constitution makes no mention of God of the Bible.
1789 April April: Fletcher Christian leads a mutiny on HMS Bounty against Captain William Bligh.
1789 April April: George Washington becomes the first President of the United States.
1789 May 5 In France the Estates General, summoned by King Louis XVI, convened to repair the national finances. It sat for several weeks in May and June, but came to an impasse as the three Estates clashed over their respective powers. It was brought to an end when many members of the Third Estate formed themselves into a National Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution.
1789 May 7 The first inaugural ball was held in New York in honor of President and Mrs. George Washington.
1789 May 10 Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, Tiradentes, rebel for Independence, was arrested. He was betrayed by Joaquim Silverio dos Reis, a participant of the movement, in exchange of waiving of his due taxes; Silverio’s name is carved in Brazilian History as The Betrayer.
1789 May 12 The Society of St. Tammany was formed by Revolutionary War soldiers. It later became an infamous group of NYC political bosses.
1789 May 12 In England William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons. This speech directly led to Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1807.
1789 May May: Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery opens in Pall Mall. It serves to exhibit a collection of pictures commissioned by engraver and publisher John Boydell in an effort to foster a school of British history painting. Contributing artists include Richard Westall, George Romney, Henry Fuseli, Benjamin West, Angelica Kauffmann, John Opie, and more.
1789 May May: In France, the Estates-General convenes for the first time in 175 years.
1789 Jun 1 Congress passed its first act which mandated the procedure for administering oaths of public office.
1789 Jun 4 The US constitution, enacted as sovereign law, went into effect.
1789 Jun 10 Bernard-Jordan de Launay, military governor of the Bastille, suspended the prisoners’ daily supervised walks outside the Bastille walls.
1789 Jun 14 Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrived in Timor in a small boat.
1789 Jun 17 The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution.
1789 Jun 20 Oath on the Tennis Court in Versailles, France, bonded members of the Third Estate to resist eviction until they have a new constitution.
1789 June June: At the Estates General, representatives of the Third Estate — ie the general populace and not the clergy (First Estate) or the nobility (Second Estate) — declare themselves the National Assembly of France.
1789 Jul 4 The US passed its first tariff which included a 15% duty on imported nails among other things.
1789 Jul 9 In Versailles, the French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.
1789 Jul 11 In France just days before the Bastille was taken the tavern keepers and wine merchants of Belleville, angered by levies on food and drink, sacked the local tax collector’s office.
1789 Jul 13 Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain. The mob plundered the armories and opened the prison gates of St. Lazare. The King at Versailles refused to withdraw his troops from Paris.
1789 Jul 14 Bastille Day. Tens of thousands of the citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille, the Paris fortress used as a prison to hold political prisoners, and released the seven prisoners inside at the onset of the French Revolution. Over 100 rioters were killed or wounded. The average Frenchman was 5 foot 2 and weighed 105 pounds. France’s Louis XIV made a diary entry that read “Rien” (nothing). Historian Francois Furet (1927-1997), a leading writer on the French Revolution, was best known for his work: “Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution.” He refuted Marxist interpretations of the events that preceded and followed the fall of the monarchy. In 1939 W. Higgins edited “The French Revolution Told by Contemporaries.”
1789 Jul 14 The French Revolution. “It was not the literate and cultured minority of Frenchmen who brought down the government, as had been the case in England and America. Instead it was the common people, who marched upon the king and queen in their palace at Versailles. The Jacobins promulgated a Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen that went beyond the American Bill of Rights in affirming, “Nothing that is not forbidden by Law may be hindered, and no one may be compelled to do what the Law does not ordain,” for “Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others.”
1789 Jul 15 The electors of Paris set up a “Commune” to live without the authority of the government.
1789 Jul 18 Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decided to back the French Revolution.
1789 Jul 22 Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
1789 Jul 23 The Great Fear swept through France as the Revolution continued.
1789 Jul 27 President Washington signed a measure establishing the Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State.
1789 July July: Storming of the Bastille by citizens of Paris marks the beginning of the French Revolution.
1789 Aug 4 The Constituent Assembly in France dissolved feudal system by abolishing the privileges of nobility.
1789 Aug 7 The U.S. War Department was established by Congress.
1789 Aug 21 Augustin-Louis Baron Cauchy, French mathematician, was born.
1789 Aug 25 Mary Ball Washington, mother of George, died.
1789 Aug 26 The Constituent Assembly in Versailles, France, approved the final version of the Declaration of Human Rights.
1789 Aug 27 French National Assembly issued “Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.”
1789 August August: The National Assembly of France adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
1789 Sep 1 Lady Marguerite Blessington, beautiful English socialite and author, was born. She wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
1789 Sep 2 The Treasury Department, headed by Alexander Hamilton, was created in New York City and housed in Fraunces Tavern at 54 Pearl St.
1789 Sep 11 Alexander Hamilton was appointed the first U.S. secretary of the treasury. During his tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York.
1789 Sep 12 Franz Xaver Richter, composer, died at 79.
1789 Sep 13 Start of the US National Debt as the government took out its first loan, borrowed from the Bank of North America (NYC) at 6 percent interest. The US debt had reached $77 million when Washington became president.
1789 Sep 13 Guardsmen in Orleans, France, opened fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.
1789 Sep 15 James Fenimore Cooper (d.1851), American novelist, was born in Burlington, NJ. He is best known for “The Pioneers” and “Last of the Mohicans.” “The press, like fire, is an excellent servant, but a terrible master.”
1789 Sep 15 The U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs was renamed the Department of State.
1789 Sep 16 Jean-Paul Marat set up a new newspaper in France, L’Ami du Peuple (The Friend of the People).
1789 Sep 18 The 1st loan was made to pay salaries of the US president & Congress. [see Sep 13]
1789 Sep 22 The US Act 1 Stat. 70 temporarily established a post office and created the Office of the Postmaster General.
1789 Sep 22 Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drove the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
1789 Sep 24 President George Washington appointed John Jay as the 1st Chief Justice.
1789 Sep 24 The US Federal Judiciary Act was passed. It created a six-person Supreme Court and provided for an Attorney General.
1789 Sep 25 The first United States Congress [proposed] adopted 12 amendments to the Constitution and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of the amendments became the Bill of Rights. 14 copies were hand written and 13 were sent to the individual states.
1789 Sep 26 Thomas Jefferson was appointed America’s first Secretary of State; John Jay the first chief justice of the United States; Samuel Osgood the first Postmaster-General; and Edmund Jennings Randolph the first Attorney General.
1789 Sep 28 Richard Bright, physician (Bright’s Disease, nephritis), was born in England.
1789 Sep 29 The U.S. War Department established a regular U.S. army with a strength of several hundred men.
1789 Sep Fletcher Henderson left Tahiti with the Bounty with a light crew. 16 men were left abandoned.
1789 Oct 3 George Washington proclaimed the 1st national Thanksgiving Day to be Nov 26.     Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor; and Whereas both Houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me to “recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness:”      Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and, in general, for all the great and various favors which He has been pleased to confer upon us. And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have shown kindness to us), and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as He alone knows to be best.
1789 Oct 10 In Versailles France, Joseph Guillotin said the most humane way of carrying out a death sentence is decapitation by a single blow of a blade.
1789 Oct 10 Pierre-Louis Couperin, composer, died at 34.
1789 Oct 15 George Washington went to New England on the 1st presidential tour.
1789 Nov 2 The property of the Church in France was taken away by the state.
1789 Nov 5 French National Assembly declared all citizens equal under law.
1789 Nov 8 Bourbon Whiskey, 1st distilled from corn, was made by Elijah Craig in  Bourbon, Ky.
1789 Nov 13 Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to a friend in which he said, “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
1789 Nov 18 Louis Jacques Daguerre (d.1851), French painter, physicist and photography pioneer, was born. He invented the process of setting the impression on a light-sensitive, silver-coated metallic plate and developed by mercury vapor. See contrasting info 1765-1833, Nicephore Niepce, French lithographer.
1789 Nov 20 New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
1789 Nov 21 North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1789 Nov 26 George Washington proclaimed on Oct 3 that Nov 26 be a National Thanksgiving Day in honor of the new Constitution. He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations. In 1863 Pres. Lincoln designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
1789 Dec 3 Claude-Joseph Vernet, French seascape painter, died.
1789 Dec 13 The National Guard was created in France.
1789 Dec 28 Lydia Darrragh (b.1729), American spy, died in Philadelphia. Her exploits in 1777 did not become public until the publication of an anonymous article in 1827.
1789 Dec In India’s city of Coringa 3 tidal waves caused by a cyclone destroyed the harbor city at the mouth of the Ganges river. Most ships were sunk and some 20,000 people drowned.
1789 December December: George III recovers, ending the Regency Crisis.
1789 Mrs. Ann Radcliffe’s first gothic novel, The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne is published.
1789 Pears’ soap is introduced by London soapmaker Andrew Pears, whose oval and translucent product will gain worldwide distribution.
1789 William Blake, British poet, painter, and printmaker publishes Songs of Innocence.
1789 Johann Friedrich Overbeck (d.1869), German Nazarene artist, was born.
1789 The ballet “La fille mal gardee” had its premiere. It included dialogue and singing as well as dancing.
1789 William Blake published his “Songs of Innocence.”
1789 Rev. Gilbert White (1720-1793) authored “The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton.” One chapter was about a local tortoise named Timothy. In 2006 Verlyn Klinkenborg authored “Timothy; Or, Notes Of an Abject Reptile,” a look at the parson from the point of view of the tortoise.
1789 In 1999 Rachel Wright authored “Paris: 1789,” an informative children’s book of Parisian life on the eve of the Revolution.
1789 Tammany Hall was a powerful Democratic political organization in NYC, founded as a fraternal benevolent society. The name was based after a Delaware Indian Chief, Tamanen or Temmenund, later facetiously canonized as patron saint of the US. The Tammany Hall officials lost on Nov. 6, 1894.
1789 In the US the Church of England Episcopal Church fomally separated from the Church of England became the Protestant Episcopal Church of the USA.
1789 Congress introduced paid chaplains. In 1983 the Supreme Court ruled in Marsh vs. Chambers that it is not a violation of the Establishment Clause to have paid legislative chaplains. In 2002 Michael Newdow filed suit contending that taxpayer-funded chaplains was unconstitutional.
1789 The US Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) was meant to combat piracy. The Alien Tort Stature (ATS) was intended to be used to prosecute pirates for crimes committed outside the US.
1789 The first tobacco advertisement came out in the US. It depicted an Indian smoking a long clay pipe.
1789 Georgetown College was founded in Washington DC.
1789 Massachusetts commenced work on the Middlesex Canal. It was completed in 1808.
1789 The University of North Carolina was chartered. It was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795. The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801.
1789 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French nobleman and chemist, presented a paper on the geology of the Earth that proposed that sea level had oscillated over time, as opposed to a stationary sea with linear sedimentation.
1789 Martin Klaproth, German chemist, discovered Uranium. It named after the planet Uranus discovered 8 years earlier.
1789 The HMS Bounty made a brief stop at the Cook Island of Rarotonga before moving on to Pitcairn Island.
1789 The flower China Rose was introduced to Europe.
1789 Ethan Allen (b.1738), leader of Vermont’s Green Mountain Boys, died. In 1949 Stewart H. Holbrook authored “Ethan Allen.” In 1969 Charles A. Jellison authored “Ethan Allen: Frontier Rebel.”
1789 The prison ship Lady Julian delivered over 200 women to the penal colony at Sydney harbor. In 2002 Sian Rees authored “The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary True Story of an Eighteenth-Century Ship and Its Cargo of Female Convicts.”
1789 Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
1789 In Brazil poet and dentist Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier helped launch the first Brazilian rebellion against the country’s Portuguese rulers.
1789 English Thomas Clarkson and his fellow abolitionists published 700 posters with the image of the slave ship Brookes loaded with 482 slaves. The ship, owned by the Brookes family of Liverpool, operated between the Gold Coast of Africa and Jamaica.
1789 Thomas Stokes built clocks in London.
1789 In England part of the art collection, 181 paintings, of Sir Robert Walpole was sold by his heirs to Catherine the Great for 40,000 Pounds.
1789 A French decree allowed wine and coffee to be served on the same premises.
1789 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, a delegate to the Estates General, said the third estate is everything, has nothing  but wants to be something.
1789 The French dwarf Richeborg stood 23 inches and was costumed as a baby in diapers during the French Revolution. In the arms of innocent girls he could eavesdrop on sensitive conversations and carried secret dispatches in and out of Paris.
1789 The bankruptcy of the French government brought banks across Europe to their knees.
1789 Tobias Schmidt, a German piano maker, built the first guillotine.
1789 In Germany the Brandenburg Gate of Berlin was built.
1789 Russian soldiers under the leadership of Jose Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons (aka Osip Deribas) chased Ottoman forces from the barracks hamlet of Khadjibey. He recognized the site’s potential for a military base to control the mouths of the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper and Bug rivers. Odessa became the name of the city built there.
1789-1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American continent.
1789-1795 John Jay served as the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court.
1789-1807 Selim III succeeded Abdul Hamid I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
1789-1837 Ben Wilson covered this period in his 2007 book “The Making of Victorian Values: Decency and Dissent in Britain, 1789-1837.”   
1789-1854 John Martin, British artist. He was known as “Mad Martin” for his paintings of monumental disasters. His work included “Assuaging of the Waters” (1840), “The Eve of the Deluge,” and “The Deluge.”
1789-1914 In 2006 Michael Burleigh authored “Earthly Powers: The Clash of Religion and Politics in Europe from the French Revolution to the Great War.”
1790 Jan 4 President Washington delivered the 1st “State of the Union” address.
1790 Jan 6 Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
1790 Jan 21 Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person’s head as painlessly as possible.
1790 Jan 26 Mozart’s opera “Cosi Fan Tutte” premiered in Vienna.
1790 Feb 1 The US Supreme Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York City, the nations temporary capital.
1790 Feb 6 The last stone of the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
1790 Feb 11 The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
1790 Feb 20 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
1790 Feb 26 As a result of the Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
1790 February February: The Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II dies and is succeeded by his brother Leopold II.
1790 Mar 1 President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman’s proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
1790 Mar 8 George Washington delivered the first State of the Union address.
1790 Mar 14 Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
1790 Mar 21 Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
1790 Mar 22 Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner and first patent examiner.
1790 Mar 24 King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
1790 Mar 26 US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
1790 Mar 27 The shoelace was invented.
1790 Mar 29 John Tyler, the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.    
1790 Mar 31 In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
1790 Apr 3 Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
1790 Apr 10 President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on “useful and important” inventions. In the first three years, 47 patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to be patented were required. [see July 31]
1790 Apr 17 Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: “The First American.” In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored “Benjamin Franklin: An American Life.” In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing God’s Thunder,” an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
1790 May 21 Paris was divided into 48 zones.
1790 May 26 Territory South of River Ohio was created by Congress.
1790 May 29 Rhode Island became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts.
1790 May 31 The US copyright law was enacted.
1790 May John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
1790 Jun 9 The “Philadelphia Spelling Book” was the first US work to be copyrighted.
1790 Jun 9 Civil war broke out in Martinique.
1790 Jul 3 In Paris, the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
1790 Jul 9 The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
1790 Jul 12 The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.
1790 Jul 16 The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
1790 Jul 17 Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored “Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment.” In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored “Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith.” In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life.”
1790 Jul 26 US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
1790 Jul 26 An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
1790 Jul 31 The U.S. Patent Office granted its first patent to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont, developer of a new method the manufacture of pot and pearl ash, potash. [see Apr 10]
1790 July July: Adam Smith, Scottish economist and philosopher, dies at age 67.
1790 Aug 2 The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
1790 Aug 4 US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the world.
1790 Aug 9 The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
1790 Sep 4 Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.
1790 Oct 3 John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
1790 Oct 21 Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
1790 Oct 21 The Tricolor was chosen as the official flag of France.
1790 Oct 23 Slaves revolted in Haiti.
1790 Oct 28 NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
1790 October October: Mozart’s Concerto for Pianoforte and Orchestra in D major (Coronation) is performed for the first time at the coronation of Leopold II in Frankfurt-am-Main.
1790 Nov 11 Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
1790 Nov 17 August Ferdinand Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
1790 November November: Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution of France, which condemns the revolution as the beginning of mob rule.
1790 November November: Vindication of the Rights of Man by Mary Wollstonecraft is the first published response to Burke.
1790 Dec 6 Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
1790 Dec 17 An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
1790 Dec 19 Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
1790 Dec 20 In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began production of the first American spinning mill. The British jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill–the equivalent of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater’s Mill employed only a handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater’s death in 1835, he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America’s own Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
1790 Dec 21 Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island. [see Dec 20]
1790 Dec 23 Jean François Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
1790 George Stubbs paints Lion Attacking a Horse. Its commingling of the horrific and the sublime, its exaltation of nature and the emotions mark it as a forerunner of the Romantic movement.
1790 Joseph Mallord William Turner is accepted into the Royal Academy at age 15.
1790 Mozart composes “Cosi Fan Tutte.”
1790
1790 Portrait of Elizabeth Farren by Thomas Lawrence, exhibited at the Royal Acadmey in 1790. This portrait met with great public and critical acclaim, and was praised above even the work of co-exhibitor Josuah Reynolds for itsnaturalistic freshness and vivacity. 

1790 Scottish poet Joanna Baillie publishes Fugitive Verses.
1790 The British make an alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad, and a third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1790 Thomas Lawrence exhibits for the first time at the Royal Academy, with portraits of Queen Charlotte and the actress Elizabeth Farren (later Countess of Derby).
1790 William Blake publishes The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.
1790 King Kamehameha slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
1790 Henry Fuseli painted his famous work “The Nightmare” wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains behind. He also painted “Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or Spinet” about this time.
1790 Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800), Japanese painter, created his “Compendium of Vegetable and Insects.”
1790 Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted “The Lock-Up.”
1790 Goethe’s “Faust: Ein Fragment,” first appeared.
1790 Alexander Hamilton published his “Report on the Public Credit.”
1790 Emmanuel Kant published his “Critique of Judgement.” His analysis of the nature of art and aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas. These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work “Existentialists and Mystics.” [see 1781]
1790 Beethoven composed his “Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II.”
1790 The opera “The Philosopher’s Stone” was composed and first performed. A 1997 score showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
1790 In South Carolina a 900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton.  The design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for All” by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
1790 The Episcopal Church was founded.
1790 The US government issued $80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
1790 The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
1790 US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris, said that the French “have taken Genius instead of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience, and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light.” In 2000 Susan Dunn published “Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light.”
1790 The celerifere bicycle appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled, un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
1790 The US census categorized the population as “free white person, all other free persons except Indians, and slaves.”
1790 The US population was 20% African and numbered about 760,000.
1790 Fletcher Christian landed at Pitcairn Island.
1790 In Australia Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored “Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior.”
1790 In the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian islands and united the people for the first time.
1790 Pineapples were introduced to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
1790 The Haleakala Volcano on Maui erupted.
1790 La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
1790 A bronze Buddha was cast in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need of $81,000 worth of repairs.
1790 In Porto, Portugal, the House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
1790 Denmark became the 1st country to abolish slavery.
1790 Floreana Island in the Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
1790 Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
1790 The solitaire of Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
1790-1792 Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.
1790-1799 In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal & Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy,” a study of the American press during this period.
1790-1799 The revolutionary tide that swept Europe during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The Age of the Democratic Revolution.”
1790-1830 The “Dalton Minimum,” a period of low solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and lasted to 1830.
1790-1848 Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of “I Capuletti ed I Montecchi,” that was also done by Bellini.
1790-1869 Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
1791 Jan 14 Calvin Phillips, shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2′ 2″), was born.
1791 Feb 12 Peter Cooper, industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
1791 Feb 20 Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
1791 Feb 25 President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
1791 Mar 3 Congress established the U.S. Mint.
1791 Mar 3 The 1st Internal Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
1791 Mar 4 President Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
1791 Mar 4 Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
1791 Mar 4 1st Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
1791 Mar 4 Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
1791 Mar 6 Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
1791 Mar 10 John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
1791 Mar 10 Pope condemned France’s Civil Constitution of the clergy.
1791 Mar 11 Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
1791 Mar 21 Captain Hopley Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.
1791 Mar 23 Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman’s rights, set up a group of women’s clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
1791 Mar 29 Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the a site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In 2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the American Capital.”
1791 March March: Haydn’s Symphony No. 93 in D minor and Symphony No. 96 in D major (Miracle) are performed for the first time at London’s Hanover Square Rooms
1791 March March: Thomas Paine publishes the Rights of Man, Parts I & II. The book is banned and Paine is charged with seditious libel, and tried in absentia after he flees to Paris.
1791 Apr 12 Francis Preston Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
1791 Apr 15 Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
1791 Apr 18 National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
1791 Apr 23 The 15th president of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa.
1791 Apr 23 James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
1791 Apr 27 Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
1791 April April: William Wilberforce introduces the first Parliamentary bill to abolish the slave trade, but it is rejected.
1791 Apr William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
1791 May 3 Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of “Golden Liberty.” The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe’s first and the world’s second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
1791 May 8 Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
1791 May 9 Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
1791 May 14 In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral when the building’s topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
1791 May 16 James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, “The Life of Samuel Johnson,” was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored “Boswell’s Presumptuous Task,” an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
1791 May 28 Joseph Schmitt (57), composer, died.
1791 May 29 Pietro Romani, composer, was born.
1791 Jun 9 John Howard Payne, American playwright and actor, was born.
1791 Jun 20 King Louis XVI of France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes, but was caught.
1791 Jun 21 King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy Tackett authored “When the King Took Flight,” an examination of the political culture during this period of transformation.
1791 June June: The French Royal Family is captured at Varennes when they try to flee Paris in disguise.
1791 Jul 7 Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
1791 Jul 13 The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
1791 Jul 16 Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
1791 Jul 14-to Jul 17 Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
1791 Jul 17 National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.
1791 Jul 24 Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
1791 Jul 25 Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.
1791 Jul 26 Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
1791 July July: 50 people are killed in Paris in the “Massacre of the Champs de Mars” when the National Guard fired into a mob gathered to sign petitions to overthrow the monarchy.
1791 July July: The Priestly Riots take place in Birmingham, in which the rioters attacked and burned the houses, chapels, and homes of religious dissenters who supported the French Revolution.
1791 Aug 1 Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
1791 Aug 2 Samuel Briggs and his son patented a nail-making machine.
1791 Aug 4 The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
1791 Aug 14 Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
1791 Aug 26 John Fitch and James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a working steamboat.
1791 Aug 29 The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
1791 August August: 100,000 slaves revolt in the French-controlled colony of San Domingo in the West Indies.
1791 Sep 1 Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
1791 Sep 3 The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
1791 Sep 5 Giacomo Meyerbeer, Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was born.
1791 Sep 6 Mozart’s last opera “La Clemenza di Tito,” premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
1791 Sep 9 French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
1791 Sep 13 France’s King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
1791 Sep 14 Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
1791 Sep 22 Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
1791 Sep 26 Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born. He painted “Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard.”
1791 Sep 27 Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.
1791 Sep 30 Mozart’s opera “The Magic Flute” premiered in Vienna, Austria.
1791 September September: Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (2nd eldest son of George III) marries Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia.
1791 September September: Mozart’s “Magic Flute” premiers in Vienna.
1791 Oct 1 In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
1791 October October: Irish revolutionists Theobald Wolfe Tone, Thomas Russell, James Napper Tandy, and other Protestants found the Society of United Irishmen to unite Protestants and Roman Catholics in agitating for independence from Britain.
1791 Nov 3 Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
1791 Nov 4 General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
1791 Dec 4 Britain’s Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
1791 Dec 5 Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was “Idomeneo.” In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart.” In 1991 Georg Knepler authored “Wolfang Amade Mozart,” a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography “Mozart.”
1791 Dec 15 The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment.”
1791 Dec 17 NYC traffic regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
1791 Dec 22 Alexander Hamilton paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds, who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’ wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
1791 December December: Mozart dies at age 35.
1791 James Boswell’s Life of Johnson is published.
1791 London furniture maker Thomas Sheraton publishes The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing Book, advocating a style more severe than those of Chippendale and Hepplewhite. It was immediately influential throughout England.
1791 Mrs. Ann Radcliffe’s The Romance of the Forest is published.
1791 Jose Cardero, a Spanish artist in California, painted “Vista del Presidio de Monterey.”
1791 Alexander Hamilton authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures.” His plan to get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the young industries.
1791 Englishman Thomas Paine wrote the “Rights of Man” in Paris, promoting the French Revolution. It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke’s attack in “Reflections on the Revolution in France” (1790).
1791 The opera “The Beneficent Dervish” was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997 find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna theater impresario who had commissioned “The Magic Flute.”
1791 The Berlin Sing-Academie was established.
1791 In Berlin, Germany, the Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in 2002.
1791 James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National Bank. Hamilton started the 1st Bank of the US. It did the work of a central bank even though private investors held most of its shares. It was dissolved in 1811.
1791 Aaron Burr (1756-1836), later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from New York (1791-1797).
1791 The US Providence Bank was later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial Corp.
1791 A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
1791 William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
1791 Legend says the Harel family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In 2003 Pierre Boisard authored “Camembert: A National Myth.”
1791 Frantisek Koczwara, a Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
1791 Grigory A. Potemkin (b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II’s lover, died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored “Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin.”
1791 John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
1791 In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
1791 Sheikh Mansur, Chechen leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.
1791 The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
1791 The Marquesas Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
1791 In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored “All Souls Rising,” a novel set in this period.
1791 to 1802 Printer William Bulmer printed Boydell’s Shakespeare in modern face, a type similar to Bodoni. It became a fashion which lasted for nearly 50 years
1792 Jan 17 One of the first US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears the earliest use of the dollar sign.
1792 Jan 28 Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
1792 January January: Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her Vindication of the Rights of Woman, for which she is called by reviewers a “hyena in petticoats.”
1792 Feb 7 Cimarosa’s opera “Il Matrimonio Segreto,” premiered in Vienna.
1792 Feb 15 Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
1792 Feb 20 President Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20, 1789, May 8, 1794]
1792 Feb 21 US Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
1792 Feb 23 Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
1792 Feb 23 Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
1792 Feb 23 Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
1792 Feb 29 The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. His work included the opera “La Donna del Lago,” based on the Walter Scott romance “The lady of the Lake.”
1792 February February: Benjamin West becomes the 2nd president of the Royal Academy, after the death of its first president, Sir Joshua Reynolds.
1792 Mar 1 US Presidential Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
1792 Mar 4 Oranges were introduced to Hawaii.
1792 Mar 10 John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
1792 Mar 16 Sweden’s King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi’s Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
1792 Mar 20 In Paris, the Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
1792 Mar 23 Franz Joseph Haydn’s “Symphony No. 94 in G Major,” also known as the “Surprise Symphony,” was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
1792 Mar 29 Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
1792 March March: Architect Robert Adam dies at age 63.
1792 March March: King Gustav III of Sweden is assassinated.
1792 March March: Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies and is succeeded by his son, Francis II, who will be the last Holy Roman Emperor.
1792 March March: Sierra Leone is established under British rule as a home for former slaves.
1792 March March: The guillotine is adopted as the official means of execution in France, and remains so until the death penalty is abolished in 1981. The last execution by guillotine is in 1977.
1792 March March: Thomas Lawrence is appointed principal painter to George III.
1792 Mar to Apr Speculator William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged “Stock in the Public Funds,” and caused the first American stock market crash. Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
1792 Apr 1 Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women’s right to divorce.
1792 Apr 2 Congress passed the Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
1792 Apr 4 American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
1792 Apr 5 George Washington cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states.
1792 Apr 14 Pres. George Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he later died and was first buried.
1792 Apr 20 France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
1792 Apr 21 Jose da Silva Xavier, Tiradentes, considered by many to be Brazil’s George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken apieces. With his blood, a document was written declaring his memory infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had listened to the independence ideas of Tiradentes.
1792 Apr 22 President Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1792 Apr 24 Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed “La Marseillaise,” which later became the national anthem of France.
1792 Apr 25 Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be executed by guillotine.
1792 Apr 30 John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
1792 April April: France declares war against Austria and Prussia.
1792 May 7 Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray’s  Harbor in Washington state.
1792 May 8 US established a military draft.
1792 May 8 British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
1792 May 11 The Columbia River was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
1792 May 12 A toilet that flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
1792 May 13 Giovanni-Maria Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, “Pio Nono” (1846-78), was born at Sinigaglia.
1792 May 16 Denmark abolished slave trade.
1792 May 17 Stock traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named itself the “New York Stock & Exchange Board.”
1792 May 18 Russian troops invaded Poland.
1792 May 19 The Russian army entered Poland.
1792 May 21 Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
1792 Jun 1 Kentucky became the 15th state of the Union.
1792 Jun 4 Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
1792 Jun 4 John Burgoyne, soldier, playwright, died.
1792 Jul 18 American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis. In 2003 Evan Thomas authored “John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy.”
1792 Jul 30 The French national anthem “La Marseillaise” by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was first sung in Paris.
1792 Jul 31 The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.
1792 Aug 4 Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote “Prometheus Unbound,” was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of “Frankenstein.” He wrote the poem “Adonais.”
1792 Aug 5 Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain’s loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
1792 Aug 10 Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600 guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed the following January.
1792 Aug 11 A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.
1792 Aug 13 Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
1792 Aug 18 Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
1792 Aug 29 The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
1792 August August: A Paris mob storms the Tuileries Palace and 600 of the king’s Swiss guardsmen are massacred. King Louis XVI is arrested and taken into custody. He and his family are held as prisoners in the Temple.
1792 August August: Coalition Armies (Austrian, Prussian, and French Royalist troops) attack France.
1792 August August: French Legislative Assembly is dissolved.
1792 August August: Lafayette, leader of the French National Guard, is declared a traitor by the National Assembly and is imprisoned for 5 years.
1792 Sep 2 Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
1792 Sep 2 In the “September Massacres”- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.
1792 Sep 3 In France Princess de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple Prison.
1792 Sep 5 Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
1792 Sep 18 At Spithaead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
1792 Sep 21 Collot D’Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
1792 Sep 22 The first French Republic was proclaimed.
1792 Sep 27 George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
1792 September September: 1200 political prisoners are murdered in Paris during a wave of mob violence known as the September Massacres. Three Roman Catholic bishops and over 200 priests are slaughtered.
1792 September September: The French National Convention abolishes the monarchy and officially declares France a republic.
1792 Oct 7 James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason.”
1792 Oct 12 Columbus Day was 1st celebrated in the US.
1792 Oct 13 The “Old Farmer’s Almanac” was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
1792 Oct 13 The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
1792 Nov 6 Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
1792 Nov 13 Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
1792 Nov 25 The Farmer’s Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
1792 Dec 5 George Washington was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
1792 Dec 8 The 1st cremation in US: Henry Laurens.
1792 Dec 11 France’s King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
1792 Dec 12 In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
1792 Dec 15 Alexander Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr. James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities. Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an affair with Reynolds’ wife.
1792 Dec 26 Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
1792 December December: Thomas Paine is found guilty of sedition (for publishing the Rights of Man) and is sentenced to death in absentia.
1792 William Murdoch invents gas lighting.
1792 John Trumbell painted his portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
1792 Captain Bligh published “A Voyage to the South Sea” after his return from the Mutiny on the Bounty.
1792 James Madison published an essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison extended the idea of property from material possessions to the property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.
1792 Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay “Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
1792 Construction began on the Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
1792 An edition of the Bible was first printed in New York.
1792 A US Militia Act was created.
1792 US veterans hired William Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
1792 The dime coin “dismes” were first produced. Then came “half-dismes,” or what we call nickels.
1792 Explorer Jose Longinos Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2 Indians in California.
1792 Archibald Menzies, Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
1792 Three English sailors wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
1792 Pierre Ordinaire, French chemist, invented absinthe as a digestive or all-purpose tonic. It quickly caught on as an apéritif. Ordinaire invented absinthe in 1797. It was popularized by Henri-Louis Pernod, who opened his first distillery in Switzerland before moving to Pontarlier, France, in 1805.
1792 Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
1792 In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
1792 William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual” wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
1792 James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
1792 The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
1792 Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
1792 The Chinese poet Shih Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: “Few days following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls.”
1792 The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
1792 The La Felecia opera house in Venice opened.
1792 In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
1792 In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
1792 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad.”
1792 to 1867 The US Capitol by William Thronton and others was originally Palladian in character
1792-1793 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
1792-1796 In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
1792-1867 Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His work included “Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra,” based on Victor Hugo’s drama “Marie Tudor.”
1792-1868 Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer. His work included the opera “La Donna del Lago,” based on the Walter Scott romance “The Lady of the Lake.”
1793 Jan 3 Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
1793 Jan 9 The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the “old Clement farm” in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
1793 Jan 19 French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
1793 Jan 21 Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine. The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
1793 Jan 23 Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
1793 January January: King Louis XVI of France is tried and executed.
1793 January January: Louis XVI’s brother, the Comte de Provence, who fled France in 1791, proclaims himself regent for his 7-year-old nephew Louis-Charles, Duc de Normandie, who is proclaimed Louis XVII by royalist émigrés.
1793 Feb 1 Ralph Hodgson of Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions this day: Oiled silk.
1793 Feb 1 France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
1793 Feb 12 The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
1793 Feb 25 The department heads of the U.S. government met with President  Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
1793 February February: England declares war on France.
1793 February February: The French Republic declares war on England, Holland, and Spain.
1793 Mar 2 Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas’ independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
1793 Mar 3 Charles Sealsfield, writer (The Making of America), was born.
1793 Mar 4 George Washington was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election. That custom meant that defeated presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In 1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
1793 Mar 4 French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
1793 Mar 5 Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
1793 Mar 10 In France, on a proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal.
1793 Mar 18 The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
1793 Mar 26 Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
1793 Apr 1 The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
1793 Apr 6 In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety. Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.
1793 Apr 14 A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
1793 Apr 17 The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
1793 Apr 22 Pres. Washington attended the opening of Rickett’s, the 1st circus in US.
1793 May 7 Pietro Nardini (71), composer, died.
1793 May 25 Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
1793 Jun 2 Maximillian Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiated the “Reign of Terror,” a purge of those suspected of treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror, followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the guillotine.
1793 Jun 20 Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.
1793 Jun 24 The first republican constitution in France was adopted.
1793 Jul 13 John Clare, English poet, was born.
1793 Jul 13 Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
1793 Jul 13 French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored “Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment.”
1793 Jul 23 Roger Sherman (b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S.  House of Representatives and was a U.S.  senator.
1793 Jul 23 The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
1793 Jul 24 France passed the 1st copyright law.
1793 Jul 27 In France, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
1793 July July: Radical Jacobin Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated by Girondist sympathizer Charlotte Corday, who stabs him in his bath. She not only holds him responsible for the September Massacres, but believes Marat to be the centerpoint for everything that is threatening a true Republic, and believes that his death will be the death of violence throughout the nation. Instead her action leads to reprisals that utlimately bring on the Reign of Terror.
1793 Jul Napoleon Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
1793 Aug 14 Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
1793 Aug 22 Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
1793 Aug 27 Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.
1793 Aug 28 Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
1793 Aug 29 Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
1793 Sep 5 The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, “It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!” The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.
1793 Sep 6 French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
1793 Sep 17 Captain Napoleon Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander, General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
1793 Sep 18 President George Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins Hill.
1793 September September: The Reign of Terror begins in France. The National Convention is taken over by radical Jacobins who embark on a systematic and lethal repression of perceived enemies of the Revolution. Within the next 12 months, as many as 40,000 executions will take place.
1793 Oct 8 John Hancock, US merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
1793 Oct 10 The rebellious French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
1793 Oct 16 During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French Monarchy.  In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling locks shorn by the executioner’s assistant, she even suffered the indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored “Marie Antoinette: The Journey.”
1793 Oct 19 Captain Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
1793 Oct 20 In France an extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal.
1793 Oct 28 Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
1793 Oct 28 Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively–a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14, 1794]
1793 Oct 31 Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
1793 October October: Jacques-Louis David paints The Death of Marat, one of the most famous images of the French Revolution.
1793 October October: Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and excuted.
1793 October October: The French National Convention adopts the Republican Calendar, with 12 30-day months beginning with the Year One of the revolution (September 22, 1792).
1793 Nov 3 Stephen Fuller Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
1793 Nov 8 The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
1793 Nov 10 France outlawed the forced worship of God.
1793 Nov 12 Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
1793 Nov 19 The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader: “Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible.”
1793 Nov 26 Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
1793 November November: The Louvre Palace is opened to the public as a museum.
1793 Nov In France Philippe Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost. Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
1793 Dec 6 Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
1793 Dec 9 Noah Webster established NY’s 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
1793 Dec 19 French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
1793 Dec 20 Joseph Legros (54), composer, died.
1793 Dec 23 Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
1793 Lansdown Crescent is completed in Bath.
1793
1793 The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David. David was a close friend of Marat, as well as a strong supporter of Robespierre and the Jacobins. Determined to memorialize his friend, David not only organized for him a lavish funeral, but painted his portrait soon afterwards. Despsite the haste in which it was painted, it is generally considered to be David’s best work, a definite step towards modernity, and an inspired political statement.
1793 The first Bank of England £5 note is issued in response to the need for smaller denomination banknotes to replace gold coin during the French Revolutionary Wars (previously the smallest note issued had been £10).
1793 Antonio Canova created his clay model for the sculpture “Penitent Magdalen.” The final marble version was completed in 1809.
1793 Jacques-Louis David painted “Death of Marat.”
1793 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted “Cupid Laughs at the Tears He Causes.”
1793 William Blake produced his “Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician.” He painted “Aged Ignorance.”
1793 Augustin Ximenez (1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin, wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide Albion,” which means “Let us attack perfidious Albion in her waters.” The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il est beau de perir,” which means “it is beautiful to perish.”
1793 The German Reformed Church was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
1793 Capt. George Vancouver introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
1793 The 1st US half-cent and one cent coins were minted. For almost 6 decades the obverse side carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver, the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year fetched $1 million at a Florida auction.
1793 Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government. The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.
1793 In Vermont Captain John Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
1793 The Spanish Governor of Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil authorities of the problem.
1793 There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain’s claims to the pacific Northwest.
1793 The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
1793 China’s Emperor Qianlong turned away the British fleet under Lord George Macartney with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures.”
1793 The courthouse at the St. Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
1793 The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
1793-1795 The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
1793-1801 In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled. Constant internal revolts continued.
1793-1835 Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: “Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget.”
1793-1860 Thomas Addison, English physician, discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
1793-1863 Sam Houston, US soldier and political leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
1794 Jan 13 President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.
1794 Jan 14 Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
1794 Feb 4 France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies. The abolition decree stated that “the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies; consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution.” Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcher’s initiative.
1794 Feb 4 Slaves in Haiti won emancipation.
1794 Feb 10 Joseph Haydn’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
1794 Feb 11 A session of US Senate was 1st opened to the public.
1794 Feb 14 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
1794 Feb 21 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
1794 February February: The French Assembly abolishes slavery.
1794 Mar 3 1st performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
1794 Mar 3 Richard Allen founded AME Church.
1794 Mar 14 Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that revolutionized America’s cotton industry. He paid substantial royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the invention suspect.
1794 Mar 22 Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
1794 Mar 23 Josiah Pierson patented a “cold-header” (rivet) machine.
1794 Mar 23 Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
1794 Mar 24 In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against Russian control.
1794 Mar 27 The US Congress approved “An Act to provide a Naval Armament” of six armed ships. [see Oct 13, 1775]
1794 Mar 28 Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.
1794 March March: The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, which had been razed in 1791, re-opens in a new building designed by Henry Holland.
1794 Apr 5 Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror.”
1794 Apr 7 In Poland at the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
1794 Apr 8 Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, mathematician died.
1794 Apr 10 Matthew Calbraith Perry, the American Navy Commodore who opened Japan, was born.
1794 Apr 11 Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
1794 Apr 19 Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
1794 April April: Britain signs a treaty with Prussia and the Netherlands against France.
1794 April April: Joséphine de Beauharnais (future wife of Napoleon) is arrested along with her husband, the Vicomte de Beauharnais, during the Reign of Terror. The vicomte is executed. Josephine will be released in July.
1794 April April: The first edition of Niklaus von Heideloff’s upscale and exclusive fashion magazine, The Gallery of Fashion, is published.
1794 May 6 In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
1794 May 6 Jean-Jacques Beauvarget-Charpentier (59), composer, died.
1794 May 8 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen), was executed on the guillotine during France’s Reign of Terror. In 2005 Madison Smartt Bell authored “Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution.”
1794 May 10 In France Elizabeth (30), the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.
1794 May 18 The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.
1794 May 27 Cornelius Vanderbilt (d.1877), owner of the B & O railroad, was born on Staten Island. He started running steamships in 1818 and shuttled passengers to the West coast across Nicaragua for the gold rush. At age 70 he entered the railroad business. He was never accepted into New York elite society and died with an estimated $105 million fortune.
1794 May May: Habeas Corpus is supended in England.
1794 May Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, “House of God.” The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
1794 Jun 1 English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)
1794 Jun 4 Congress passed a Neutrality Act that banned Americans from serving in armed forces of foreign powers.
1794 Jun 4 British troops captured Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
1794 Jun 4 Robespierre was unanimously elected president of the Convention in the French Revolution.
1794 Jun 5 Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited Americans from enlisting in the service of a foreign power.
1794 Jun 8 Maximilian Robespierre, French Revolutionary leader, worried about the influence of French atheists and philosophers, staged the “Festival of the Supreme Being” in Paris.
1794 Jun 15 The Guillotine was moved to outskirts of Paris.
1794 Jun 18 George Grote, British historian, was born.
1794 Jun 23 Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
1794 Jun 26 French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.
1794 June June: A Royal Navy fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Howe defeats a French fleet in the North Atlantic, capturing six French ships and sinking a seventh.
1794 Jul 5 Sylvester Graham, developed graham cracker, was born.
1794 Jul 8 French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.
1794 Jul 12 British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
1794 Jul 13 Robespierre boycotted the Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.
1794 Jul 17 In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.
1794 Jul 23 Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.
1794 Jul 26 After remaining uncharacteristically silent for several weeks, Robespierre demanded that the National Convention punish “traitors” without naming them.
1794 Jul 26 The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.
1794 Jul 27 French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest; he was executed the following day.
1794 Jul 28 Maximilien Robespierre, a leading figure of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine. Robespierre had dominated the Committee of Public Safety during the “Reign of Terror.” He asserted the collective dictatorship of the revolutionary National Convention and attacked factions led by men such as Jacques-René Hébert which he felt threatened the government‘s power. Factions opposed to Robespierre gained momentum in the summer of 1794.  Declared an outlaw of the National Convention, Robespierre and many of his followers were captured and he—along with 22 of his supporters—were guillotined before cheering crowds.
1794 Jul 29 Seventy of Robespierre’s followers were guillotined.
1794 July July: Robespierre is arrested and executed, ending the Reign of Terror in France.
1794 Aug 7 George Washington issued a proclamation telling a group of Western Pennsylvania farmers to stop their Whiskey Rebellion. In the US in western Pennsylvania, angry farmers protested a new federal tax on whiskey makers. The protest flared into the open warfare known as the Whiskey Rebellion between US marshals and whiskey farmers.
1794 Aug 20 American General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
1794 Aug 21 France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
1794 August August: British forces take Corsica from the French after bombardment by Captain Horatio Nelson, who lost the sight in his right eye due to an injury in the battle.
1794 Sep 10 America’s first non-denominational college, Blount College (later the University of Tennessee), was chartered.
1794 Sep 28 The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
1794 Oct 10 The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
1794 Oct 15 US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
1794 Nov 3 William Cullen Bryant, poet and journalist, was born.
1794 Nov 3 Thomas Paine was released from a Parisian jail with help from the American ambassador James Monroe. He had been arrested in 1893 for not endorsing the execution of Louis XVI and thus offending the Robespierre faction. While in prison Paine began writing his “The Age of Reason” (1794-1796).
1794 Nov 11 The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington.  The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.
1794 Nov 16 Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
1794 Nov 19 The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which resolved some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. This was the 1st US extradition treaty.
1794 Nov 21 Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
1794 Nov 22 Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, prohibited circumcision and the wearing of beards.
1794 Nov 28 Friedrich WLGA von Steuben (64), Prussian-US inspector-general of Washington’s army, died in Oneida, NY. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian captain, had arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1777, and despite false credentials, was hired to drill and train Washington’s Continental Army. His manual of arms, known as the “Blue Book,” shaped basic training for American recruits for generations to come. In 2008 Paul Lockhart authored “The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army.”
1794 November November: The Treason Trials exonerate three key British Radicals (Thomas Hardy, John Thelwall, John Horne Tooke) who had been charged with high treason. The trials had been orchestrated by Prime Minister William Pitt as a part of his campaign to cripple the radical movement in Britain, in hopes of avoiding a French-style revolution in England.
1794 Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin.
1794 Mrs. Radcliffe publishes The Mysteries of Udolpho.
1794 William Blake publishes Songs of Experience, which includes the poem “The Tyger.”
1794 Ukraine’s port city of Odessa was founded.
1794 William Blake painted “The Ancient of Days.” “He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss.” From the epic “The First Book of Urizen.” Urizen is a pun and stands for “Your Reason.” On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
1794 “The Book of Thell” was printed by Blake in 14+ sets of 8 different designs.
1794 Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics,” the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
1794 French Azilum near Towanda, Pa., was planned as an asylum for Marie-Antoinette, her children and other loyalists of the monarchy seeking refuge from the French Revolution. Loyalists who kept their heads did come and settle.
1794 In the US Richard Allen was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. He founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in 1787.
1794 The St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans was rebuilt. Two previous structures had burned down.
1794 George Washington established the first national armory at Springfield, Mass. He also authorized the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Md., where the Shenandoah flows into the Potomac.
1794 The first American silver dollar was minted. Congress decided in 1785 that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar.
1794 A French inventor mixed ground graphite with clay and water and fired it to make strong pencil leads. [see 1765]
1794 Gov. Diego Borica took command of Alta California and remarked on the general fecundity of the Bay Area.
1794 Archibald Menzies introduced the California poppy to England. The seed that he brought to Kew Gardens did not survive. [see 1792, 1816,1825-1833]
1794 British Admiral Earl Howe defeated the French fleet.
1794 Ernst Chladni, German scientist, proposed that meteorites were masses of iron-rich extraterrestrial rock, which occasionally penetrated the earth’s atmosphere to strike the surface.
1794 The Royal Bayreuth porcelain factory was founded in Bavaria. The factory stamped this date on dishes made after 1900.
1794 In Italy the Bourbon monarchy created the Banca Nazionale di Napoli bringing together eight public banks including the Banco dei Poveri, established in 1563. The Piedmontese monarchy settled on the name Banco di Napoli in 1861.
1794 Napoleon’s occupying army in Maastricht, Netherlands, took back to France a giant dinosaur head that was found in a dark recess of St. Peter’s mountain in 1780. It was named the Mosasaurus and roamed the seas some 70 million years ago. The head was lugged to the home of Theodorus Godding, a canon at the local church. The French say that he swapped it to Napoleon for 600 bottles of wine. Records however seem to indicate otherwise.
1794 Scotland, parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, on the holy well of St. Michael. (Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii, p.464): Many a patient have its water restored to health and many more have attested the efficacies of their virtues. But as the presiding power is sometimes capricious and apt to desert his charge, it now lies neglected, choked with weeds, unhonored, and unfrequented. In better days it was not so; for the winged guardian, under the semblance of a fly, was never absent from his duty… Every movement of the sympathetic fly was regarded in silent awe…
1794 The Russian Orthodox mission was founded in Alaska. It led to the Orthodox Church in America with 600,000 members.
1794 to 1797 Francisco Goya painted portraits, notably that of the actress La Tirana, that were influenced by tge style ad colouring of Velasques.
1794-1815 An anthology of first hand reports on the naval war between France and Britain was edited by Dean King and John B. Hattendorf and published in 1997.
1794-1824 Matthias Schmutzer, artist, produced over 1000 large-format watercolors of specimens from the imperial gardens  of Francis I. In 2006 H. Walter Lack authored “Florilegium Imperiale: Botanical Illustrations for Francis I of Austria.”
1794-1872 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German artist.
1794-1925 The Kajar Dynasty ruled over Iran. The Gulistan Palace (constructed in this era), contains the much disputed Peacock Throne.

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History

This week a little break from the Squares of London. I am not an anarchist, though the history of the Cato Street Conspiracy and now the Massacre might make you think that. What I do with these examples is underscore that all was not well outside the circle of the Ton and that these things that were occurring need to be addressed in our Regency tales. Otherwise they just become faery tales. Our heroes and heroines should have some meat on their bones. They should know some trouble from outside their comfort levels. Jane Austen did us a disservice when she left the war outside of her novels. (Though it opened wide the chance for me to discuss it in Colonel Fitzwilliam’s Correspondence.)

The Peterloo Massacre

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August 16th, 1819 a few months before the Cato Street Conspiracy and some citizens of Manchester decide to peacefully assemble at St. Peter’s Field. That the day would end with 15 civilians dead and the event labelled a massacre has significance. The Boston Massacre not fifty years before resulted in 5 deaths at the hands of British Soldiers. An incident that led to the American Revolution and the loss of the colonies. Today such small numbers would not be labelled massacres, but unfortunate incidents, or riots. During the Georgian period and that of the regency such a headline as 15 dead from these atrocities did not evoke immediate sympathy for innocent women slaughtered by the soldiers, or the first victim, a child of 2, who surely was quite political and a threat, but instead had the government crack down on all those who thought to create sympathy for the victims and for the reason they had gathered together.

That in itself strikes a note about the times and how different they are in that day and age then they are now. Would we want our heroes of our Regency stories to walk into a drawing room and say that they had heard about the massacre. That they felt the government was in top form repressing the action?

After the Napoleonic Wars ended, things were not all well in England. There was famine and unemployment. The introduction of the Corn Laws did not help the populace either. And so by 1819 an unhappy populace were making their voices heard. A gathering in Manchester so that the well known orator, Henry Hunt,PastedGraphic2-2012-05-3-08-28.jpg could speak came about.

The magistrates did not like this and probably did not like that 60,000 to 80,000 people had gathered to hear. Around this time the entire population of Manchester was just over twice that. As a result they decided to arrest Hunt and the others who were speaking on the hustings with him.

Prior to the gathering, a letter had been intercepted where journalist Joseph Johnson wrote to Hunt and suggested that an insurrection was on the horizon. The government sent the 15th Hussars north in case such occurred.

Twice delayed, for at first the meeting was called for on the 2nd of August, the government as well as the organizers each became more concerned. The government sure that the plan was to find new ways to elect MPs and circumvent time honored tradition. After the wars on the continent to maintain the rights of the nobility and the loss of the colonies to the concepts of better representation for the masses, how else could they feel.

The organizers, such as Samuel Bamford, PastedGraphic3-2012-05-3-08-28.jpgfeeling that the endeavor had to be better than ever before urged that an atmosphere of sobriety ensue. They adopted, “Cleanliness, Sobriety, Order and Peace” as a motto for the day. Truly a new way for the english to hold a political gathering. The contingents would march to St. Peter’s Field in good order and they took to drilling until the crown worried that this was in support of the insurrection, outlawed all drilling on August 3rd.

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The commander of the british army units in the army was John Byng, 1st Earl of Strafford,PastedGraphic4-2012-05-3-08-28.jpg who had two horses entered in the races in York that day. Naturally, as a british aristocrat of the times and the Ton, he was off to the races even though so many had gathered to start an insurrection. In his place he left his second in command, Lt. Colonel Guy L’Estrange who led the 15th Hussars on the 16th as well.

It was perhaps the largest meeting ever to take place in England, and it was done so peaceably. Thousands marched to the meeting, none in anger. Hunt had told all to come armed with only their conscience. We have several journalists in attendance who confirm all this, and the momentous occasion, so many gathered and then what comes next, gives us great documentation.

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The magistrates, most likely still afraid of an insurrection ordered the arrest of Hunt, but seeing so many people gathered thought that the constables, 200 of them, could not handle the arrest. They sent to the military to request help.

Which came.

Things got out of hand. The constables trying to arrest Hunt found their horses, untrained to be around people so close together, rearing up and crushing them. Finally when the rest was made, the banners that all the contingents had brought in, were set to and the yeomanry helping the constables, started to destroy, which was not in their mandate.

The Hussars arrived and seeing the yeomanry beset as they went above their mission, they naturally needed to defend, especially as the chief magistrate William Hulton urged them to do so. And thus the 15th Hussars formed line and charged into the crowd. It did not help that the exit route so the gathering could disperse was blocked by the 88th Regiment of Foot with their bayonets fixed.

Within a day accounts of the event were published in London, and linking the term Peterloo to connect it to Waterloo was thoughtfully done. The government did not take kindly to this at all and cracked down on reform, instead of those responsible that turned a peaceful meeting into an atrocious event.

Shelley wrote a poem about the events when he heard of them in Italy, The Masque of Anarchy.PastedGraphic6-2012-05-3-08-28.jpg

Stand ye calm and resolute,

Like a forest close and mute,

With folded arms and looks which are

Weapons of unvanquished war.

And if then the tyrants dare,

Let them ride among you there,

Slash, and stab, and maim and hew,

What they like, that let them do.

With folded arms and steady eyes,

And little fear, and less surprise

Look upon them as they slay

Till their rage has died away

Then they will return with shame

To the place from which they came,

And the blood thus shed will speak

In hot blushes on their cheek.

Rise like Lions after slumber

In unvanquishable number,

Shake your chains to earth like dew

Which in sleep had fallen on you-

Ye are many — they are few

A Trolling We Will Go

I released a new book, an omnibus of the three first Trolling stories. In honor of that I have made the first tale of Humphrey and Gwendolyn available for a limited time for $.99 TrollingOmnibus-2012-05-3-08-28.jpg This introductory price is so those who have not discovered this fantasy work can delve into it for a very incentivised price and see if they like the series and continue on, either ordering the other two stories separately, or ordering all three in the Omnibus edition. There are still two more in the series for me to wrap up with edits and release. They have been written as those who follow my blog know. Just not yet gone through my final check protocols.

The Writing LIfe

I am now almost 150 pages (over 40000 words) into writing on The Crown Imposter. A fantasy that has had two different ideas about for the last few years. Neither was working by when I decided to combine them, all of sudden it worked and I wanted to write. Something I have been too exhausted to do these last few months. I have just completed chapter six and hope that by the next post the end of the story will be in sight.

I enclose a few paragraphs from the first draft and first chapter for perusal.

Chapter 1–the next part

“My cousin, the King of Altan and Duke of Bortell cursed the day that the princes of Altan died. His grandfather, the King of Altan cursed the day that my cousin became his nearest heir. My other cousin, our king though was petitioned by those who lived next to us in Altan that they follow their overlord for he was just and fair. That they become part of Altan when Henry became their king seemed natural. Did you and Master Edvard not say then that this was a good thing?”

Middlin had to nod. “Then. Yes then it was a good thing. Now, now it is a tragedy.”

Henry had put aside his wife who was past the age to rear children, having giving two daughters to the man who became the king of the neighboring kingdom. The Altan’s had put pressure on their new king to act so. And then Henry’s first wife was from an old line of Centrion. The birth of a little boy last year to Henry’s second wife had caused great rejoicing in the kingdom of Altan.

King Henry though had started to decline shortly after the birth of his heir. Middlin had kept his thoughts to himself that it was quite suspicious. That the King of Altan was attended by advisors who were related to the new wife, or were those who despised Centrion. The two kingdoms had been enemies more times than they had ever been friends.

Long had those of Altan wished to possess the Duchy of Bortell. The capital of the duchy held the last port along the river Sprag that deep bottom vessels could traverse. From there flat bottom ships journeyed along the tributaries and canals that linked a great deal of Centrion. Bortell was one of the most important trading links that Centrion had.

It had been made a duchy when the first king of Centrion, Bryan, whom Damien had also been named after for he was Damien Bryan Frederick Everheart awarded those lands to the general who married his eldest daughter. A tradition that had continued with every king of Centrion. Dukes and Marquis were raised only from families who had no direct line of male connection to the ruling family. The daughters of the Kings of Centrion had been married to strong men who had become the highest nobility in the land, while those who were the brothers and nephews of the kings of Centrion became the Earls and Barons of the land.

Middlin thought the Barons, like Damien were the spares should the main line falter, but every king had four or five children, since the first Bryan, and that had always been one son, if not more. Except now. King Frederick the third had only one son, and that was Brion. Brion who was not shy about saying his mind about what he thought were the causes of King Henry’s illness.

Damien had taken of his gloves, soaked as was the rest of him and he worked his fingers repeatedly in front of the fire. Cupping his hand and twisting and stretching. With what must have been feeling returning to them, the young man started on the buttons of his cloak. With luck he would be a little warm underneath it, but Middlin did not expect that it to be so.

“Did you have to go to every sentry post?” the sergeant asked, then winced. He had not wanted to keep chewing at that bone, but he had. He shouldn’t worry about the man so. The Baron had to stand firm on his own.

But Middlin thought of Damien as if he were another son. And Middlin had four of his own. Four that he had spent less time with than he had with Damien. The old Baron had asked him to do his best with Damien. And then, when the matter of the Duchy of Altan came upon them all, had come again to say that Damien was going to need even more training now that their barony of Spragfalls, was to become the border between the kingdoms.

“Middlin, do not worry. I shall have a hot drink, or three, and be fine. I shall even be changing all my clothes into fresh ones so that the damp from these stops seeping into my bones. It is quite outside, as you said it would be. Foolish though. Perfect night for someone to stir up trouble. And they know we have the grain fleet here with the canals all swollen from the recent rains.”

“Your cousin King Henry is not dead yet, though he be sick. He would be wroth were there such a blatant attack upon our trade.” And that was something that had not escalated as yet. Three traders had been attacked before reaching Altan and the river port in Bortell. It was why Damien had more sentries and guards out amongst his lands, and here, where most of the waterways came to join the Sprag. But the harvest was in and ready for sale. Tempting prizes should they be taken.

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